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-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/TRADEMARKS.html80
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/archive-files-bzip2.html103
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/archive-files-tar.html232
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/archive-files-zip.html114
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/archive-files.html145
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/basic-network-commands-dns.html181
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/basic-network-commands-email.html241
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/basic-network-commands-finger.html132
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/basic-network-commands-ftp.html279
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/basic-network-commands-ssh.html100
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/basic-network-commands-talk.html184
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/basic-network-commands-telnet.html173
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/basic-network-commands-traceroute.html106
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/basic-network-commands-web.html215
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/basic-network-commands.html142
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-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/book-preface.html404
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/book.html13511
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/booting-dual.html341
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/booting-loadlin.html116
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/booting.html202
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-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/docbook.css162
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/emacs-basic-editing.html227
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/emacs-buffers.html112
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/emacs-modes.html141
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/emacs-saving-files.html136
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/emacs.html173
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-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/essential-sysadmin-hardusers.html202
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/essential-sysadmin-shutdown.html236
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/essential-sysadmin.html524
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/file-commands-copymove.html166
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/file-commands-creation.html143
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/file-commands-deletion.html189
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/file-commands-link.html105
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/file-commands-output.html147
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/file-commands-pagers.html144
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/file-commands.html275
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/filesystem-structure-links.html105
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/filesystem-structure-mounting.html184
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/filesystem-structure-nfs.html78
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/filesystem-structure-permissions.html314
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/filesystem-structure.html168
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/glossary.html647
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/gpl.html452
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/help-online.html247
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/help.html292
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-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/index.html1013
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/installation-partitioning.html218
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/installation-requirements.html388
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/installation-setup.html387
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/installation.html176
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-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/introduction-opensource.html126
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/introduction-slackware.html93
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/introduction.html122
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/network-configuration-hardware.html173
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/network-configuration-nfs.html308
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/network-configuration-ppp.html166
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/network-configuration-tcpip.html324
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/network-configuration-wireless.html208
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/network-configuration.html146
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/package-management-making-packages.html120
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/package-management-making-tags-and-tagfiles.html136
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/package-management-package-utilities.html330
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/package-management.html148
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-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/process-control-foregrounding.html138
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/process-control-kill.html182
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/process-control-ps.html243
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/process-control-top.html168
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/process-control.html138
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/security-current.html138
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/security-host.html307
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/security.html218
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/shell-bash.html234
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/shell-command-line.html307
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/shell-vt.html137
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/shell.html166
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-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/system-configuration-kernel.html354
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/system-configuration.html589
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-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/vi-configuration.html96
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/vi-keys.html279
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/vi-modes.html200
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/vi-opening-files.html109
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/vi-quitting-vi.html80
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/vi-saving-files.html103
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/vi.html199
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-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/x-window-system-xdm.html202
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/x-window-system-xinitrc.html145
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/x-window-system-xorgsetup.html84
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/x-window-system-xwmconfig.html134
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-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/zipslack-booting.html93
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/zipslack-getting.html110
-rw-r--r--slackbook/html/zipslack.html128
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-rw-r--r--slackbook/slackbook-2.0.ps86611
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diff --git a/slackbook/html/TRADEMARKS.html b/slackbook/html/TRADEMARKS.html
deleted file mode 100644
index 0f282ca4..00000000
--- a/slackbook/html/TRADEMARKS.html
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,80 +0,0 @@
-<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"
- "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">
-<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
-<head>
-<meta name="generator" content="HTML Tidy, see www.w3.org" />
-<meta name="GENERATOR" content="Modular DocBook HTML Stylesheet Version 1.7" />
-<link rel="HOME" title="Slackware Linux Essentials" href="index.html" />
-<link rel="NEXT" title="Preface" href="book-preface.html" />
-<link rel="STYLESHEET" type="text/css" href="docbook.css" />
-<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" />
-<title></title>
-</head>
-<body bgcolor="#FFFFFF" text="#000000" link="#0000FF" vlink="#840084" alink="#0000FF">
-<div class="NAVHEADER">
-<table summary="Header navigation table" width="100%" border="0" cellpadding="0"
-cellspacing="0">
-<tr>
-<th colspan="3" align="center">Slackware Linux Essentials</th>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<hr align="LEFT" width="100%" />
-</div>
-
-<div class="LEGALNOTICE"><a id="TRADEMARKS" name="TRADEMARKS"></a>
-<p>Slackware Linux is a registered trademark of Patrick Volkerding and Slackware Linux,
-Inc.</p>
-
-<p>Linux is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds.</p>
-
-<p>America Online and AOL are registered trademarks of America Online, Inc. in the United
-States and/or other countries.</p>
-
-<p>Apple, FireWire, Mac, Macintosh, Mac OS, Quicktime, and TrueType are trademarks of
-Apple Computer, Inc., registered in the United States and other countries.</p>
-
-<p>IBM, AIX, EtherJet, Netfinity, OS/2, PowerPC, PS/2, S/390, and ThinkPad are trademarks
-of International Business Machines Corporation in the United States, other countries, or
-both.</p>
-
-<p>IEEE, POSIX, and 802 are registered trademarks of Institute of Electrical and
-Electronics Engineers, Inc. in the United States.</p>
-
-<p>Intel, Celeron, EtherExpress, i386, i486, Itanium, Pentium, and Xeon are trademarks or
-registered trademarks of Intel Corporation or its subsidiaries in the United States and
-other countries.</p>
-
-<p>Microsoft, IntelliMouse, MS-DOS, Outlook, Windows, Windows Media and Windows NT are
-either registered trademarks or trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States
-and/or other countries.</p>
-
-<p>Netscape and the Netscape Navigator are registered trademarks of Netscape
-Communications Corporation in the U.S. and other countries.</p>
-
-<p>Red Hat, RPM, are trademarks or registered trademarks of Red Hat, Inc. in the United
-States and other countries.</p>
-
-<p>XFree86 is a trademark of The XFree86 Project, Inc.</p>
-
-<p>Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their
-products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this document, and
-Slackware Linux, Inc. was aware of the trademark claim, the designations have been
-followed by the &#8220;&trade;&#8221; or the &#8220;&reg;&#8221; symbol.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="NAVFOOTER">
-<hr align="LEFT" width="100%" />
-<table summary="Footer navigation table" width="100%" border="0" cellpadding="0"
-cellspacing="0">
-<tr>
-<td width="33%" align="left" valign="top">&nbsp;</td>
-<td width="34%" align="center" valign="top"><a href="index.html"
-accesskey="H">Home</a></td>
-<td width="33%" align="right" valign="top">&nbsp;</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-</div>
-</body>
-</html>
-
diff --git a/slackbook/html/archive-files-bzip2.html b/slackbook/html/archive-files-bzip2.html
deleted file mode 100644
index ea3a4e04..00000000
--- a/slackbook/html/archive-files-bzip2.html
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,103 +0,0 @@
-<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"
- "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">
-<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
-<head>
-<meta name="generator" content="HTML Tidy, see www.w3.org" />
-<title>bzip2</title>
-<meta name="GENERATOR" content="Modular DocBook HTML Stylesheet Version 1.7" />
-<link rel="HOME" title="Slackware Linux Essentials" href="index.html" />
-<link rel="UP" title="Archive Files" href="archive-files.html" />
-<link rel="PREVIOUS" title="Archive Files" href="archive-files.html" />
-<link rel="NEXT" title="tar" href="archive-files-tar.html" />
-<link rel="STYLESHEET" type="text/css" href="docbook.css" />
-<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" />
-</head>
-<body class="SECT1" bgcolor="#FFFFFF" text="#000000" link="#0000FF" vlink="#840084"
-alink="#0000FF">
-<div class="NAVHEADER">
-<table summary="Header navigation table" width="100%" border="0" cellpadding="0"
-cellspacing="0">
-<tr>
-<th colspan="3" align="center">Slackware Linux Essentials</th>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td width="10%" align="left" valign="bottom"><a href="archive-files.html"
-accesskey="P">Prev</a></td>
-<td width="80%" align="center" valign="bottom">Chapter 15 Archive Files</td>
-<td width="10%" align="right" valign="bottom"><a href="archive-files-tar.html"
-accesskey="N">Next</a></td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<hr align="LEFT" width="100%" />
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<h1 class="SECT1"><a id="ARCHIVE-FILES-BZIP2" name="ARCHIVE-FILES-BZIP2">15.2 <tt
-class="COMMAND">bzip2</tt></a></h1>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">bzip2</tt>(1) is an alternative compression program installed on
-Slackware Linux. It uses a different compression algorithm from <tt
-class="COMMAND">gzip</tt>, which results in some advantages and some disadvantages. The
-main advantage for <tt class="COMMAND">bzip2</tt> is the compressed file size. <tt
-class="COMMAND">bzip2</tt> will almost always compress better than <tt
-class="COMMAND">gzip</tt>. In some instances, this can result in dramatically smaller
-files. This can be a great advantage for people on slower modem connections. Also
-remember, when downloading software from a public ftp server, it's generally good
-netiquette to download the <tt class="FILENAME">.bz2</tt> files instead of the <tt
-class="FILENAME">.gz</tt> files, as this results in less overhead for the generous people
-hosting the server.</p>
-
-<p>The disadvantage to <tt class="COMMAND">bzip2</tt> is that it is more CPU intensive
-than <tt class="COMMAND">gzip</tt>. This means that bzipping a file will generally take
-longer and will use more of the CPU than gzipping the file would. When considering which
-compression program to use, you must weigh this speed vs. compressed size and determine
-which is more important.</p>
-
-<p>The usage of <tt class="COMMAND">bzip2</tt> is nearly identical to <tt
-class="COMMAND">gzip</tt>, so not much time will be spent discussing it. Like <tt
-class="COMMAND">gunzip</tt>, <tt class="COMMAND">bunzip2</tt> is identical to <tt
-class="COMMAND">bzip2 -d</tt>. The primary difference in practical usage is that <tt
-class="COMMAND">bzip2</tt> uses the <tt class="FILENAME">.bz2</tt> extension.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">bzip2 <var
-class="REPLACEABLE">filename</var></kbd>
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">bunzip2 <var
-class="REPLACEABLE">filename.bz2</var></kbd>
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">bzip2 -9 <var
-class="REPLACEABLE">filename</var></kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-</div>
-
-<div class="NAVFOOTER">
-<hr align="LEFT" width="100%" />
-<table summary="Footer navigation table" width="100%" border="0" cellpadding="0"
-cellspacing="0">
-<tr>
-<td width="33%" align="left" valign="top"><a href="archive-files.html"
-accesskey="P">Prev</a></td>
-<td width="34%" align="center" valign="top"><a href="index.html"
-accesskey="H">Home</a></td>
-<td width="33%" align="right" valign="top"><a href="archive-files-tar.html"
-accesskey="N">Next</a></td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td width="33%" align="left" valign="top">Archive Files</td>
-<td width="34%" align="center" valign="top"><a href="archive-files.html"
-accesskey="U">Up</a></td>
-<td width="33%" align="right" valign="top"><tt class="COMMAND">tar</tt></td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-</div>
-</body>
-</html>
-
diff --git a/slackbook/html/archive-files-tar.html b/slackbook/html/archive-files-tar.html
deleted file mode 100644
index b23db4b1..00000000
--- a/slackbook/html/archive-files-tar.html
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,232 +0,0 @@
-<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"
- "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">
-<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
-<head>
-<meta name="generator" content="HTML Tidy, see www.w3.org" />
-<title>tar</title>
-<meta name="GENERATOR" content="Modular DocBook HTML Stylesheet Version 1.7" />
-<link rel="HOME" title="Slackware Linux Essentials" href="index.html" />
-<link rel="UP" title="Archive Files" href="archive-files.html" />
-<link rel="PREVIOUS" title="bzip2" href="archive-files-bzip2.html" />
-<link rel="NEXT" title="zip" href="archive-files-zip.html" />
-<link rel="STYLESHEET" type="text/css" href="docbook.css" />
-<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" />
-</head>
-<body class="SECT1" bgcolor="#FFFFFF" text="#000000" link="#0000FF" vlink="#840084"
-alink="#0000FF">
-<div class="NAVHEADER">
-<table summary="Header navigation table" width="100%" border="0" cellpadding="0"
-cellspacing="0">
-<tr>
-<th colspan="3" align="center">Slackware Linux Essentials</th>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td width="10%" align="left" valign="bottom"><a href="archive-files-bzip2.html"
-accesskey="P">Prev</a></td>
-<td width="80%" align="center" valign="bottom">Chapter 15 Archive Files</td>
-<td width="10%" align="right" valign="bottom"><a href="archive-files-zip.html"
-accesskey="N">Next</a></td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<hr align="LEFT" width="100%" />
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<h1 class="SECT1"><a id="ARCHIVE-FILES-TAR" name="ARCHIVE-FILES-TAR">15.3 <tt
-class="COMMAND">tar</tt></a></h1>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">tar</tt>(1) is the GNU tape archiver. It takes several files or
-directories and creates one large file. This allows you to compress an entire directory
-tree, which is impossible by just using <tt class="COMMAND">gzip</tt> or <tt
-class="COMMAND">bzip2</tt>. <tt class="COMMAND">tar</tt> has many command line options,
-which are explained in its man page. This section will just cover the most common uses of
-<tt class="COMMAND">tar</tt>.</p>
-
-<p>The most common use for <tt class="COMMAND">tar</tt> is to decompress and unarchive a
-package that you've downloaded from a web site or ftp site. Most files will come with a
-<tt class="FILENAME">.tar.gz</tt> extension. This is commonly known as a
-&#8220;tarball&#8221;. It means that several files were archived using <tt
-class="COMMAND">tar</tt> and then compressed using <tt class="COMMAND">gzip</tt>. You
-might also see this listed as a <tt class="FILENAME">.tar.Z</tt> file. It means the same
-thing, but this is usually encountered on older Unix systems.</p>
-
-<p>Alternatively, you might find a <tt class="FILENAME">.tar.bz2</tt> file somewhere.
-Kernel source is distributed as such because it is a smaller download. As you might have
-guessed, this is several files archived with <tt class="COMMAND">tar</tt> and then
-bzipped.</p>
-
-<p>You can get to all the files in this archive by making use of <tt
-class="COMMAND">tar</tt> and some command line arguments. Unarchiving a tarball makes use
-of the <var class="OPTION">-z</var> flag, which means to first run the file through <tt
-class="COMMAND">gunzip</tt> and decompress it. The most common way to decompress a
-tarball is like so:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">tar -xvzf filename.tar.gz</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>That's quite a few options. So what do they all mean? The <var class="OPTION">-x</var>
-means to extract. This is important, as it tells <tt class="COMMAND">tar</tt> exactly
-what to do with the input file. In this case, we'll be splitting it back up into all the
-files that it came from. <var class="OPTION">-v</var> means to be verbose. This will list
-all the files that are being unarchived. It is perfectly acceptable to leave this option
-off, if somewhat boring. Alternatively, you could use <var class="OPTION">-vv</var> to be
-very verbose and list even more information about each file being unarchived. The <var
-class="OPTION">-z</var> option tells <tt class="COMMAND">tar</tt> to run <tt
-class="FILENAME">filename.tar.gz</tt> through <tt class="COMMAND">gunzip</tt> first. And
-finally, the <var class="OPTION">-f</var> option tells <tt class="COMMAND">tar</tt> that
-the next string on the command line is the file to operate on.</p>
-
-<p>There are a few other ways to write this same command. On older systems lacking a
-decent copy of GNU <tt class="COMMAND">tar</tt>, you might see it written like so:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd
-class="USERINPUT">gunzip filename.tar.gz | tar -xvf -</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>This command line will uncompress the file and send the output to <tt
-class="COMMAND">tar</tt>. Since <tt class="COMMAND">gzip</tt> will write its output to
-standard out if told to do so, this command will write the decompressed file to standard
-out. The pipe then sends it to <tt class="COMMAND">tar</tt> for unarchiving. The
-&#8220;-&#8221; means to operate on standard input. It will unarchive the stream of data
-that it gets from <tt class="COMMAND">gzip</tt> and write that to the disk.</p>
-
-<p>Another way to write the first command line is to leave off the dash before the
-options, like so:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">tar xvzf filename.tar.gz</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>You might also encounter a bzipped archive. The version of <tt
-class="COMMAND">tar</tt> that comes with Slackware Linux can handle these the same as
-gzipped archives. Instead of the <var class="OPTION">-z</var> command line option, you'd
-use <var class="OPTION">-j</var>:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">tar -xvjf filename.tar.bz2</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>It is important to note that <tt class="COMMAND">tar</tt> will place the unarchived
-files in the current directory. So, if you had an archive in <tt
-class="FILENAME">/tmp</tt> that you wanted to decompress into your home directory, there
-are a few options. First, the archive could be moved into your home directory and then
-run through <tt class="COMMAND">tar</tt>. Second, you could specify the path to the
-archive file on the command line. Third, you can use the <var class="OPTION">-C</var>
-option to &#8220;explode&#8221; the tarball in a specified directory.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">cd $HOME</kbd>
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">cp /tmp/filename.tar.gz .</kbd>
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">tar -xvzf filename.tar.gz</kbd>
-
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">cd $HOME</kbd>
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">tar -xvzf /tmp/filename.tar.gz</kbd>
-
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">cd /</kbd>
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd
-class="USERINPUT">tar -xvzf /tmp/filename.tar.gz -C $HOME</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>All the above statements are equivalent. In each case, the archive is unpacked inside
-your home directory and the original uncompressed archive is left in place.</p>
-
-<p>So what good is being able to uncompress these archives if you can't make them? Well,
-<tt class="COMMAND">tar</tt> handles that too. In most cases it's as easy as removing the
-&#8220;<var class="OPTION">-x</var>&#8221; option and replacing it with the &#8220;<var
-class="OPTION">-c</var>&#8221; option.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">tar -cvzf filename.tar.gz .</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>In this command line, the <var class="OPTION">-c</var> option tells <tt
-class="COMMAND">tar</tt> to create an archive, while the <var class="OPTION">-z</var>
-option runs the resulting archive file through <tt class="COMMAND">gzip</tt> to compress
-it. <tt class="FILENAME">filename.tar.gz</tt> is the file that you want to create.</p>
-
-<p>Specifying the &#8220;<var class="OPTION">-f</var>&#8221; option isn't always
-necessary, but is typically good practice anyway. Without it, <tt
-class="COMMAND">tar</tt> writes to standard output, which is usually desired for piping
-<tt class="COMMAND">tar</tt>'s output to another program, like so.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd
-class="USERINPUT">tar -cv filename.tar . | gpg --encrypt</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>That command creates an non-compressed tar archive of the current directory, pipes the
-tarball through <tt class="COMMAND">gpg</tt> which encrypts and compresses the tarball,
-making it realistically impossible to read by anyone other than the person knowing the
-secret key.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="NAVFOOTER">
-<hr align="LEFT" width="100%" />
-<table summary="Footer navigation table" width="100%" border="0" cellpadding="0"
-cellspacing="0">
-<tr>
-<td width="33%" align="left" valign="top"><a href="archive-files-bzip2.html"
-accesskey="P">Prev</a></td>
-<td width="34%" align="center" valign="top"><a href="index.html"
-accesskey="H">Home</a></td>
-<td width="33%" align="right" valign="top"><a href="archive-files-zip.html"
-accesskey="N">Next</a></td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td width="33%" align="left" valign="top"><tt class="COMMAND">bzip2</tt></td>
-<td width="34%" align="center" valign="top"><a href="archive-files.html"
-accesskey="U">Up</a></td>
-<td width="33%" align="right" valign="top"><tt class="COMMAND">zip</tt></td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-</div>
-</body>
-</html>
-
diff --git a/slackbook/html/archive-files-zip.html b/slackbook/html/archive-files-zip.html
deleted file mode 100644
index cf7ef6cd..00000000
--- a/slackbook/html/archive-files-zip.html
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,114 +0,0 @@
-<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"
- "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">
-<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
-<head>
-<meta name="generator" content="HTML Tidy, see www.w3.org" />
-<title>zip</title>
-<meta name="GENERATOR" content="Modular DocBook HTML Stylesheet Version 1.7" />
-<link rel="HOME" title="Slackware Linux Essentials" href="index.html" />
-<link rel="UP" title="Archive Files" href="archive-files.html" />
-<link rel="PREVIOUS" title="tar" href="archive-files-tar.html" />
-<link rel="NEXT" title="Vi" href="vi.html" />
-<link rel="STYLESHEET" type="text/css" href="docbook.css" />
-<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" />
-</head>
-<body class="SECT1" bgcolor="#FFFFFF" text="#000000" link="#0000FF" vlink="#840084"
-alink="#0000FF">
-<div class="NAVHEADER">
-<table summary="Header navigation table" width="100%" border="0" cellpadding="0"
-cellspacing="0">
-<tr>
-<th colspan="3" align="center">Slackware Linux Essentials</th>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td width="10%" align="left" valign="bottom"><a href="archive-files-tar.html"
-accesskey="P">Prev</a></td>
-<td width="80%" align="center" valign="bottom">Chapter 15 Archive Files</td>
-<td width="10%" align="right" valign="bottom"><a href="vi.html"
-accesskey="N">Next</a></td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<hr align="LEFT" width="100%" />
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<h1 class="SECT1"><a id="ARCHIVE-FILES-ZIP" name="ARCHIVE-FILES-ZIP">15.4 <tt
-class="COMMAND">zip</tt></a></h1>
-
-<p>Finally, there are two utilities that can be used on zip files. These are very common
-in the Windows world, so Linux has programs to deal with them. The compression program is
-called <tt class="COMMAND">zip</tt>(1), and the decompression program is called <tt
-class="COMMAND">unzip</tt>(1).</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">zip foo *</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>This will create the file <tt class="FILENAME">foo.zip</tt>, which will contain all
-the files in the current directory. <tt class="COMMAND">zip</tt> will add the <tt
-class="FILENAME">.zip</tt> extension automatically, so there's no need to include that in
-the file name. You can also recurse through the current directory, zipping up any
-directories that are also laying around:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">zip -r foo *</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>Decompressing files is easy, as well.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">unzip foo.zip</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>This will extract all the files in the file <tt class="FILENAME">foo.zip</tt>,
-including any directories in the archive.</p>
-
-<p>The <tt class="COMMAND">zip</tt> utilities have several advanced options for creating
-self-extracting archives, leaving out files, controlling compressed file size, printing
-out what will happen, and much more. See the man pages for <tt class="COMMAND">zip</tt>
-and <tt class="COMMAND">unzip</tt> to find out how to use these options.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="NAVFOOTER">
-<hr align="LEFT" width="100%" />
-<table summary="Footer navigation table" width="100%" border="0" cellpadding="0"
-cellspacing="0">
-<tr>
-<td width="33%" align="left" valign="top"><a href="archive-files-tar.html"
-accesskey="P">Prev</a></td>
-<td width="34%" align="center" valign="top"><a href="index.html"
-accesskey="H">Home</a></td>
-<td width="33%" align="right" valign="top"><a href="vi.html" accesskey="N">Next</a></td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td width="33%" align="left" valign="top"><tt class="COMMAND">tar</tt></td>
-<td width="34%" align="center" valign="top"><a href="archive-files.html"
-accesskey="U">Up</a></td>
-<td width="33%" align="right" valign="top">Vi</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-</div>
-</body>
-</html>
-
diff --git a/slackbook/html/archive-files.html b/slackbook/html/archive-files.html
deleted file mode 100644
index c29542a9..00000000
--- a/slackbook/html/archive-files.html
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,145 +0,0 @@
-<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"
- "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">
-<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
-<head>
-<meta name="generator" content="HTML Tidy, see www.w3.org" />
-<title>Archive Files</title>
-<meta name="GENERATOR" content="Modular DocBook HTML Stylesheet Version 1.7" />
-<link rel="HOME" title="Slackware Linux Essentials" href="index.html" />
-<link rel="PREVIOUS" title="Keeping Current" href="security-current.html" />
-<link rel="NEXT" title="bzip2" href="archive-files-bzip2.html" />
-<link rel="STYLESHEET" type="text/css" href="docbook.css" />
-<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" />
-</head>
-<body class="CHAPTER" bgcolor="#FFFFFF" text="#000000" link="#0000FF" vlink="#840084"
-alink="#0000FF">
-<div class="NAVHEADER">
-<table summary="Header navigation table" width="100%" border="0" cellpadding="0"
-cellspacing="0">
-<tr>
-<th colspan="3" align="center">Slackware Linux Essentials</th>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td width="10%" align="left" valign="bottom"><a href="security-current.html"
-accesskey="P">Prev</a></td>
-<td width="80%" align="center" valign="bottom"></td>
-<td width="10%" align="right" valign="bottom"><a href="archive-files-bzip2.html"
-accesskey="N">Next</a></td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<hr align="LEFT" width="100%" />
-</div>
-
-<div class="CHAPTER">
-<h1><a id="ARCHIVE-FILES" name="ARCHIVE-FILES"></a>Chapter 15 Archive Files</h1>
-
-<div class="TOC">
-<dl>
-<dt><b>Table of Contents</b></dt>
-
-<dt>15.1 <a href="archive-files.html#ARCHIVE-FILES-GZIP"><tt
-class="COMMAND">gzip</tt></a></dt>
-
-<dt>15.2 <a href="archive-files-bzip2.html"><tt class="COMMAND">bzip2</tt></a></dt>
-
-<dt>15.3 <a href="archive-files-tar.html"><tt class="COMMAND">tar</tt></a></dt>
-
-<dt>15.4 <a href="archive-files-zip.html"><tt class="COMMAND">zip</tt></a></dt>
-</dl>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<h1 class="SECT1"><a id="ARCHIVE-FILES-GZIP" name="ARCHIVE-FILES-GZIP">15.1 <tt
-class="COMMAND">gzip</tt></a></h1>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">gzip</tt>(1) is the GNU compression program. It takes a single
-file and compresses it. The basic usage is as follows:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">gzip <var
-class="REPLACEABLE">filename</var></kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>The resulting file will be named <tt class="FILENAME"><var
-class="REPLACEABLE">filename</var>.gz</tt> and will usually be smaller than the input
-file. Note that <tt class="FILENAME">filename.gz</tt> will replace <tt
-class="FILENAME">filename</tt>. This means that <tt class="FILENAME">filename</tt> will
-no longer exist, even though a gzipped copy will. Regular text files will compress
-nicely, while jpeg images, mp3s, and other such files will not compress too well as they
-are already compressed. This basic usage is a balance of final file size and compression
-time. The maximum compression can be achieved like so:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">gzip -9 <var
-class="REPLACEABLE">filename</var></kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>This will take a longer time to compress the file, but the result will be as small as
-<tt class="COMMAND">gzip</tt> can make it. Using lower values for the command line option
-will cause it to compress faster, but the file will not be as compressed.</p>
-
-<p>Decompressing gzipped files can be done using two commands, which are really just the
-same program. <tt class="COMMAND">gzip</tt> will decompress any file with a recognized
-file extension. A recognized extension can be any of the following: <tt
-class="FILENAME">.gz</tt>, <tt class="FILENAME">-gz</tt>, <tt class="FILENAME">.z</tt>,
-<tt class="FILENAME">-z</tt>, <tt class="FILENAME">.Z</tt>, or <tt
-class="FILENAME">-Z</tt>. The first method is to call <tt class="COMMAND">gunzip</tt>(1)
-on a file, like so:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">gunzip <var
-class="REPLACEABLE">filename.gz</var></kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>This will leave a decompressed version of infile in the current directory, and the <tt
-class="FILENAME">.gz</tt> extension will be stripped from the filename. <tt
-class="COMMAND">gunzip</tt> is really part of <tt class="COMMAND">gzip</tt> and is
-identical to <tt class="COMMAND">gzip -d</tt>. As such, <tt class="COMMAND">gzip</tt> is
-often pronounced <tt class="COMMAND">gunzip</tt>, as that name just sounds cooler.
-:^)</p>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="NAVFOOTER">
-<hr align="LEFT" width="100%" />
-<table summary="Footer navigation table" width="100%" border="0" cellpadding="0"
-cellspacing="0">
-<tr>
-<td width="33%" align="left" valign="top"><a href="security-current.html"
-accesskey="P">Prev</a></td>
-<td width="34%" align="center" valign="top"><a href="index.html"
-accesskey="H">Home</a></td>
-<td width="33%" align="right" valign="top"><a href="archive-files-bzip2.html"
-accesskey="N">Next</a></td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td width="33%" align="left" valign="top">Keeping Current</td>
-<td width="34%" align="center" valign="top">&nbsp;</td>
-<td width="33%" align="right" valign="top"><tt class="COMMAND">bzip2</tt></td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-</div>
-</body>
-</html>
-
diff --git a/slackbook/html/basic-network-commands-dns.html b/slackbook/html/basic-network-commands-dns.html
deleted file mode 100644
index f8881aad..00000000
--- a/slackbook/html/basic-network-commands-dns.html
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,181 +0,0 @@
-<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"
- "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">
-<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
-<head>
-<meta name="generator" content="HTML Tidy, see www.w3.org" />
-<title>DNS Tools</title>
-<meta name="GENERATOR" content="Modular DocBook HTML Stylesheet Version 1.7" />
-<link rel="HOME" title="Slackware Linux Essentials" href="index.html" />
-<link rel="UP" title="Basic Network Commands" href="basic-network-commands.html" />
-<link rel="PREVIOUS" title="traceroute" href="basic-network-commands-traceroute.html" />
-<link rel="NEXT" title="finger" href="basic-network-commands-finger.html" />
-<link rel="STYLESHEET" type="text/css" href="docbook.css" />
-<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" />
-</head>
-<body class="SECT1" bgcolor="#FFFFFF" text="#000000" link="#0000FF" vlink="#840084"
-alink="#0000FF">
-<div class="NAVHEADER">
-<table summary="Header navigation table" width="100%" border="0" cellpadding="0"
-cellspacing="0">
-<tr>
-<th colspan="3" align="center">Slackware Linux Essentials</th>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td width="10%" align="left" valign="bottom"><a
-href="basic-network-commands-traceroute.html" accesskey="P">Prev</a></td>
-<td width="80%" align="center" valign="bottom">Chapter 13 Basic Network Commands</td>
-<td width="10%" align="right" valign="bottom"><a
-href="basic-network-commands-finger.html" accesskey="N">Next</a></td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<hr align="LEFT" width="100%" />
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<h1 class="SECT1"><a id="BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-DNS"
-name="BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-DNS">13.3 DNS Tools</a></h1>
-
-<p>Domain Name Service (DNS for short) is that magical protocol that allows your computer
-to turn meaningless domain names like www.slackware.com into meaningful IP address like
-<tt class="HOSTID">64.57.102.34</tt>. Computers can't route packets to www.slackware.com,
-but they can route packets to that domain name's IP address. This gives us a convenient
-way to remember machines. Without DNS we'd have to keep a mental database of just what IP
-address belongs to what computer, and that's assuming the IP address doesn't change.
-Clearly using names for computers is better, but how do we map names to IP addresses?</p>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<h2 class="SECT2"><a id="AEN4475" name="AEN4475">13.3.1 <tt
-class="COMMAND">host</tt></a></h2>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">host</tt>(1) can do this for us. <tt class="COMMAND">host</tt> is
-used to map names to IP addresses. It is a very quick and simple utility without a lot of
-functions.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">host www.slackware.com</kbd>
-www.slackware.com is an alias for slackware.com.
-slackware.com has address 64.57.102.34
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>But let's say for some reason we want to map an IP address to a domain name; what
-then?</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<h2 class="SECT2"><a id="AEN4487" name="AEN4487">13.3.2 <tt
-class="COMMAND">nslookup</tt></a></h2>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">nslookup</tt> is a tried and true program that has weathered the
-ages. <tt class="COMMAND">nslookup</tt> has been deprecated and may be removed from
-future releases. There is not even a man page for this program.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">nslookup 64.57.102.34</kbd>
-Note: nslookup is deprecated and may be removed from future releases.
-Consider using the `dig' or `host' programs instead. Run nslookup with
-the `-sil[ent]' option to prevent this message from appearing.
-Server: 192.168.1.254
-Address: 192.168.1.254#53
-
-Non-authoritative answer:
-www.slackware.com canonical name = slackware.com.
-Name: slackware.com
-Address: 64.57.102.34
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<h2 class="SECT2"><a id="AEN4496" name="AEN4496">13.3.3 <tt
-class="COMMAND">dig</tt></a></h2>
-
-<p>The meanest dog in the pound, the domain information groper, <tt
-class="COMMAND">dig</tt>(1) for short, is the go-to program for finding DNS information.
-<tt class="COMMAND">dig</tt> can grab just about anything from a DNS server including
-reverse lookups, A, CNAME, MX, SP, and TXT records. <tt class="COMMAND">dig</tt> has many
-command line options and if you're not familiar with it you should read through it's
-extensive man page.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd
-class="USERINPUT">dig @192.168.1.254 www.slackware.com mx</kbd>
-
-; &lt;&lt;&#62;&#62; DiG 9.2.2 &lt;&lt;&#62;&#62; @192.168.1.254 www.slackware.com mx
-;; global options: printcmd
-;; Got answer:
-;; -&#62;&#62;HEADER&lt;&lt;- opcode: QUERY, status: NOERROR, id: 26362
-;; flags: qr rd ra; QUERY: 1, ANSWER: 2, AUTHORITY: 2, ADDITIONAL: 2
-
-;; QUESTION SECTION:
-;www.slackware.com. IN MX
-
-;; ANSWER SECTION:
-www.slackware.com. 76634 IN CNAME slackware.com.
-slackware.com. 86400 IN MX 1 mail.slackware.com.
-
-;; AUTHORITY SECTION:
-slackware.com. 86400 IN NS ns1.cwo.com.
-slackware.com. 86400 IN NS ns2.cwo.com.
-
-;; ADDITIONAL SECTION:
-ns1.cwo.com. 163033 IN A 64.57.100.2
-ns2.cwo.com. 163033 IN A 64.57.100.3
-
-;; Query time: 149 msec
-;; SERVER: 192.168.1.254#53(192.168.1.254)
-;; WHEN: Sat Nov 6 16:59:31 2004
-;; MSG SIZE rcvd: 159
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>This should give you an idea how <tt class="COMMAND">dig</tt> works.
-&#8220;@192.168.1.254&#8221; specifies the dns server to use.
-&#8220;www.slackware.com&#8221; is the domain name I am performing a lookup on, and
-&#8220;mx&#8221; is the type of lookup I am performing. The above query tells me that
-e-mail to <tt class="HOSTID">www.slackware.com</tt> will instead be sent to <tt
-class="HOSTID">mail.slackware.com</tt> for delivery.</p>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="NAVFOOTER">
-<hr align="LEFT" width="100%" />
-<table summary="Footer navigation table" width="100%" border="0" cellpadding="0"
-cellspacing="0">
-<tr>
-<td width="33%" align="left" valign="top"><a
-href="basic-network-commands-traceroute.html" accesskey="P">Prev</a></td>
-<td width="34%" align="center" valign="top"><a href="index.html"
-accesskey="H">Home</a></td>
-<td width="33%" align="right" valign="top"><a href="basic-network-commands-finger.html"
-accesskey="N">Next</a></td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td width="33%" align="left" valign="top"><tt class="COMMAND">traceroute</tt></td>
-<td width="34%" align="center" valign="top"><a href="basic-network-commands.html"
-accesskey="U">Up</a></td>
-<td width="33%" align="right" valign="top"><tt class="COMMAND">finger</tt></td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-</div>
-</body>
-</html>
-
diff --git a/slackbook/html/basic-network-commands-email.html b/slackbook/html/basic-network-commands-email.html
deleted file mode 100644
index 487ea4bc..00000000
--- a/slackbook/html/basic-network-commands-email.html
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,241 +0,0 @@
-<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"
- "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">
-<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
-<head>
-<meta name="generator" content="HTML Tidy, see www.w3.org" />
-<title>email</title>
-<meta name="GENERATOR" content="Modular DocBook HTML Stylesheet Version 1.7" />
-<link rel="HOME" title="Slackware Linux Essentials" href="index.html" />
-<link rel="UP" title="Basic Network Commands" href="basic-network-commands.html" />
-<link rel="PREVIOUS" title="The Secure shell" href="basic-network-commands-ssh.html" />
-<link rel="NEXT" title="Browsers" href="basic-network-commands-web.html" />
-<link rel="STYLESHEET" type="text/css" href="docbook.css" />
-<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" />
-</head>
-<body class="SECT1" bgcolor="#FFFFFF" text="#000000" link="#0000FF" vlink="#840084"
-alink="#0000FF">
-<div class="NAVHEADER">
-<table summary="Header navigation table" width="100%" border="0" cellpadding="0"
-cellspacing="0">
-<tr>
-<th colspan="3" align="center">Slackware Linux Essentials</th>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td width="10%" align="left" valign="bottom"><a href="basic-network-commands-ssh.html"
-accesskey="P">Prev</a></td>
-<td width="80%" align="center" valign="bottom">Chapter 13 Basic Network Commands</td>
-<td width="10%" align="right" valign="bottom"><a href="basic-network-commands-web.html"
-accesskey="N">Next</a></td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<hr align="LEFT" width="100%" />
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<h1 class="SECT1"><a id="BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-EMAIL"
-name="BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-EMAIL">13.7 email</a></h1>
-
-<p>Electronic mail is one of the most popular things one can do on the Internet. In 1998,
-it was reported that more electronic mail was sent than regular mail. It is indeed common
-and useful.</p>
-
-<p>Under Slackware, we provide a standard mail server, and several mail clients. All of
-the clients discussed below are text-based. A lot of Windows users may be against this,
-but you will find that a text based client is very convenient, especially when checking
-mail remotely. Fear not, there are many graphical e-mail clients such as KDE's Kmail. If
-you wish to use one of those check its help menu.</p>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<h2 class="SECT2"><a id="BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-EMAIL-PINE"
-name="BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-EMAIL-PINE">13.7.1 <tt class="COMMAND">pine</tt></a></h2>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">pine</tt>(1) is not <tt class="COMMAND">elm</tt>. Or so the saying
-goes. The University of Washington created their program for Internet news and email out
-of a need for an easy mail reader for their students. <tt class="COMMAND">pine</tt> is
-one of the most popular email clients in use today and is available for nearly every
-flavor of Unix and even Windows.</p>
-
-<div class="FIGURE"><a id="FIG-BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-EMAIL-PINE"
-name="FIG-BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-EMAIL-PINE"></a>
-<p><b>Figure 13-2. The Pine main menu</b></p>
-
-<p><img src="basic-network-commands/pine.png" /></p>
-</div>
-
-<p>You will see a menu of commands and a row of command keys at the bottom. <tt
-class="COMMAND">pine</tt> is indeed a complex program, so we will not discuss every
-feature about it here.</p>
-
-<p>To see what's in your inbox, type <kbd class="USERINPUT">i</kbd>. Your messages are
-listed with their date, author, and subject. Highlight the message you want and press
-<kbd class="USERINPUT">enter</kbd> to view it. Pressing <kbd class="USERINPUT">r</kbd>
-will start a reply to the message. Once you have written the response, type <b
-class="KEYCAP">Ctrl</b>+<b class="KEYCAP">X</b> to send it. You can press <kbd
-class="USERINPUT">i</kbd> to get back to the message listing.</p>
-
-<p>If you want to delete a message, press <kbd class="USERINPUT">d</kbd>. It will mark
-the highlighted message for deletion. <tt class="COMMAND">pine</tt> deletes the mail when
-you exit the program. <tt class="COMMAND">pine</tt> also lets you store your mail in
-folders. You can get a listing of folders by pressing <kbd class="USERINPUT">l</kbd>. At
-the message listing, press <kbd class="USERINPUT">s</kbd> to save it to another folder.
-It will ask for the folder name to write the message to.</p>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">pine</tt> offers many, many features; you should definitely have a
-look at the man page for more information. It will contain the latest information about
-the program.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<h2 class="SECT2"><a id="BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-EMAIL-ELM"
-name="BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-EMAIL-ELM">13.7.2 <tt class="COMMAND">elm</tt></a></h2>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">elm</tt>(1) is another popular text-based email client. Though not
-quite as user friendly as <tt class="COMMAND">pine</tt>, it's definitely been around a
-lot longer.</p>
-
-<div class="FIGURE"><a id="FIG-BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-EMAIL-ELM"
-name="FIG-BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-EMAIL-ELM"></a>
-<p><b>Figure 13-3. Elm main screen</b></p>
-
-<p><img src="basic-network-commands/elm.png" /></p>
-</div>
-
-<p>By default, you are placed in your inbox. The messages are listed with the message
-number, date, sender, and subject. Use the arrow keys to highlight the message you want.
-Press <kbd class="USERINPUT">Enter</kbd> to read the message.</p>
-
-<p>To compose a new message, type <kbd class="USERINPUT">m</kbd> at the main screen. The
-<kbd class="USERINPUT">d</kbd> key will flag a message for deletion. And the <kbd
-class="USERINPUT">r</kbd> key will reply to the current message you are reading. All of
-these keys are displayed at the bottom of the screen with a prompt.</p>
-
-<p>The man page discusses <tt class="COMMAND">elm</tt> in more detail, so you will
-probably want to consult that before using <tt class="COMMAND">elm</tt>.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<h2 class="SECT2"><a id="BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-EMAIL-MUTT"
-name="BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-EMAIL-MUTT">13.7.3 <tt class="COMMAND">mutt</tt></a></h2>
-
-<p>&#8220;All mail clients suck. This one just sucks less.&#8221; <tt
-class="COMMAND">mutt</tt>'s original interface was based on <tt class="COMMAND">elm</tt>
-with added features found in other popular mailclients, resulting in a hybrid mutt.</p>
-
-<p>Some of <tt class="COMMAND">mutt</tt>'s features include:</p>
-
-<ul>
-<li>
-<p>color support</p>
-</li>
-
-<li>
-<p>message threading</p>
-</li>
-
-<li>
-<p>MIME and PGP/MIME support</p>
-</li>
-
-<li>
-<p>pop3 and imap support</p>
-</li>
-
-<li>
-<p>support for multiple mailbox formats (mbox, MMDF, MH, maildir)</p>
-</li>
-
-<li>
-<p><span class="emphasis"><i class="EMPHASIS">highly</i></span> customizable</p>
-</li>
-</ul>
-
-<div class="FIGURE"><a id="FIG-BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-EMAIL-MUTT"
-name="FIG-BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-EMAIL-MUTT"></a>
-<p><b>Figure 13-4. Mutt main screen</b></p>
-
-<p><img src="basic-network-commands/mutt.png" /></p>
-</div>
-
-<p>if you're looking for a mail client that will let you be in total control over
-everything, then you will like <tt class="COMMAND">mutt</tt>. all the default settings
-can be customized, keybindings can be changed. if you like to add a macro, you can.</p>
-
-<p>you probably want to take a look at the <tt class="FILENAME">muttrc</tt> manpage,
-which will tell you how to configure everything. or take a look at the included example
-<tt class="FILENAME">muttrc</tt> file.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<h2 class="SECT2"><a id="BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-EMAIL-NAIL"
-name="BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-EMAIL-NAIL">13.7.4 <tt class="COMMAND">nail</tt></a></h2>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">nail</tt>(1) is a command line driven mail client. It is very
-primitive and offers pretty much nothing in the way of user interfaces. However, mailx is
-handy for times when you need to quickly mail something, scripting a bulk mailer, testing
-your MTA installation or something similar. Note that Slackware creates symbolic links to
-<tt class="COMMAND">nail</tt> at <tt class="FILENAME">/usr/bin/mail</tt> and <tt
-class="FILENAME">/usr/bin/mailx</tt>. Any of these three commands executes the same
-program. In fact, you will most likely see <tt class="COMMAND">nail</tt> referred to as
-<tt class="COMMAND">mail</tt>.</p>
-
-<p>The basic command line is:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd
-class="USERINPUT">mailx &lt;subject&gt; &lt;to-addr&gt;</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">mailx</tt> reads the message body from standard input. So you can
-cat a file into this command to mail it, or you can just type text and hit <b
-class="KEYCAP">Ctrl</b>+<b class="KEYCAP">D</b> when finished with the message.</p>
-
-<p>Here is an example of mailing a program source file to another person.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd
-class="USERINPUT">cat randomfunc.c | mail -s "Here's that function" asdf@example.net</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>The man page explains more of what <tt class="COMMAND">nail</tt> can do, so you will
-probably want to have a look at that before using it.</p>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="NAVFOOTER">
-<hr align="LEFT" width="100%" />
-<table summary="Footer navigation table" width="100%" border="0" cellpadding="0"
-cellspacing="0">
-<tr>
-<td width="33%" align="left" valign="top"><a href="basic-network-commands-ssh.html"
-accesskey="P">Prev</a></td>
-<td width="34%" align="center" valign="top"><a href="index.html"
-accesskey="H">Home</a></td>
-<td width="33%" align="right" valign="top"><a href="basic-network-commands-web.html"
-accesskey="N">Next</a></td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td width="33%" align="left" valign="top">The Secure shell</td>
-<td width="34%" align="center" valign="top"><a href="basic-network-commands.html"
-accesskey="U">Up</a></td>
-<td width="33%" align="right" valign="top">Browsers</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-</div>
-</body>
-</html>
-
diff --git a/slackbook/html/basic-network-commands-finger.html b/slackbook/html/basic-network-commands-finger.html
deleted file mode 100644
index 08eca57c..00000000
--- a/slackbook/html/basic-network-commands-finger.html
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,132 +0,0 @@
-<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"
- "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">
-<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
-<head>
-<meta name="generator" content="HTML Tidy, see www.w3.org" />
-<title>finger</title>
-<meta name="GENERATOR" content="Modular DocBook HTML Stylesheet Version 1.7" />
-<link rel="HOME" title="Slackware Linux Essentials" href="index.html" />
-<link rel="UP" title="Basic Network Commands" href="basic-network-commands.html" />
-<link rel="PREVIOUS" title="DNS Tools" href="basic-network-commands-dns.html" />
-<link rel="NEXT" title="telnet" href="basic-network-commands-telnet.html" />
-<link rel="STYLESHEET" type="text/css" href="docbook.css" />
-<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" />
-</head>
-<body class="SECT1" bgcolor="#FFFFFF" text="#000000" link="#0000FF" vlink="#840084"
-alink="#0000FF">
-<div class="NAVHEADER">
-<table summary="Header navigation table" width="100%" border="0" cellpadding="0"
-cellspacing="0">
-<tr>
-<th colspan="3" align="center">Slackware Linux Essentials</th>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td width="10%" align="left" valign="bottom"><a href="basic-network-commands-dns.html"
-accesskey="P">Prev</a></td>
-<td width="80%" align="center" valign="bottom">Chapter 13 Basic Network Commands</td>
-<td width="10%" align="right" valign="bottom"><a
-href="basic-network-commands-telnet.html" accesskey="N">Next</a></td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<hr align="LEFT" width="100%" />
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<h1 class="SECT1"><a id="BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-FINGER"
-name="BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-FINGER">13.4 <tt class="COMMAND">finger</tt></a></h1>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">finger</tt>(1) will retrieve information about the specified user.
-You give finger a username or an email address and it will try to contact the necessary
-server and retrieve the username, office, telephone number, and other pieces of
-information. Here is an example:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">finger johnc@idsoftware.com</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">finger</tt> can return the username, mail status, phone numbers,
-and files referred to as &#8220;dot plan&#8221; and &#8220;dot project&#8221;. Of course,
-the information returned varies with each <tt class="COMMAND">finger</tt> server. The one
-included with Slackware returns the following information by default:</p>
-
-<ul>
-<li>
-<p>Username</p>
-</li>
-
-<li>
-<p>Room number</p>
-</li>
-
-<li>
-<p>Home phone number</p>
-</li>
-
-<li>
-<p>Work phone number</p>
-</li>
-
-<li>
-<p>Login status</p>
-</li>
-
-<li>
-<p>Email status</p>
-</li>
-
-<li>
-<p>Contents of the <tt class="FILENAME">.plan</tt> file in the user's home directory</p>
-</li>
-
-<li>
-<p>Contents of the <tt class="FILENAME">.project</tt> file in the user's home
-directory</p>
-</li>
-</ul>
-
-<p>The first four items can be set with the <tt class="COMMAND">chfn</tt> command. It
-stores those values in the <tt class="FILENAME">/etc/passwd</tt> file. To change the
-information in your <tt class="FILENAME">.plan</tt> or <tt class="FILENAME">.project</tt>
-file, just edit them with your favorite text editor. They must reside in your home
-directory and must be called <tt class="FILENAME">.plan</tt> and <tt
-class="FILENAME">.project</tt>.</p>
-
-<p>Many users <tt class="COMMAND">finger</tt> their own account from a remote machine to
-quickly see if they have new email. Or, you can see a user's plan or current project.</p>
-
-<p>Like many commands, <tt class="COMMAND">finger</tt> has options. Check the man page
-for more information on what special options you can use.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="NAVFOOTER">
-<hr align="LEFT" width="100%" />
-<table summary="Footer navigation table" width="100%" border="0" cellpadding="0"
-cellspacing="0">
-<tr>
-<td width="33%" align="left" valign="top"><a href="basic-network-commands-dns.html"
-accesskey="P">Prev</a></td>
-<td width="34%" align="center" valign="top"><a href="index.html"
-accesskey="H">Home</a></td>
-<td width="33%" align="right" valign="top"><a href="basic-network-commands-telnet.html"
-accesskey="N">Next</a></td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td width="33%" align="left" valign="top">DNS Tools</td>
-<td width="34%" align="center" valign="top"><a href="basic-network-commands.html"
-accesskey="U">Up</a></td>
-<td width="33%" align="right" valign="top"><tt class="COMMAND">telnet</tt></td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-</div>
-</body>
-</html>
-
diff --git a/slackbook/html/basic-network-commands-ftp.html b/slackbook/html/basic-network-commands-ftp.html
deleted file mode 100644
index a5b48f07..00000000
--- a/slackbook/html/basic-network-commands-ftp.html
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,279 +0,0 @@
-<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"
- "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">
-<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
-<head>
-<meta name="generator" content="HTML Tidy, see www.w3.org" />
-<title>FTP Clients</title>
-<meta name="GENERATOR" content="Modular DocBook HTML Stylesheet Version 1.7" />
-<link rel="HOME" title="Slackware Linux Essentials" href="index.html" />
-<link rel="UP" title="Basic Network Commands" href="basic-network-commands.html" />
-<link rel="PREVIOUS" title="Browsers" href="basic-network-commands-web.html" />
-<link rel="NEXT" title="Talking to Other People"
-href="basic-network-commands-talk.html" />
-<link rel="STYLESHEET" type="text/css" href="docbook.css" />
-<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" />
-</head>
-<body class="SECT1" bgcolor="#FFFFFF" text="#000000" link="#0000FF" vlink="#840084"
-alink="#0000FF">
-<div class="NAVHEADER">
-<table summary="Header navigation table" width="100%" border="0" cellpadding="0"
-cellspacing="0">
-<tr>
-<th colspan="3" align="center">Slackware Linux Essentials</th>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td width="10%" align="left" valign="bottom"><a href="basic-network-commands-web.html"
-accesskey="P">Prev</a></td>
-<td width="80%" align="center" valign="bottom">Chapter 13 Basic Network Commands</td>
-<td width="10%" align="right" valign="bottom"><a href="basic-network-commands-talk.html"
-accesskey="N">Next</a></td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<hr align="LEFT" width="100%" />
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<h1 class="SECT1"><a id="BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-FTP"
-name="BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-FTP">13.9 FTP Clients</a></h1>
-
-<p>FTP stands for the File Transfer Protocol. It allows you to send and receive files
-between two computers. There is the FTP server and the FTP client. We discuss the client
-in this section.</p>
-
-<p>For the curious, the &#8220;client&#8221; is you. The &#8220;server&#8221; is the
-computer that answers your FTP request and lets you login. You will download files from
-and upload files to the server. The client cannot accept FTP connections, it can only
-connect to servers.</p>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<h2 class="SECT2"><a id="AEN4871" name="AEN4871">13.9.1 <tt
-class="COMMAND">ftp</tt></a></h2>
-
-<p>To connect to an FTP server, simply run the <tt class="COMMAND">ftp</tt>(1) command
-and specify the host:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">ftp &lt;hostname&gt; [port]</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>If the host is running an FTP server, it will ask for a username and password. You can
-log in as yourself or as &#8220;anonymous&#8221;. Anonymous FTP sites are very popular
-for software archives. For example, to get Slackware Linux via FTP, you must use
-anonymous FTP.</p>
-
-<p>Once connected, you will be at the <var class="LITERAL">ftp&gt;</var> prompt. There
-are special commands for FTP, but they are similar to other standard commands. The
-following shows some of the basic commands and what they do:</p>
-
-<div class="TABLE"><a id="AEN4883" name="AEN4883"></a>
-<p><b>Table 13-1. <tt class="COMMAND">ftp</tt> commands</b></p>
-
-<table border="0" frame="void" class="CALSTABLE">
-<col width="1*" />
-<col width="3*" />
-<thead>
-<tr>
-<th>Command</th>
-<th>Purpose</th>
-</tr>
-</thead>
-
-<tbody>
-<tr>
-<td><tt class="COMMAND">ls</tt></td>
-<td>List files</td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td><tt class="COMMAND">cd &lt;dirname&gt;</tt></td>
-<td>Change directory</td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td><tt class="COMMAND">bin</tt></td>
-<td>Set binary transfer mode</td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td><tt class="COMMAND">ascii</tt></td>
-<td>Set ASCII transfer mode</td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td><tt class="COMMAND">get &lt;filename&gt;</tt></td>
-<td>Download a file</td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td><tt class="COMMAND">put &lt;filename&gt;</tt></td>
-<td>Upload a file</td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td><tt class="COMMAND">hash</tt></td>
-<td>Toggle hash mark stats indicator</td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td><tt class="COMMAND">tick</tt></td>
-<td>Toggle byte counter indicator</td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td><tt class="COMMAND">prom</tt></td>
-<td>Toggle interactive mode for downloads</td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td><tt class="COMMAND">mget &lt;mask&gt;</tt></td>
-<td>Download a file or group of files; wildcards are allowed</td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td><tt class="COMMAND">mput &lt;mask&gt;</tt></td>
-<td>Upload a file or group of files; wildcards are allowed</td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td><tt class="COMMAND">quit</tt></td>
-<td>Log off the FTP server</td>
-</tr>
-</tbody>
-</table>
-</div>
-
-<p>You can also use some of the following commands which are quite self-explanatory: <tt
-class="COMMAND">chmod</tt>, <tt class="COMMAND">delete</tt>, <tt
-class="COMMAND">rename</tt>, <tt class="COMMAND">rmdir</tt>. For a complete list of all
-commands and their meaning, just type <kbd class="USERINPUT">help</kbd> or <kbd
-class="USERINPUT">?</kbd> and you'll see a complete listing on screen.</p>
-
-<p>FTP is a fairly simple program to use, but lacks the user interface that many of us
-are used to nowadays. The man page discusses some of the command line options for <tt
-class="COMMAND">ftp</tt>(1).</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-ftp&#62; <kbd class="USERINPUT">ls *.TXT</kbd>
-200 PORT command successful.
-150 Opening ASCII mode data connection for /bin/ls.
--rw-r--r-- 1 root 100 18606 Apr 6 2002 BOOTING.TXT
--rw-r--r-- 1 root 100 10518 Jun 13 2002 COPYRIGHT.TXT
--rw-r--r-- 1 root 100 602 Apr 6 2002 CRYPTO_NOTICE.TXT
--rw-r--r-- 1 root 100 32431 Sep 29 02:56 FAQ.TXT
--rw-r--r-- 1 root 100 499784 Mar 3 19:29 FILELIST.TXT
--rw-r--r-- 1 root 100 241099 Mar 3 19:12 PACKAGES.TXT
--rw-r--r-- 1 root 100 12339 Jun 19 2002 README81.TXT
--rw-r--r-- 1 root 100 14826 Jun 17 2002 SPEAKUP_DOCS.TXT
--rw-r--r-- 1 root 100 15434 Jun 17 2002 SPEAK_INSTALL.TXT
--rw-r--r-- 1 root 100 2876 Jun 17 2002 UPGRADE.TXT
-226 Transfer complete.
-ftp&#62; <kbd class="USERINPUT">tick</kbd>
-Tick counter printing on (10240 bytes/tick increment).
-ftp&#62; <kbd class="USERINPUT">get README81.TXT</kbd>
-local: README81.TXT remote: README81.TXT
-200 PORT command successful.
-150 Opening BINARY mode data connection for README81.TXT (12339 bytes).
-Bytes transferred: 12339
-226 Transfer complete.
-12339 bytes received in 0.208 secs (58 Kbytes/sec)
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<h2 class="SECT2"><a id="BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-FTP-NCFTP"
-name="BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-FTP-NCFTP">13.9.2 <tt class="COMMAND">ncftp</tt></a></h2>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">ncftp</tt>(1) (pronounced "Nik-F-T-P") is an alternative to the
-traditional ftp client that comes with Slackware. It is still a text-based program, but
-offers many advantages over <tt class="COMMAND">ftp</tt>, including:</p>
-
-<ul>
-<li>
-<p>Tab completion</p>
-</li>
-
-<li>
-<p>Bookmarks file</p>
-</li>
-
-<li>
-<p>More liberal wildcard uses</p>
-</li>
-
-<li>
-<p>Command history</p>
-</li>
-</ul>
-
-<p>By default, <tt class="COMMAND">ncftp</tt> will try to log in anonymously to the
-server you specify. You can force <tt class="COMMAND">ncftp</tt> to present a login
-prompt with the &#8220;<var class="OPTION">-u</var>&#8221; option. Once logged in, you
-can use the same commands as in <tt class="COMMAND">ftp</tt>, only you'll notice a nicer
-interface, one that works more like <tt class="COMMAND">bash</tt>.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-ncftp /pub/linux/slackware &#62; <kbd class="USERINPUT">cd slackware-current/</kbd>
-Please read the file README81.TXT
- it was last modified on Wed Jun 19 16:24:21 2002 - 258 days ago
-CWD command successful.
-ncftp ...ware/slackware-current &#62; <kbd class="USERINPUT">ls</kbd>
-BOOTING.TXT FAQ.TXT bootdisks/
-CHECKSUMS FILELIST.TXT extra/
-CHECKSUMS.asc GPG-KEY isolinux/
-CHECKSUMS.md5 PACKAGES.TXT kernels/
-CHECKSUMS.md5.asc PRERELEASE_NOTES pasture/
-COPYING README81.TXT rootdisks/
-COPYRIGHT.TXT SPEEKUP_DOCS.TXT slackware/
-CRYPTO_NOTICE.TXT SPEEK_INSTALL.TXT source/
-CURRENT.WARNING Slackware-HOWTO
-ChangeLog.txt UPGRADE.TXT
-ncftp ...ware/slackware-current &#62; <kbd class="USERINPUT">get README81.TXT</kbd>
-README81.TXT: 12.29 kB 307.07 kB/s
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="NAVFOOTER">
-<hr align="LEFT" width="100%" />
-<table summary="Footer navigation table" width="100%" border="0" cellpadding="0"
-cellspacing="0">
-<tr>
-<td width="33%" align="left" valign="top"><a href="basic-network-commands-web.html"
-accesskey="P">Prev</a></td>
-<td width="34%" align="center" valign="top"><a href="index.html"
-accesskey="H">Home</a></td>
-<td width="33%" align="right" valign="top"><a href="basic-network-commands-talk.html"
-accesskey="N">Next</a></td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td width="33%" align="left" valign="top">Browsers</td>
-<td width="34%" align="center" valign="top"><a href="basic-network-commands.html"
-accesskey="U">Up</a></td>
-<td width="33%" align="right" valign="top">Talking to Other People</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-</div>
-</body>
-</html>
-
diff --git a/slackbook/html/basic-network-commands-ssh.html b/slackbook/html/basic-network-commands-ssh.html
deleted file mode 100644
index f9912fe1..00000000
--- a/slackbook/html/basic-network-commands-ssh.html
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,100 +0,0 @@
-<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"
- "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">
-<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
-<head>
-<meta name="generator" content="HTML Tidy, see www.w3.org" />
-<title>The Secure shell</title>
-<meta name="GENERATOR" content="Modular DocBook HTML Stylesheet Version 1.7" />
-<link rel="HOME" title="Slackware Linux Essentials" href="index.html" />
-<link rel="UP" title="Basic Network Commands" href="basic-network-commands.html" />
-<link rel="PREVIOUS" title="telnet" href="basic-network-commands-telnet.html" />
-<link rel="NEXT" title="email" href="basic-network-commands-email.html" />
-<link rel="STYLESHEET" type="text/css" href="docbook.css" />
-<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" />
-</head>
-<body class="SECT1" bgcolor="#FFFFFF" text="#000000" link="#0000FF" vlink="#840084"
-alink="#0000FF">
-<div class="NAVHEADER">
-<table summary="Header navigation table" width="100%" border="0" cellpadding="0"
-cellspacing="0">
-<tr>
-<th colspan="3" align="center">Slackware Linux Essentials</th>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td width="10%" align="left" valign="bottom"><a href="basic-network-commands-telnet.html"
-accesskey="P">Prev</a></td>
-<td width="80%" align="center" valign="bottom">Chapter 13 Basic Network Commands</td>
-<td width="10%" align="right" valign="bottom"><a href="basic-network-commands-email.html"
-accesskey="N">Next</a></td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<hr align="LEFT" width="100%" />
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<h1 class="SECT1"><a id="BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-SSH"
-name="BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-SSH">13.6 The Secure shell</a></h1>
-
-<p>Today, secure shell basks in the adoration that <tt class="COMMAND">telnet</tt> once
-enjoyed. <tt class="COMMAND">ssh</tt>(1) allows one to make a connection to a remote
-machine and execute programs as if one were physically present; however, <tt
-class="COMMAND">ssh</tt> encrypts all the data travelling between the two computers so
-even if others intercept the conversation, they are unable to understand it. A typical
-secure shell connection follows.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd
-class="USERINPUT">ssh carrier.lizella.net -l alan</kbd>
-The authenticity of host 'carrier.lizella.net (192.168.1.253)' can't be
-established.
-RSA key fingerprint is 0b:e2:5d:43:4c:39:4f:8c:b9:85:db:b2:fa:25:e9:9d.
-Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes
-Warning: Permanently added 'carrier.lizella.net' (RSA) to the list of
-known hosts.
-Password: <kbd class="USERINPUT">password</kbd>
-Last login: Sat Nov 6 16:32:19 2004 from 192.168.1.102
-Linux 2.4.26-smp.
-alan@carrier:~$ <kbd class="USERINPUT">ls -l MANIFEST</kbd>
--rw-r--r-- 1 alan users 23545276 2004-10-28 20:04 MANIFEST
-alan@carrier:~$ <kbd class="USERINPUT">exit</kbd>
-logout
-Connection to carrier.lizella.net closed.
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>There you see me making an ssh connection to <tt
-class="HOSTID">carrier.lizella.net</tt>, and checking the permissions on the <tt
-class="FILENAME">MANIFEST</tt> file.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="NAVFOOTER">
-<hr align="LEFT" width="100%" />
-<table summary="Footer navigation table" width="100%" border="0" cellpadding="0"
-cellspacing="0">
-<tr>
-<td width="33%" align="left" valign="top"><a href="basic-network-commands-telnet.html"
-accesskey="P">Prev</a></td>
-<td width="34%" align="center" valign="top"><a href="index.html"
-accesskey="H">Home</a></td>
-<td width="33%" align="right" valign="top"><a href="basic-network-commands-email.html"
-accesskey="N">Next</a></td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td width="33%" align="left" valign="top"><tt class="COMMAND">telnet</tt></td>
-<td width="34%" align="center" valign="top"><a href="basic-network-commands.html"
-accesskey="U">Up</a></td>
-<td width="33%" align="right" valign="top">email</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-</div>
-</body>
-</html>
-
diff --git a/slackbook/html/basic-network-commands-talk.html b/slackbook/html/basic-network-commands-talk.html
deleted file mode 100644
index 5c61119e..00000000
--- a/slackbook/html/basic-network-commands-talk.html
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,184 +0,0 @@
-<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"
- "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">
-<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
-<head>
-<meta name="generator" content="HTML Tidy, see www.w3.org" />
-<title>Talking to Other People</title>
-<meta name="GENERATOR" content="Modular DocBook HTML Stylesheet Version 1.7" />
-<link rel="HOME" title="Slackware Linux Essentials" href="index.html" />
-<link rel="UP" title="Basic Network Commands" href="basic-network-commands.html" />
-<link rel="PREVIOUS" title="FTP Clients" href="basic-network-commands-ftp.html" />
-<link rel="NEXT" title="Security" href="security.html" />
-<link rel="STYLESHEET" type="text/css" href="docbook.css" />
-<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" />
-</head>
-<body class="SECT1" bgcolor="#FFFFFF" text="#000000" link="#0000FF" vlink="#840084"
-alink="#0000FF">
-<div class="NAVHEADER">
-<table summary="Header navigation table" width="100%" border="0" cellpadding="0"
-cellspacing="0">
-<tr>
-<th colspan="3" align="center">Slackware Linux Essentials</th>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td width="10%" align="left" valign="bottom"><a href="basic-network-commands-ftp.html"
-accesskey="P">Prev</a></td>
-<td width="80%" align="center" valign="bottom">Chapter 13 Basic Network Commands</td>
-<td width="10%" align="right" valign="bottom"><a href="security.html"
-accesskey="N">Next</a></td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<hr align="LEFT" width="100%" />
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<h1 class="SECT1"><a id="BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-TALK"
-name="BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-TALK">13.10 Talking to Other People</a></h1>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<h2 class="SECT2"><a id="AEN4989" name="AEN4989">13.10.1 <tt
-class="COMMAND">wall</tt></a></h2>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">wall</tt>(1) is a quick way to write a message to the users on a
-system. The basic syntax is:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">wall [file]</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>This will result in the contents of [file] being displayed on the terminals of all
-currently logged in users. If you don't specify a file, wall will read from standard
-input, so you can just type your message, and end with <b class="KEYCAP">Ctrl</b>+<b
-class="KEYCAP">d</b>.</p>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">wall</tt> doesn't have many features, and apart from letting your
-users know that you're about to do some serious maintenance to the system, or even reboot
-it, so they have time to save their work and log off :)</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<h2 class="SECT2"><a id="AEN5006" name="AEN5006">13.10.2 <tt
-class="COMMAND">talk</tt></a></h2>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">talk</tt>(1) allows two users to chat. It splits the screen in
-half, horizontally. To request a chat with another user, use this command:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">talk &lt;person&gt; [ttyname]</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<div class="FIGURE"><a id="FIG-BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-TALK-TALK"
-name="FIG-BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-TALK-TALK"></a>
-<p><b>Figure 13-7. Two users in a <tt class="COMMAND">talk</tt> session</b></p>
-
-<p><img src="basic-network-commands/talk.png" /></p>
-</div>
-
-<p>If you specify just a username, the chat request is assumed to be local, so only local
-users are queried. The ttyname is required if you want to ring a user on a specific
-terminal (if the user is logged in more than once). The required information for <tt
-class="COMMAND">talk</tt> can be obtained from the <tt class="COMMAND">w</tt>(1)
-command.</p>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">talk</tt> can also ring users on remote hosts. For the username
-you simply specify an email address. <tt class="COMMAND">talk</tt> will try to contact
-that remote user on that host.</p>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">talk</tt> is somewhat limited. It only supports two users and is
-half-duplex.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<h2 class="SECT2"><a id="AEN5033" name="AEN5033">13.10.3 <tt
-class="COMMAND">ytalk</tt></a></h2>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">ytalk</tt>(1) is a backwards compatible replacement for <tt
-class="COMMAND">talk</tt>. It comes with Slackware as the <tt class="COMMAND">ytalk</tt>
-command. The syntax is similar, but has a few differences:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd
-class="USERINPUT">ytalk &lt;username&gt;[#ttyname]</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<div class="FIGURE"><a id="FIG-BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-TALK-YTALK"
-name="FIG-BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-TALK-YTALK"></a>
-<p><b>Figure 13-8. Two users in a <tt class="COMMAND">ytalk</tt> session</b></p>
-
-<p><img src="basic-network-commands/ytalk.png" /></p>
-</div>
-
-<p>The username and terminal are specified the same as under talk, except you must put
-them together with the hash mark (#).</p>
-
-<p>ytalk offers several advantages:</p>
-
-<ul>
-<li>
-<p>It supports more than two users.</p>
-</li>
-
-<li>
-<p>A menu of options that can be brought up anytime with <kbd
-class="USERINPUT">Esc</kbd>.</p>
-</li>
-
-<li>
-<p>You can shell out while still in the talk session.</p>
-</li>
-
-<li>
-<p>Plus more...</p>
-</li>
-</ul>
-
-<p>If you're a server administrator, you'll want to make sure that the <tt
-class="COMMAND">ntalk</tt> port is enabled in <tt class="FILENAME">/etc/inetd.conf</tt>.
-<tt class="COMMAND">ytalk</tt> needs that to work properly.</p>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="NAVFOOTER">
-<hr align="LEFT" width="100%" />
-<table summary="Footer navigation table" width="100%" border="0" cellpadding="0"
-cellspacing="0">
-<tr>
-<td width="33%" align="left" valign="top"><a href="basic-network-commands-ftp.html"
-accesskey="P">Prev</a></td>
-<td width="34%" align="center" valign="top"><a href="index.html"
-accesskey="H">Home</a></td>
-<td width="33%" align="right" valign="top"><a href="security.html"
-accesskey="N">Next</a></td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td width="33%" align="left" valign="top">FTP Clients</td>
-<td width="34%" align="center" valign="top"><a href="basic-network-commands.html"
-accesskey="U">Up</a></td>
-<td width="33%" align="right" valign="top">Security</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-</div>
-</body>
-</html>
-
diff --git a/slackbook/html/basic-network-commands-telnet.html b/slackbook/html/basic-network-commands-telnet.html
deleted file mode 100644
index 736a2648..00000000
--- a/slackbook/html/basic-network-commands-telnet.html
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,173 +0,0 @@
-<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"
- "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">
-<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
-<head>
-<meta name="generator" content="HTML Tidy, see www.w3.org" />
-<title>telnet</title>
-<meta name="GENERATOR" content="Modular DocBook HTML Stylesheet Version 1.7" />
-<link rel="HOME" title="Slackware Linux Essentials" href="index.html" />
-<link rel="UP" title="Basic Network Commands" href="basic-network-commands.html" />
-<link rel="PREVIOUS" title="finger" href="basic-network-commands-finger.html" />
-<link rel="NEXT" title="The Secure shell" href="basic-network-commands-ssh.html" />
-<link rel="STYLESHEET" type="text/css" href="docbook.css" />
-<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" />
-</head>
-<body class="SECT1" bgcolor="#FFFFFF" text="#000000" link="#0000FF" vlink="#840084"
-alink="#0000FF">
-<div class="NAVHEADER">
-<table summary="Header navigation table" width="100%" border="0" cellpadding="0"
-cellspacing="0">
-<tr>
-<th colspan="3" align="center">Slackware Linux Essentials</th>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td width="10%" align="left" valign="bottom"><a href="basic-network-commands-finger.html"
-accesskey="P">Prev</a></td>
-<td width="80%" align="center" valign="bottom">Chapter 13 Basic Network Commands</td>
-<td width="10%" align="right" valign="bottom"><a href="basic-network-commands-ssh.html"
-accesskey="N">Next</a></td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<hr align="LEFT" width="100%" />
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<h1 class="SECT1"><a id="BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-TELNET"
-name="BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-TELNET">13.5 <tt class="COMMAND">telnet</tt></a></h1>
-
-<p>Someone once stated that <tt class="COMMAND">telnet</tt>(1) was the coolest thing he
-had ever seen on computers. The ability to remotely log in and do stuff on another
-computer is what separates Unix and Unix-like operating systems from other operating
-systems.</p>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">telnet</tt> allows you to log in to a computer, just as if you
-were sitting at the terminal. Once your username and password are verified, you are given
-a shell prompt. From here, you can do anything requiring a text console. Compose email,
-read newsgroups, move files around, and so on. If you are running X and you <tt
-class="COMMAND">telnet</tt> to another machine, you can run X programs on the remote
-computer and display them on yours.</p>
-
-<p>To login to a remote machine, use this syntax:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">telnet &lt;<var
-class="REPLACEABLE">hostname</var>&gt;</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>If the host responds, you will receive a login prompt. Give it your username and
-password. That's it. You are now at a shell. To quit your telnet session, use either the
-<tt class="COMMAND">exit</tt> command or the <tt class="COMMAND">logout</tt> command.</p>
-
-<div class="WARNING">
-<table class="WARNING" width="100%" border="0">
-<tr>
-<td width="25" align="CENTER" valign="TOP"><img src="./imagelib/admon/warning.png"
-hspace="5" alt="Warning" /></td>
-<td align="LEFT" valign="TOP">
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">telnet</tt> does not encrypt the information it sends. Everything
-is sent in plain text, even passwords. It is not advisable to use <tt
-class="COMMAND">telnet</tt> over the Internet. Instead, consider the <tt
-class="COMMAND">Secure Shell</tt>. It encrypts all traffic and is available for free.</p>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<h2 class="SECT2"><a id="AEN4593" name="AEN4593">13.5.1 The other use of telnet</a></h2>
-
-<p>Now that we have convinced you not to use the telnet protocol anymore to log into a
-remote machine, we'll show you a couple of useful ways to use <tt
-class="COMMAND">telnet</tt>.</p>
-
-<p>You can also use the <tt class="COMMAND">telnet</tt> command to connect to a host on a
-certain port.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">telnet &lt;<var
-class="REPLACEABLE">hostname</var>&gt; [port]</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>This can be quite handy when you quickly need to test a certain service, and you need
-full control over the commands, and you need to see what exactly is going on. You can
-interactively test or use an SMTP server, a POP3 server, an HTTP server, etc. this
-way.</p>
-
-<p>In the next figure you'll see how you can <tt class="COMMAND">telnet</tt> to a HTTP
-server on port 80, and get some basic information from it.</p>
-
-<div class="FIGURE"><a id="FIG-BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-TELNET-WEB"
-name="FIG-BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-TELNET-WEB"></a>
-<p><b>Figure 13-1. Telnetting to a webserver</b></p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">telnet store.slackware.com 80</kbd>
-Trying 69.50.233.153...
-Connected to store.slackware.com.
-Escape character is '^]'.
-HEAD / HTTP/1.0
-
-HTTP/1.1 200 OK
-Date: Mon, 25 Apr 2005 20:47:01 GMT
-Server: Apache/1.3.33 (Unix) mod_ssl/2.8.22 OpenSSL/0.9.7d
-Last-Modified: Fri, 18 Apr 2003 10:58:54 GMT
-ETag: "193424-c0-3e9fda6e"
-Accept-Ranges: bytes
-Content-Length: 192
-Connection: close
-Content-Type: text/html
-
-Connection closed by foreign host.
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-</div>
-
-<p>You can do the same for other plain-text protocols, as long as you know what port to
-connect to, and what the commands are.</p>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="NAVFOOTER">
-<hr align="LEFT" width="100%" />
-<table summary="Footer navigation table" width="100%" border="0" cellpadding="0"
-cellspacing="0">
-<tr>
-<td width="33%" align="left" valign="top"><a href="basic-network-commands-finger.html"
-accesskey="P">Prev</a></td>
-<td width="34%" align="center" valign="top"><a href="index.html"
-accesskey="H">Home</a></td>
-<td width="33%" align="right" valign="top"><a href="basic-network-commands-ssh.html"
-accesskey="N">Next</a></td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td width="33%" align="left" valign="top"><tt class="COMMAND">finger</tt></td>
-<td width="34%" align="center" valign="top"><a href="basic-network-commands.html"
-accesskey="U">Up</a></td>
-<td width="33%" align="right" valign="top">The Secure shell</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-</div>
-</body>
-</html>
-
diff --git a/slackbook/html/basic-network-commands-traceroute.html b/slackbook/html/basic-network-commands-traceroute.html
deleted file mode 100644
index fead8c00..00000000
--- a/slackbook/html/basic-network-commands-traceroute.html
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,106 +0,0 @@
-<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"
- "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">
-<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
-<head>
-<meta name="generator" content="HTML Tidy, see www.w3.org" />
-<title>traceroute</title>
-<meta name="GENERATOR" content="Modular DocBook HTML Stylesheet Version 1.7" />
-<link rel="HOME" title="Slackware Linux Essentials" href="index.html" />
-<link rel="UP" title="Basic Network Commands" href="basic-network-commands.html" />
-<link rel="PREVIOUS" title="Basic Network Commands" href="basic-network-commands.html" />
-<link rel="NEXT" title="DNS Tools" href="basic-network-commands-dns.html" />
-<link rel="STYLESHEET" type="text/css" href="docbook.css" />
-<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" />
-</head>
-<body class="SECT1" bgcolor="#FFFFFF" text="#000000" link="#0000FF" vlink="#840084"
-alink="#0000FF">
-<div class="NAVHEADER">
-<table summary="Header navigation table" width="100%" border="0" cellpadding="0"
-cellspacing="0">
-<tr>
-<th colspan="3" align="center">Slackware Linux Essentials</th>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td width="10%" align="left" valign="bottom"><a href="basic-network-commands.html"
-accesskey="P">Prev</a></td>
-<td width="80%" align="center" valign="bottom">Chapter 13 Basic Network Commands</td>
-<td width="10%" align="right" valign="bottom"><a href="basic-network-commands-dns.html"
-accesskey="N">Next</a></td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<hr align="LEFT" width="100%" />
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<h1 class="SECT1"><a id="BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-TRACEROUTE"
-name="BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-TRACEROUTE">13.2 <tt
-class="COMMAND">traceroute</tt></a></h1>
-
-<p>Slackware's <tt class="COMMAND">traceroute</tt>(8) command is a very useful network
-diagnostic tool. <tt class="COMMAND">traceroute</tt> displays each host that a packet
-travels through as it tries to reach its destination. You can see how many
-&#8220;hops&#8221; from the Slackware web site you are with this command:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">traceroute www.slackware.com</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>Each host will be displayed, along with the response times at each host. Here is an
-example output:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">traceroute www.slackware.com</kbd>
-traceroute to www.slackware.com (204.216.27.13), 30 hops max, 40 byte packets
-1 zuul.tdn (192.168.1.1) 0.409 ms 1.032 ms 0.303 ms
-2 207.171.227.254 (207.171.227.254) 18.218 ms 32.873 ms 32.433 ms
-3 border-sf-2-0-4.sirius.com (205.134.230.254) 15.662 ms 15.731 ms 16.142 ms
-4 pb-nap.crl.net (198.32.128.20) 20.741 ms 23.672 ms 21.378 ms
-5 E0-CRL-SFO-03-E0X0.US.CRL.NET (165.113.55.3) 22.293 ms 21.532 ms 21.29 ms
-6 T1-CDROM-00-EX.US.CRL.NET (165.113.118.2) 24.544 ms 42.955 ms 58.443 ms
-7 www.slackware.com (204.216.27.13) 38.115 ms 53.033 ms 48.328 ms
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">traceroute</tt> is similar to <tt class="COMMAND">ping</tt> in
-that it uses ICMP packets. There are several options that you can specify with <tt
-class="COMMAND">traceroute</tt>. These options are explained in detail in the man
-page.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="NAVFOOTER">
-<hr align="LEFT" width="100%" />
-<table summary="Footer navigation table" width="100%" border="0" cellpadding="0"
-cellspacing="0">
-<tr>
-<td width="33%" align="left" valign="top"><a href="basic-network-commands.html"
-accesskey="P">Prev</a></td>
-<td width="34%" align="center" valign="top"><a href="index.html"
-accesskey="H">Home</a></td>
-<td width="33%" align="right" valign="top"><a href="basic-network-commands-dns.html"
-accesskey="N">Next</a></td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td width="33%" align="left" valign="top">Basic Network Commands</td>
-<td width="34%" align="center" valign="top"><a href="basic-network-commands.html"
-accesskey="U">Up</a></td>
-<td width="33%" align="right" valign="top">DNS Tools</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-</div>
-</body>
-</html>
-
diff --git a/slackbook/html/basic-network-commands-web.html b/slackbook/html/basic-network-commands-web.html
deleted file mode 100644
index e3f3b6c5..00000000
--- a/slackbook/html/basic-network-commands-web.html
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,215 +0,0 @@
-<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"
- "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">
-<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
-<head>
-<meta name="generator" content="HTML Tidy, see www.w3.org" />
-<title>Browsers</title>
-<meta name="GENERATOR" content="Modular DocBook HTML Stylesheet Version 1.7" />
-<link rel="HOME" title="Slackware Linux Essentials" href="index.html" />
-<link rel="UP" title="Basic Network Commands" href="basic-network-commands.html" />
-<link rel="PREVIOUS" title="email" href="basic-network-commands-email.html" />
-<link rel="NEXT" title="FTP Clients" href="basic-network-commands-ftp.html" />
-<link rel="STYLESHEET" type="text/css" href="docbook.css" />
-<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" />
-</head>
-<body class="SECT1" bgcolor="#FFFFFF" text="#000000" link="#0000FF" vlink="#840084"
-alink="#0000FF">
-<div class="NAVHEADER">
-<table summary="Header navigation table" width="100%" border="0" cellpadding="0"
-cellspacing="0">
-<tr>
-<th colspan="3" align="center">Slackware Linux Essentials</th>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td width="10%" align="left" valign="bottom"><a href="basic-network-commands-email.html"
-accesskey="P">Prev</a></td>
-<td width="80%" align="center" valign="bottom">Chapter 13 Basic Network Commands</td>
-<td width="10%" align="right" valign="bottom"><a href="basic-network-commands-ftp.html"
-accesskey="N">Next</a></td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<hr align="LEFT" width="100%" />
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<h1 class="SECT1"><a id="BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-WEB"
-name="BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-WEB">13.8 Browsers</a></h1>
-
-<p>The first thing that people think about when they hear the word Internet is
-&#8220;surfing the net&#8221;. Or looking at websites using a web browser. This is
-probably by far the most popular use of the Internet for the average user.</p>
-
-<p>Slackware provides popular graphical web browsers in the &#8220;XAP&#8221; series, as
-well as text mode browsers in the &#8220;N&#8221; series. We'll take a quick look at some
-of the most common options below.</p>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<h2 class="SECT2"><a id="AEN4776" name="AEN4776">13.8.1 <tt
-class="COMMAND">lynx</tt></a></h2>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">lynx</tt>(1) is a text-based web browser. It is a very quick way
-of looking up something on the Internet. Sometimes graphics just get in the way if you
-know exactly what you're after.</p>
-
-<p>To start <tt class="COMMAND">lynx</tt>, just type <tt class="COMMAND">lynx</tt> at the
-prompt:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">lynx</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<div class="FIGURE"><a id="FIG-BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-WEB-LYNX"
-name="FIG-BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-WEB-LYNX"></a>
-<p><b>Figure 13-5. Lynx default start page</b></p>
-
-<p><img src="basic-network-commands/lynx.png" /></p>
-</div>
-
-<p>You may want to specify a site for <tt class="COMMAND">lynx</tt> to open to:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">lynx http://www.slackware.com</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">lynx</tt> prints the command keys and what they do at the bottom
-of the screen. The up and down arrow keys move around the document, <kbd
-class="USERINPUT">Enter</kbd> selects the highlighted link, and the <kbd
-class="USERINPUT">left arrow</kbd> goes back to the previous page. Typing <kbd
-class="USERINPUT">d</kbd> will download the currently selected file. The <kbd
-class="USERINPUT">g</kbd> command brings up the Go prompt, where you can give <tt
-class="COMMAND">lynx</tt> a URL to open.</p>
-
-<p>There are many other commands in <tt class="COMMAND">lynx</tt>. You can either consult
-the man page, or type <kbd class="USERINPUT">h</kbd> to get the help screen for more
-information.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<h2 class="SECT2"><a id="AEN4813" name="AEN4813">13.8.2 <tt
-class="COMMAND">links</tt></a></h2>
-
-<p>Just like <tt class="COMMAND">lynx</tt>, <tt class="COMMAND">links</tt> is a textmode
-web browser, where you do all the navigation using the keyboard. However, when you press
-the <kbd class="USERINPUT">Esc</kbd> key, it will activate a very convenient pulldown
-menu on the top of the screen. This makes it very easy to use, without having to learn
-all the keyboard shortcuts. People who do not use a text browser every day will
-appreciate this feature.</p>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">links</tt> seems to have better support for both frames and
-tables, when compared to <tt class="COMMAND">lynx</tt>.</p>
-
-<div class="FIGURE"><a id="FIG-BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-WEB-LINKS"
-name="FIG-BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-WEB-LINKS"></a>
-<p><b>Figure 13-6. Links, with the file menu open</b></p>
-
-<p><img src="basic-network-commands/links.png" /></p>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<h2 class="SECT2"><a id="AEN4831" name="AEN4831">13.8.3 <tt
-class="COMMAND">wget</tt></a></h2>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">wget</tt>(1) is a command line utility that will download files
-from a specified URL. While not an actual web-browser, <tt class="COMMAND">wget</tt> is
-used primarily to grab whole or partial web sites for offline viewing, or for fast
-download of single files from HTTP or FTP servers instead. The basic syntax is:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">wget &lt;url&gt;</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>You can also pass options. For example, this will download the Slackware web site:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd
-class="USERINPUT">wget --recursive http://www.slackware.com</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">wget</tt> will create a <tt
-class="FILENAME">www.slackware.com</tt> directory and store the files in there, just as
-the site does.</p>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">wget</tt> can also download files from FTP sites; just specify an
-FTP URL instead of an HTTP one.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd
-class="USERINPUT">wget ftp://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/wget/wget-1.8.2.tar.gz</kbd>
---12:18:16-- ftp://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/wget/wget-1.8.2.tar.gz
- =&#62; `wget-1.8.2.tar.gz'
-Resolving ftp.gnu.org... done.
-Connecting to ftp.gnu.org[199.232.41.7]:21... connected.
-Logging in as anonymous ... Logged in!
-==&#62; SYST ... done. ==&#62; PWD ... done.
-==&#62; TYPE I ... done. ==&#62; CWD /gnu/wget ... done.
-==&#62; PORT ... done. ==&#62; RETR wget-1.8.2.tar.gz ... done.
-Length: 1,154,648 (unauthoritative)
-
-100%[==================================&#62;] 1,154,648 209.55K/s ETA 00:00
-
-12:18:23 (209.55KB/s) - `wget-1.8.2.tar.gz' saved [1154648]
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">wget</tt> has many more options, which make it nice for site
-specific scripts (web site mirroring and so forth). The man page should be consulted for
-more information.</p>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="NAVFOOTER">
-<hr align="LEFT" width="100%" />
-<table summary="Footer navigation table" width="100%" border="0" cellpadding="0"
-cellspacing="0">
-<tr>
-<td width="33%" align="left" valign="top"><a href="basic-network-commands-email.html"
-accesskey="P">Prev</a></td>
-<td width="34%" align="center" valign="top"><a href="index.html"
-accesskey="H">Home</a></td>
-<td width="33%" align="right" valign="top"><a href="basic-network-commands-ftp.html"
-accesskey="N">Next</a></td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td width="33%" align="left" valign="top">email</td>
-<td width="34%" align="center" valign="top"><a href="basic-network-commands.html"
-accesskey="U">Up</a></td>
-<td width="33%" align="right" valign="top">FTP Clients</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-</div>
-</body>
-</html>
-
diff --git a/slackbook/html/basic-network-commands.html b/slackbook/html/basic-network-commands.html
deleted file mode 100644
index 7ee78751..00000000
--- a/slackbook/html/basic-network-commands.html
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,142 +0,0 @@
-<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"
- "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">
-<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
-<head>
-<meta name="generator" content="HTML Tidy, see www.w3.org" />
-<title>Basic Network Commands</title>
-<meta name="GENERATOR" content="Modular DocBook HTML Stylesheet Version 1.7" />
-<link rel="HOME" title="Slackware Linux Essentials" href="index.html" />
-<link rel="PREVIOUS" title="Shutting Down Properly"
-href="essential-sysadmin-shutdown.html" />
-<link rel="NEXT" title="traceroute" href="basic-network-commands-traceroute.html" />
-<link rel="STYLESHEET" type="text/css" href="docbook.css" />
-<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" />
-</head>
-<body class="CHAPTER" bgcolor="#FFFFFF" text="#000000" link="#0000FF" vlink="#840084"
-alink="#0000FF">
-<div class="NAVHEADER">
-<table summary="Header navigation table" width="100%" border="0" cellpadding="0"
-cellspacing="0">
-<tr>
-<th colspan="3" align="center">Slackware Linux Essentials</th>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td width="10%" align="left" valign="bottom"><a href="essential-sysadmin-shutdown.html"
-accesskey="P">Prev</a></td>
-<td width="80%" align="center" valign="bottom"></td>
-<td width="10%" align="right" valign="bottom"><a
-href="basic-network-commands-traceroute.html" accesskey="N">Next</a></td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<hr align="LEFT" width="100%" />
-</div>
-
-<div class="CHAPTER">
-<h1><a id="BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS" name="BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS"></a>Chapter 13 Basic
-Network Commands</h1>
-
-<div class="TOC">
-<dl>
-<dt><b>Table of Contents</b></dt>
-
-<dt>13.1 <a href="basic-network-commands.html#BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-PING"><tt
-class="COMMAND">ping</tt></a></dt>
-
-<dt>13.2 <a href="basic-network-commands-traceroute.html"><tt
-class="COMMAND">traceroute</tt></a></dt>
-
-<dt>13.3 <a href="basic-network-commands-dns.html">DNS Tools</a></dt>
-
-<dt>13.4 <a href="basic-network-commands-finger.html"><tt
-class="COMMAND">finger</tt></a></dt>
-
-<dt>13.5 <a href="basic-network-commands-telnet.html"><tt
-class="COMMAND">telnet</tt></a></dt>
-
-<dt>13.6 <a href="basic-network-commands-ssh.html">The Secure shell</a></dt>
-
-<dt>13.7 <a href="basic-network-commands-email.html">email</a></dt>
-
-<dt>13.8 <a href="basic-network-commands-web.html">Browsers</a></dt>
-
-<dt>13.9 <a href="basic-network-commands-ftp.html">FTP Clients</a></dt>
-
-<dt>13.10 <a href="basic-network-commands-talk.html">Talking to Other People</a></dt>
-</dl>
-</div>
-
-<p>A network consists of several computers connected together. The network can be as
-simple as a few computers connected in your home or office, or as complicated as a large
-university network or even the entire Internet. When your computer is part of a network,
-you have access to those systems either directly or through services like mail and the
-web.</p>
-
-<p>There are a variety of networking programs that you can use. Some are handy for
-performing diagnostics to see if everything is working properly. Others (like mail
-readers and web browsers) are useful for getting your work done and staying in contact
-with other people.</p>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<h1 class="SECT1"><a id="BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-PING"
-name="BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-PING">13.1 <tt class="COMMAND">ping</tt></a></h1>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">ping</tt>(8) sends an ICMP <var class="LITERAL">ECHO_REQUEST</var>
-packet to the specified host. If the host responds, you get an ICMP packet back. Sound
-strange? Well, you can &#8220;ping&#8221; an IP address to see if a machine is alive. If
-there is no response, you know something is wrong. Here is an example conversation
-between two Linux users:</p>
-
-<a id="AEN4428" name="AEN4428"></a>
-<blockquote class="BLOCKQUOTE">
-<p class="LITERALLAYOUT"><span class="emphasis"><i class="EMPHASIS">User
-A</i></span>:&nbsp;Loki's&nbsp;down&nbsp;again.<br />
-<span class="emphasis"><i class="EMPHASIS">User
-B</i></span>:&nbsp;Are&nbsp;you&nbsp;sure?<br />
-<span class="emphasis"><i class="EMPHASIS">User
-A</i></span>:&nbsp;Yeah,&nbsp;I&nbsp;tried&nbsp;pinging&nbsp;it,&nbsp;but&nbsp;there's&nbsp;no&nbsp;response.</p>
-</blockquote>
-
-<p>It's instances like these that make <tt class="COMMAND">ping</tt> a very useful
-day-to-day command. It provides a very quick way to see if a machine is up and connected
-to the network. The basic syntax is:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">ping www.slackware.com</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>There are, of course, several options that can be specified. Check the <tt
-class="COMMAND">ping</tt>(1) man page for more information.</p>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="NAVFOOTER">
-<hr align="LEFT" width="100%" />
-<table summary="Footer navigation table" width="100%" border="0" cellpadding="0"
-cellspacing="0">
-<tr>
-<td width="33%" align="left" valign="top"><a href="essential-sysadmin-shutdown.html"
-accesskey="P">Prev</a></td>
-<td width="34%" align="center" valign="top"><a href="index.html"
-accesskey="H">Home</a></td>
-<td width="33%" align="right" valign="top"><a
-href="basic-network-commands-traceroute.html" accesskey="N">Next</a></td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td width="33%" align="left" valign="top">Shutting Down Properly</td>
-<td width="34%" align="center" valign="top">&nbsp;</td>
-<td width="33%" align="right" valign="top"><tt class="COMMAND">traceroute</tt></td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-</div>
-</body>
-</html>
-
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-<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"
- "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">
-<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
-<head>
-<meta name="generator" content="HTML Tidy, see www.w3.org" />
-<title>Preface</title>
-<meta name="GENERATOR" content="Modular DocBook HTML Stylesheet Version 1.7" />
-<link rel="HOME" title="Slackware Linux Essentials" href="index.html" />
-<link rel="PREVIOUS" title="Slackware Linux Essentials" href="index.html" />
-<link rel="NEXT" title="An Introduction to Slackware Linux" href="introduction.html" />
-<link rel="STYLESHEET" type="text/css" href="docbook.css" />
-<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" />
-</head>
-<body class="PREFACE" bgcolor="#FFFFFF" text="#000000" link="#0000FF" vlink="#840084"
-alink="#0000FF">
-<div class="NAVHEADER">
-<table summary="Header navigation table" width="100%" border="0" cellpadding="0"
-cellspacing="0">
-<tr>
-<th colspan="3" align="center">Slackware Linux Essentials</th>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td width="10%" align="left" valign="bottom"><a href="index.html"
-accesskey="P">Prev</a></td>
-<td width="80%" align="center" valign="bottom"></td>
-<td width="10%" align="right" valign="bottom"><a href="introduction.html"
-accesskey="N">Next</a></td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<hr align="LEFT" width="100%" />
-</div>
-
-<div class="PREFACE">
-<h1><a id="BOOK-PREFACE" name="BOOK-PREFACE"></a>Preface</h1>
-
-<h1 class="BRIDGEHEAD"><a id="PREFACE-AUDIENCE" name="PREFACE-AUDIENCE"></a>Intended
-Audience</h1>
-
-<p>The Slackware Linux operating system is a powerful platform for Intel-based computers.
-It is designed to be stable, secure, and functional as both a high-end server and
-powerful workstation.</p>
-
-<p>This book is designed to get you started with the Slackware Linux operating system.
-It's not meant to cover every single aspect of the distribution, but rather to show what
-it is capable of and give you a basic working knowledge of the system.</p>
-
-<p>As you gain experience with Slackware Linux, we hope you find this book to be a handy
-reference. We also hope you'll lend it to all of your friends when they come asking about
-that cool Slackware Linux operating system you're running.</p>
-
-<p>While this book may not an edge-of-your-seat novel, we certainly tried to make it as
-entertaining as possible. With any luck, we'll get a movie deal. Of course, we also hope
-you are able to learn from it and find it useful.</p>
-
-<p>And now, on with the show.</p>
-
-<h1 class="BRIDGEHEAD"><a id="PREFACE-CHANGES" name="PREFACE-CHANGES"></a>Changes from
-the First Edition</h1>
-
-<p>This second edition is the culmination of years of hard work by the dedicated members
-of the Slackware Documentation Project. The following are the major changes in this new
-edition:</p>
-
-<ul>
-<li>
-<p><a href="installation.html">Chapter 3</a>, Installation, has been modified with new
-screenshots of the installer, and reflects changes in disk-sets, and CD installation.</p>
-</li>
-
-<li>
-<p><a href="system-configuration.html">Chapter 4</a>, System Configuration, has been
-updated with new information about Linux 2.6.x kernels.</p>
-</li>
-
-<li>
-<p><a href="network-configuration.html">Chapter 5</a>, Network Configuration, has been
-expanded with further explanation of Samba, NFS, and DHCP. A section on wireless
-networking has also been added. This chapter now reflects major changes in how Slackware
-handles network setup.</p>
-</li>
-
-<li>
-<p><a href="x-window-system.html">Chapter 6</a>, X Window System, has been substantially
-rewritten for Xorg based systems. This chapter now also covers the xdm graphical login
-manager.</p>
-</li>
-
-<li>
-<p><a href="basic-network-commands.html">Chapter 13</a>, Basic Network Commands, has been
-enhanced with information about additional network utilities.</p>
-</li>
-
-<li>
-<p><a href="security.html">Chapter 14</a>, Security, is a new chapter with this edition.
-It explains how to keep a Slackware Linux system secure.</p>
-</li>
-
-<li>
-<p><a href="emacs.html">Chapter 17</a>, Emacs, is a new chapter with this edition. It
-describes how to use Emacs, a powerful editor for Unix.</p>
-</li>
-
-<li>
-<p><a href="package-management.html">Chapter 18</a>, Package Management, has been updated
-with information about SlackBuild scripts.</p>
-</li>
-
-<li>
-<p>There are many other changes, both minor and major, to reflect changes in Slackware as
-it has matured.</p>
-</li>
-</ul>
-
-<h1 class="BRIDGEHEAD"><a id="PREFACE-ORGANIZATION"
-name="PREFACE-ORGANIZATION"></a>Organization of this Book</h1>
-
-<div class="VARIABLELIST">
-<dl>
-<dt><a href="introduction.html">Chapter 1</a>, Introduction</dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Provides introductory material on Linux, Slackware, and the Open Source and Free
-Software Movements.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><a href="help.html">Chapter 2</a>, Help</dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Describes the help resources available on a Slackware Linux system and online.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><a href="installation.html">Chapter 3</a>, Installation</dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Describes the installation process step-by-step with screenshots to provide an
-illustrative walk-through.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><a href="system-configuration.html">Chapter 4</a>, System Configuration</dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Describes the important configuration files and covers kernel recompilation.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><a href="network-configuration.html">Chapter 5</a>, Network Configuration</dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Describes how to connect a Slackware Linux machine to a network. Covers TCP/IP,
-PPP/dial-up, wireless networking, and more.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><a href="x-window-system.html">Chapter 6</a>, The X Window System</dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Describes how to setup and use the graphical X Window System in Slackware.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><a href="booting.html">Chapter 7</a>, Booting</dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Describes the process by which a computer boots into Slackware Linux. Also covers
-dual-booting with Microsoft Windows operating systems.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><a href="shell.html">Chapter 8</a>, The Shell</dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Describes the powerful command line interface for Linux.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><a href="filesystem-structure.html">Chapter 9</a>, Filesystem Structure</dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Describes the filesystem structure, including file ownership, permission, and
-linking.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><a href="file-commands.html">Chapter 10</a>, Handling Files and Directories</dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Describes the commands used to manipulate files and directories from the command line
-interface.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><a href="process-control.html">Chapter 11</a>, Process Control</dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Describes the powerful Linux process management commands used to manage multiple
-running applications.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><a href="essential-sysadmin.html">Chapter 12</a>, Essential System
-Administration</dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Describes basic system administration tasks such as adding and removing users,
-shutting down the system properly, and more.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><a href="basic-network-commands.html">Chapter 13</a>, Basic Network Commands</dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Describes the collection of network clients included with Slackware.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><a href="security.html">Chapter 14</a>, Security</dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Describes many different tools available to help keep your Slackware system secure,
-including <tt class="COMMAND">iptables</tt> and <tt class="COMMAND">tcpwrappers</tt>.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><a href="archive-files.html">Chapter 15</a>, Archive Files</dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Describes the different compression and archive utilities available for Linux.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><a href="vi.html">Chapter 16</a>, vi</dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Describes the powerful <tt class="COMMAND">vi</tt> text editor.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><a href="emacs.html">Chapter 17</a>, Emacs</dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Describes the powerful <tt class="COMMAND">Emacs</tt> text editor.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><a href="package-management.html">Chapter 18</a>, Slackware Package Management</dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Describes the Slackware package utilities and the process used to create custom
-packages and tagfiles.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><a href="zipslack.html">Chapter 19</a>, ZipSlack</dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Describes the ZipSlack version of Linux that can be used from Windows without
-requiring an installation.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><a href="gpl.html">Appendix A</a>, The GNU General Public License</dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Describes the license terms under which Slackware Linux and this book can be copied
-and distributed.</p>
-</dd>
-</dl>
-</div>
-
-<h1 class="BRIDGEHEAD"><a id="PREFACE-CONV" name="PREFACE-CONV"></a>Conventions used in
-this book</h1>
-
-<p>To provide a consistent and easy to read text, several conventions are followed
-throughout the book.</p>
-
-<h2 class="BRIDGEHEAD"><a id="PREFACE-CONV-TYPOGRAPHIC"
-name="PREFACE-CONV-TYPOGRAPHIC"></a>Typographic Conventions</h2>
-
-<div class="VARIABLELIST">
-<dl>
-<dt><span class="emphasis"><i class="EMPHASIS">Italic</i></span></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>An <span class="emphasis"><i class="EMPHASIS">italic</i></span> font is used for
-commands, emphasized text, and the first usage of technical terms.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><var class="VARNAME">Monospace</var></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>A <var class="VARNAME">monospaced</var> font is used for error messages, commands,
-environment variables, names of ports, hostnames, user names, group names, device names,
-variables, and code fragments.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b class="APPLICATION">Bold</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>A <b class="APPLICATION">bold</b> font is used for user input in examples.</p>
-</dd>
-</dl>
-</div>
-
-<h2 class="BRIDGEHEAD"><a id="PREFACE-CONV-COMMANDS"
-name="PREFACE-CONV-COMMANDS"></a>User Input</h2>
-
-<p>Keys are shown in <b class="KEYCAP">bold</b> to stand out from other text. Key
-combinations that are meant to be typed simultaneously are shown with `<var
-class="LITERAL">+</var>' between the keys, such as:</p>
-
-<p><b class="KEYCAP">Ctrl</b>+<b class="KEYCAP">Alt</b>+<b class="KEYCAP">Del</b></p>
-
-<p>Meaning the user should type the <b class="KEYCAP">Ctrl</b>, <b
-class="KEYCAP">Alt</b>, and <b class="KEYCAP">Del</b> keys at the same time.</p>
-
-<p>Keys that are meant to be typed in sequence will be separated with commas, for
-example:</p>
-
-<p><b class="KEYCAP">Ctrl</b>+<b class="KEYCAP">X</b>, <b class="KEYCAP">Ctrl</b>+<b
-class="KEYCAP">S</b></p>
-
-<p>Would mean that the user is expected to type the <b class="KEYCAP">Ctrl</b> and <b
-class="KEYCAP">X</b> keys simultaneously and then to type the <b class="KEYCAP">Ctrl</b>
-and <b class="KEYCAP">S</b> keys simultaneously.</p>
-
-<h2 class="BRIDGEHEAD"><a id="PREFACE-CONV-EXAMPLES"
-name="PREFACE-CONV-EXAMPLES"></a>Examples</h2>
-
-<p>Examples starting with <tt class="DEVICENAME">E:\&gt;</tt> indicate a <span
-class="TRADEMARK">MS-DOS</span>&reg; command. Unless otherwise noted, these commands may
-be executed from a &#8220;Command Prompt&#8221; window in a modern <span
-class="TRADEMARK">Microsoft</span>&reg;&nbsp;<span class="TRADEMARK">Windows</span>&reg;
-environment.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">D:\&gt;</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">rawrite a: bare.i</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>Examples starting with <samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> indicate a command that must be
-invoked as the superuser in Slackware. You can login as <tt class="USERNAME">root</tt> to
-type the command, or login as your normal account and use <span
-class="CITEREFENTRY"><span class="REFENTRYTITLE">su</span>(1)</span> to gain superuser
-privileges.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">dd if=bare.i of=/dev/fd0</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>Examples starting with <samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> indicate a command that should be
-invoked from a normal user account. Unless otherwise noted, C-shell syntax is used for
-setting environment variables and other shell commands.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">top</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<h1 class="BRIDGEHEAD"><a id="PREFACE-ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS"
-name="PREFACE-ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS"></a>Acknowledgments</h1>
-
-<p>This project is the accumulation of months of work by many dedicated individuals. It
-would not have been possible for me to produce this work in a vacuum. Many people deserve
-our thanks for their selfless acts: Keith Keller for his work on wireless networking,
-Joost Kremers for his great work in single-handedly writing the emacs section, Simon
-Williams for the security chapter, Jurgen Phillippaerts for basic networking commands,
-Cibao Cu Ali G Colibri for the inspiration and a good kick in the pants. Countless others
-have sent in suggestions and fixes. An incomplete list includes: Jacob Anhoej, John Yast,
-Sally Welch, Morgan Landry, and Charlie Law. I'd also like to thank Keith Keller for
-hosting the mailing list for this project, as well as Carl Inglis for the initial web
-hosting. Last but not least, I'd like to thank Patrick J. Volkerding for Slackware Linux,
-and David Cantrell, Logan Johnson, and Chris Lumens for Slackware Linux Essentials 1st
-Edition. Without their initial framework, none of this would have ever happened. Many
-others have contributed in small and large ways to this project and have not been listed.
-I hope they will forgive me for a poor memory.</p>
-
-<p>Alan Hicks, May 2005</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="NAVFOOTER">
-<hr align="LEFT" width="100%" />
-<table summary="Footer navigation table" width="100%" border="0" cellpadding="0"
-cellspacing="0">
-<tr>
-<td width="33%" align="left" valign="top"><a href="index.html"
-accesskey="P">Prev</a></td>
-<td width="34%" align="center" valign="top"><a href="index.html"
-accesskey="H">Home</a></td>
-<td width="33%" align="right" valign="top"><a href="introduction.html"
-accesskey="N">Next</a></td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td width="33%" align="left" valign="top">Slackware Linux Essentials</td>
-<td width="34%" align="center" valign="top">&nbsp;</td>
-<td width="33%" align="right" valign="top">An Introduction to Slackware Linux</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-</div>
-</body>
-</html>
-
diff --git a/slackbook/html/book.html b/slackbook/html/book.html
deleted file mode 100644
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--- a/slackbook/html/book.html
+++ /dev/null
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-<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"
- "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">
-<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
-<head>
-<meta name="generator" content="HTML Tidy, see www.w3.org" />
-<title>Slackware Linux Essentials</title>
-<meta name="GENERATOR" content="Modular DocBook HTML Stylesheet Version 1.7" />
-<link rel="STYLESHEET" type="text/css" href="docbook.css" />
-<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" />
-</head>
-<body class="BOOK" bgcolor="#FFFFFF" text="#000000" link="#0000FF" vlink="#840084"
-alink="#0000FF">
-<div class="BOOK"><a id="AEN1" name="AEN1"></a>
-<div class="TITLEPAGE">
-<h1 class="TITLE"><a id="AEN2" name="AEN2">Slackware Linux Essentials</a></h1>
-
-<p><img src="slackware_logo.png" align="CENTER" /></p>
-
-<h3 class="AUTHOR"><a id="AEN30" name="AEN30"></a>Alan Hicks</h3>
-
-<h3 class="AUTHOR"><a id="AEN43" name="AEN43"></a>Chris Lumens</h3>
-
-<h3 class="AUTHOR"><a id="AEN47" name="AEN47"></a>David Cantrell</h3>
-
-<h3 class="AUTHOR"><a id="AEN50" name="AEN50"></a>Logan Johnson</h3>
-
-<p class="COPYRIGHT">Copyright &copy; 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005
-Slackware Linux, Inc.</p>
-
-<div class="LEGALNOTICE"><a id="TRADEMARKS" name="TRADEMARKS"></a>
-<p>Slackware Linux is a registered trademark of Patrick Volkerding and Slackware Linux,
-Inc.</p>
-
-<p>Linux is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds.</p>
-
-<p>America Online and AOL are registered trademarks of America Online, Inc. in the United
-States and/or other countries.</p>
-
-<p>Apple, FireWire, Mac, Macintosh, Mac OS, Quicktime, and TrueType are trademarks of
-Apple Computer, Inc., registered in the United States and other countries.</p>
-
-<p>IBM, AIX, EtherJet, Netfinity, OS/2, PowerPC, PS/2, S/390, and ThinkPad are trademarks
-of International Business Machines Corporation in the United States, other countries, or
-both.</p>
-
-<p>IEEE, POSIX, and 802 are registered trademarks of Institute of Electrical and
-Electronics Engineers, Inc. in the United States.</p>
-
-<p>Intel, Celeron, EtherExpress, i386, i486, Itanium, Pentium, and Xeon are trademarks or
-registered trademarks of Intel Corporation or its subsidiaries in the United States and
-other countries.</p>
-
-<p>Microsoft, IntelliMouse, MS-DOS, Outlook, Windows, Windows Media and Windows NT are
-either registered trademarks or trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States
-and/or other countries.</p>
-
-<p>Netscape and the Netscape Navigator are registered trademarks of Netscape
-Communications Corporation in the U.S. and other countries.</p>
-
-<p>Red Hat, RPM, are trademarks or registered trademarks of Red Hat, Inc. in the United
-States and other countries.</p>
-
-<p>XFree86 is a trademark of The XFree86 Project, Inc.</p>
-
-<p>Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their
-products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this document, and
-Slackware Linux, Inc. was aware of the trademark claim, the designations have been
-followed by the &#8220;&trade;&#8221; or the &#8220;&reg;&#8221; symbol.</p>
-</div>
-
-<span class="ISBN">1-57176-338-4<br />
-</span>
-<div class="DOCFORAMTNAVI">[ <a href="./index.html">Split HTML</a> / <a
-href="./book.html">Single HTML</a> ]</div>
-
-<hr />
-</div>
-
-<div class="TOC">
-<dl>
-<dt><b>Table of Contents</b></dt>
-
-<dt><a href="#BOOK-PREFACE">Preface</a></dt>
-
-<dt>1 <a href="#INTRODUCTION">An Introduction to Slackware Linux</a></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<dl>
-<dt>1.1 <a href="#INTRODUCTION-LINUX">What is Linux?</a></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<dl>
-<dt>1.1.1 <a href="#INTRODUCTION-LINUX-GNU">A Word on GNU</a></dt>
-</dl>
-</dd>
-
-<dt>1.2 <a href="#INTRODUCTION-SLACKWARE">What is Slackware?</a></dt>
-
-<dt>1.3 <a href="#INTRODUCTION-OPENSOURCE">Open Source and Free Software</a></dt>
-</dl>
-</dd>
-
-<dt>2 <a href="#HELP">Help</a></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<dl>
-<dt>2.1 <a href="#HELP-SYSTEM">System Help</a></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<dl>
-<dt>2.1.1 <a href="#HELP-SYSTEM-MAN"><tt class="COMMAND">man</tt></a></dt>
-
-<dt>2.1.2 <a href="#HELP-SYSTEM-DOC">The <tt class="FILENAME">/usr/doc</tt>
-Directory</a></dt>
-
-<dt>2.1.3 <a href="#HELP-SYSTEM-HOWTO">HOWTOs and mini-HOWTOs</a></dt>
-</dl>
-</dd>
-
-<dt>2.2 <a href="#HELP-ONLINE">Online Help</a></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<dl>
-<dt>2.2.1 <a href="#HELP-ONLINE-OFFICIAL">The Official Website and Help Forums</a></dt>
-
-<dt>2.2.2 <a href="#HELP-ONLINE-EMAIL">E-mail Support</a></dt>
-
-<dt>2.2.3 <a href="#HELP-ONLINE-NONOFFICIAL">Non-Official Websites and Help
-Forums</a></dt>
-</dl>
-</dd>
-</dl>
-</dd>
-
-<dt>3 <a href="#INSTALLATION">Installation</a></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<dl>
-<dt>3.1 <a href="#INSTALLATION-GETTING">Getting Slackware</a></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<dl>
-<dt>3.1.1 <a href="#AEN641">The Official Disc and Box Sets</a></dt>
-
-<dt>3.1.2 <a href="#AEN683">Via the Internet</a></dt>
-</dl>
-</dd>
-
-<dt>3.2 <a href="#INSTALLATION-REQUIREMENTS">System Requirements</a></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<dl>
-<dt>3.2.1 <a href="#INSTALLATION-SOFTWARE-SERIES">The Software Series</a></dt>
-
-<dt>3.2.2 <a href="#INSTALLATION-METHODS">Installation Methods</a></dt>
-
-<dt>3.2.3 <a href="#INSTALLATION-INSTALLATION-METHODS-BOOTDISK">Boot Disk</a></dt>
-
-<dt>3.2.4 <a href="#INSTALLATION-INSTALLATION-METHODS-ROOTDISK">Root Disk</a></dt>
-
-<dt>3.2.5 <a href="#INSTALLATION-SUPPLEMENTAL-DISK">Supplemental Disk</a></dt>
-
-<dt>3.2.6 <a href="#INSTALLATION-MAKING-THE-DISKS">Making the Disks</a></dt>
-</dl>
-</dd>
-
-<dt>3.3 <a href="#INSTALLATION-PARTITIONING">Partitioning</a></dt>
-
-<dt>3.4 <a href="#INSTALLATION-SETUP">The <tt class="COMMAND">setup</tt> Program</a></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<dl>
-<dt>3.4.1 <a href="#AEN993">HELP</a></dt>
-
-<dt>3.4.2 <a href="#AEN1001">KEYMAP</a></dt>
-
-<dt>3.4.3 <a href="#AEN1013">ADDSWAP</a></dt>
-
-<dt>3.4.4 <a href="#AEN1023">TARGET</a></dt>
-
-<dt>3.4.5 <a href="#AEN1035">SOURCE</a></dt>
-
-<dt>3.4.6 <a href="#AEN1054">SELECT</a></dt>
-
-<dt>3.4.7 <a href="#AEN1062">INSTALL</a></dt>
-
-<dt>3.4.8 <a href="#AEN1100">CONFIGURE</a></dt>
-</dl>
-</dd>
-</dl>
-</dd>
-
-<dt>4 <a href="#SYSTEM-CONFIGURATION">System Configuration</a></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<dl>
-<dt>4.1 <a href="#SYSTEM-CONFIGURATION-OVERVIEW">System Overview</a></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<dl>
-<dt>4.1.1 <a href="#SYSTEM-CONFIGURATION-LAYOUT">File System Layout</a></dt>
-
-<dt>4.1.2 <a href="#SYSTEM-CONFIGURATION-FINDING">Finding Files</a></dt>
-
-<dt>4.1.3 <a href="#SYSTEM-CONFIGURATION-RCD">The <tt class="FILENAME">/etc/rc.d</tt>
-Directory</a></dt>
-</dl>
-</dd>
-
-<dt>4.2 <a href="#SYSTEM-CONFIGURATION-KERNEL">Selecting a Kernel</a></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<dl>
-<dt>4.2.1 <a href="#AEN1581">The <tt class="FILENAME">/kernels</tt> Directory on the
-Slackware CD-ROM</a></dt>
-
-<dt>4.2.2 <a href="#SYSTEM-CONFIGURATION-KERNEL-COMPILE">Compiling a Kernel from
-Source</a></dt>
-
-<dt>4.2.3 <a href="#SYSTEM-CONFIGURATION-KERNEL-MODULES">Using Kernel Modules</a></dt>
-</dl>
-</dd>
-</dl>
-</dd>
-
-<dt>5 <a href="#NETWORK-CONFIGURATION">Network Configuration</a></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<dl>
-<dt>5.1 <a href="#NETWORK-CONFIGURATION-NETCONFIG">Introduction: netconfig is your
-friend.</a></dt>
-
-<dt>5.2 <a href="#NETWORK-CONFIGURATION-HARDWARE">Network Hardware Configuration</a></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<dl>
-<dt>5.2.1 <a href="#NETWORK-CONFIGURATION-HARDWARE-MODULES">Loading Network
-Modules</a></dt>
-
-<dt>5.2.2 <a href="#NETWORK-CONFIGURATION-HARDWARE-LAN">LAN (10/100/1000Base-T and
-Base-2) cards</a></dt>
-
-<dt>5.2.3 <a href="#NETWORK-CONFIGURATION-HARDWARE-MODEMS">Modems</a></dt>
-
-<dt>5.2.4 <a href="#NETWORK-CONFIGURATION-HARDWARE-PCMCIA">PCMCIA</a></dt>
-</dl>
-</dd>
-
-<dt>5.3 <a href="#NETWORK-CONFIGURATION-TCPIP">TCP/IP Configuration</a></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<dl>
-<dt>5.3.1 <a href="#NETWORK-CONFIGURATION-TCPIP-DHCP">DHCP</a></dt>
-
-<dt>5.3.2 <a href="#NETWORK-CONFIGURATION-TCPIP-STATIC">Static IP</a></dt>
-
-<dt>5.3.3 <a href="#NETWORK-CONFIGURATION-TCPIP-CONF"><tt
-class="FILENAME">/etc/rc.d/rc.inet1.conf</tt></a></dt>
-
-<dt>5.3.4 <a href="#NETWORK-CONFIGURATION-TCPIP-RESOLVER"><tt
-class="FILENAME">/etc/resolv.conf</tt></a></dt>
-
-<dt>5.3.5 <a href="#NETWORK-CONFIGURATION-TCPIP-HOSTS"><tt
-class="FILENAME">/etc/hosts</tt></a></dt>
-</dl>
-</dd>
-
-<dt>5.4 <a href="#NETWORK-CONFIGURATION-PPP">PPP</a></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<dl>
-<dt>5.4.1 <a href="#AEN1954"><tt class="COMMAND">pppsetup</tt></a></dt>
-
-<dt>5.4.2 <a href="#AEN1969"><tt class="FILENAME">/etc/ppp</tt></a></dt>
-</dl>
-</dd>
-
-<dt>5.5 <a href="#NETWORK-CONFIGURATION-WIRELESS">Wireless</a></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<dl>
-<dt>5.5.1 <a href="#AEN2033">Hardware Support</a></dt>
-
-<dt>5.5.2 <a href="#AEN2044">Configure the Wireless Settings</a></dt>
-
-<dt>5.5.3 <a href="#AEN2101">Configure the Network</a></dt>
-</dl>
-</dd>
-
-<dt>5.6 <a href="#NETWORK-CONFIGURATION-NFS">Network File Systems</a></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<dl>
-<dt>5.6.1 <a href="#NETWORK-CONFIGURATION-NSF-SMB">SMB/Samba/CIFS</a></dt>
-
-<dt>5.6.2 <a href="#NETWORK-CONFIGURATION-NFS-NFS">Network File System (NFS)</a></dt>
-</dl>
-</dd>
-</dl>
-</dd>
-
-<dt>6 <a href="#X-WINDOW-SYSTEM">X Configuration</a></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<dl>
-<dt>6.1 <a href="#X-WINDOW-SYSTEM-XORGCONFIG"><tt
-class="COMMAND">xorgconfig</tt></a></dt>
-
-<dt>6.2 <a href="#X-WINDOW-SYSTEM-XORGSETUP"><tt class="COMMAND">xorgsetup</tt></a></dt>
-
-<dt>6.3 <a href="#X-WINDOW-SYSTEM-XINITRC">xinitrc</a></dt>
-
-<dt>6.4 <a href="#X-WINDOW-SYSTEM-XWMCONFIG"><tt class="COMMAND">xwmconfig</tt></a></dt>
-
-<dt>6.5 <a href="#X-WINDOW-SYSTEM-XDM"><tt class="COMMAND">xdm</tt></a></dt>
-</dl>
-</dd>
-
-<dt>7 <a href="#BOOTING">Booting</a></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<dl>
-<dt>7.1 <a href="#BOOTING-LILO">LILO</a></dt>
-
-<dt>7.2 <a href="#BOOTING-LOADLIN">LOADLIN</a></dt>
-
-<dt>7.3 <a href="#BOOTING-DUAL">Dual Booting</a></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<dl>
-<dt>7.3.1 <a href="#BOOTING-DUAL-WINDOWS">Windows</a></dt>
-
-<dt>7.3.2 <a href="#BOOTING-DUAL-LINUX">Linux</a></dt>
-</dl>
-</dd>
-</dl>
-</dd>
-
-<dt>8 <a href="#SHELL">The Shell</a></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<dl>
-<dt>8.1 <a href="#SHELL-USERS">Users</a></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<dl>
-<dt>8.1.1 <a href="#AEN2678">Logging In</a></dt>
-
-<dt>8.1.2 <a href="#AEN2693">Root: The Superuser</a></dt>
-</dl>
-</dd>
-
-<dt>8.2 <a href="#SHELL-COMMAND-LINE">The Command Line</a></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<dl>
-<dt>8.2.1 <a href="#SHELL-COMMAND-LINE-RUNNING">Running Programs</a></dt>
-
-<dt>8.2.2 <a href="#SHELL-COMMAND-LINE-WILDCARD">Wildcard Matching</a></dt>
-
-<dt>8.2.3 <a href="#SHELL-COMMAND-LINE-PIPING">Input/Output Redirection and
-Piping</a></dt>
-</dl>
-</dd>
-
-<dt>8.3 <a href="#SHELL-BASH">The Bourne Again Shell (bash)</a></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<dl>
-<dt>8.3.1 <a href="#SHELL-BASH-ENVIRONMENT">Environment Variables</a></dt>
-
-<dt>8.3.2 <a href="#SHELL-BASH-TAB">Tab Completion</a></dt>
-</dl>
-</dd>
-
-<dt>8.4 <a href="#SHELL-VT">Virtual Terminals</a></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<dl>
-<dt>8.4.1 <a href="#AEN3024">Screen</a></dt>
-</dl>
-</dd>
-</dl>
-</dd>
-
-<dt>9 <a href="#FILESYSTEM-STRUCTURE">Filesystem Structure</a></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<dl>
-<dt>9.1 <a href="#FILESYSTEM-STRUCTURE-OWNERSHIP">Ownership</a></dt>
-
-<dt>9.2 <a href="#FILESYSTEM-STRUCTURE-PERMISSIONS">Permissions</a></dt>
-
-<dt>9.3 <a href="#FILESYSTEM-STRUCTURE-LINKS">Links</a></dt>
-
-<dt>9.4 <a href="#FILESYSTEM-STRUCTURE-MOUNTING">Mounting Devices</a></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<dl>
-<dt>9.4.1 <a href="#AEN3319"><tt class="FILENAME">fstab</tt></a></dt>
-
-<dt>9.4.2 <a href="#AEN3340"><tt class="COMMAND">mount</tt> and <tt
-class="COMMAND">umount</tt></a></dt>
-</dl>
-</dd>
-
-<dt>9.5 <a href="#FILESYSTEM-STRUCTURE-NFS">NFS Mounts</a></dt>
-</dl>
-</dd>
-
-<dt>10 <a href="#FILE-COMMANDS">Handling Files and Directories</a></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<dl>
-<dt>10.1 <a href="#FILE-COMMANDS-NAVIGATION">Navigation : <tt class="COMMAND">ls</tt>,
-<tt class="COMMAND">cd</tt>, and <tt class="COMMAND">pwd</tt></a></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<dl>
-<dt>10.1.1 <a href="#AEN3398"><tt class="COMMAND">ls</tt></a></dt>
-
-<dt>10.1.2 <a href="#AEN3436"><tt class="COMMAND">cd</tt></a></dt>
-
-<dt>10.1.3 <a href="#AEN3463"><tt class="COMMAND">pwd</tt></a></dt>
-</dl>
-</dd>
-
-<dt>10.2 <a href="#FILE-COMMANDS-PAGERS">Pagers: <tt class="COMMAND">more</tt>, <tt
-class="COMMAND">less</tt>, and <tt class="COMMAND">most</tt></a></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<dl>
-<dt>10.2.1 <a href="#AEN3491"><tt class="COMMAND">more</tt></a></dt>
-
-<dt>10.2.2 <a href="#AEN3518"><tt class="COMMAND">less</tt></a></dt>
-
-<dt>10.2.3 <a href="#AEN3539"><tt class="COMMAND">most</tt></a></dt>
-</dl>
-</dd>
-
-<dt>10.3 <a href="#FILE-COMMANDS-OUTPUT">Simple Output: <tt class="COMMAND">cat</tt> and
-<tt class="COMMAND">echo</tt></a></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<dl>
-<dt>10.3.1 <a href="#AEN3559"><tt class="COMMAND">cat</tt></a></dt>
-
-<dt>10.3.2 <a href="#AEN3603"><tt class="COMMAND">echo</tt></a></dt>
-</dl>
-</dd>
-
-<dt>10.4 <a href="#FILE-COMMANDS-CREATION">Creation: <tt class="COMMAND">touch</tt> and
-<tt class="COMMAND">mkdir</tt></a></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<dl>
-<dt>10.4.1 <a href="#AEN3619"><tt class="COMMAND">touch</tt></a></dt>
-
-<dt>10.4.2 <a href="#AEN3639"><tt class="COMMAND">mkdir</tt></a></dt>
-</dl>
-</dd>
-
-<dt>10.5 <a href="#FILE-COMMANDS-COPYMOVE">Copy and Move</a></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<dl>
-<dt>10.5.1 <a href="#FILE-COMMANDS-COPYMOVE-CP"><tt class="COMMAND">cp</tt></a></dt>
-
-<dt>10.5.2 <a href="#AEN3712"><tt class="COMMAND">mv</tt></a></dt>
-</dl>
-</dd>
-
-<dt>10.6 <a href="#FILE-COMMANDS-DELETION">Deletion: <tt class="COMMAND">rm</tt> and <tt
-class="COMMAND">rmdir</tt></a></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<dl>
-<dt>10.6.1 <a href="#AEN3733"><tt class="COMMAND">rm</tt></a></dt>
-
-<dt>10.6.2 <a href="#AEN3764"><tt class="COMMAND">rmdir</tt></a></dt>
-</dl>
-</dd>
-
-<dt>10.7 <a href="#FILE-COMMANDS-LINK">Aliasing files with <tt
-class="COMMAND">ln</tt></a></dt>
-</dl>
-</dd>
-
-<dt>11 <a href="#PROCESS-CONTROL">Process Control</a></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<dl>
-<dt>11.1 <a href="#PROCESS-CONTROL-BACKGROUNDING">Backgrounding</a></dt>
-
-<dt>11.2 <a href="#PROCESS-CONTROL-FOREGROUNDING">Foregrounding</a></dt>
-
-<dt>11.3 <a href="#PROCESS-CONTROL-PS"><tt class="COMMAND">ps</tt></a></dt>
-
-<dt>11.4 <a href="#PROCESS-CONTROL-KILL"><tt class="COMMAND">kill</tt></a></dt>
-
-<dt>11.5 <a href="#PROCESS-CONTROL-TOP"><tt class="COMMAND">top</tt></a></dt>
-</dl>
-</dd>
-
-<dt>12 <a href="#ESSENTIAL-SYSADMIN">Essential System Administration</a></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<dl>
-<dt>12.1 <a href="#ESSENTIAL-SYSADMIN-USERS">Users and Groups</a></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<dl>
-<dt>12.1.1 <a href="#ESSENTIAL-SYSADMIN-USERS-SCRIPTS">Supplied Scripts</a></dt>
-
-<dt>12.1.2 <a href="#ESSENTIAL-SYSADMIN-USERS-PASSWDS">Changing Passwords</a></dt>
-
-<dt>12.1.3 <a href="#ESSENTIAL-SYSADMIN-USERS-CHANGING">Changing User
-Information</a></dt>
-</dl>
-</dd>
-
-<dt>12.2 <a href="#ESSENTIAL-SYSADMIN-HARDUSERS">Users and Groups, the Hard Way</a></dt>
-
-<dt>12.3 <a href="#ESSENTIAL-SYSADMIN-SHUTDOWN">Shutting Down Properly</a></dt>
-</dl>
-</dd>
-
-<dt>13 <a href="#BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS">Basic Network Commands</a></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<dl>
-<dt>13.1 <a href="#BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-PING"><tt class="COMMAND">ping</tt></a></dt>
-
-<dt>13.2 <a href="#BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-TRACEROUTE"><tt
-class="COMMAND">traceroute</tt></a></dt>
-
-<dt>13.3 <a href="#BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-DNS">DNS Tools</a></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<dl>
-<dt>13.3.1 <a href="#AEN4475"><tt class="COMMAND">host</tt></a></dt>
-
-<dt>13.3.2 <a href="#AEN4487"><tt class="COMMAND">nslookup</tt></a></dt>
-
-<dt>13.3.3 <a href="#AEN4496"><tt class="COMMAND">dig</tt></a></dt>
-</dl>
-</dd>
-
-<dt>13.4 <a href="#BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-FINGER"><tt
-class="COMMAND">finger</tt></a></dt>
-
-<dt>13.5 <a href="#BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-TELNET"><tt
-class="COMMAND">telnet</tt></a></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<dl>
-<dt>13.5.1 <a href="#AEN4593">The other use of telnet</a></dt>
-</dl>
-</dd>
-
-<dt>13.6 <a href="#BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-SSH">The Secure shell</a></dt>
-
-<dt>13.7 <a href="#BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-EMAIL">email</a></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<dl>
-<dt>13.7.1 <a href="#BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-EMAIL-PINE"><tt
-class="COMMAND">pine</tt></a></dt>
-
-<dt>13.7.2 <a href="#BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-EMAIL-ELM"><tt
-class="COMMAND">elm</tt></a></dt>
-
-<dt>13.7.3 <a href="#BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-EMAIL-MUTT"><tt
-class="COMMAND">mutt</tt></a></dt>
-
-<dt>13.7.4 <a href="#BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-EMAIL-NAIL"><tt
-class="COMMAND">nail</tt></a></dt>
-</dl>
-</dd>
-
-<dt>13.8 <a href="#BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-WEB">Browsers</a></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<dl>
-<dt>13.8.1 <a href="#AEN4776"><tt class="COMMAND">lynx</tt></a></dt>
-
-<dt>13.8.2 <a href="#AEN4813"><tt class="COMMAND">links</tt></a></dt>
-
-<dt>13.8.3 <a href="#AEN4831"><tt class="COMMAND">wget</tt></a></dt>
-</dl>
-</dd>
-
-<dt>13.9 <a href="#BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-FTP">FTP Clients</a></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<dl>
-<dt>13.9.1 <a href="#AEN4871"><tt class="COMMAND">ftp</tt></a></dt>
-
-<dt>13.9.2 <a href="#BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-FTP-NCFTP"><tt
-class="COMMAND">ncftp</tt></a></dt>
-</dl>
-</dd>
-
-<dt>13.10 <a href="#BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-TALK">Talking to Other People</a></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<dl>
-<dt>13.10.1 <a href="#AEN4989"><tt class="COMMAND">wall</tt></a></dt>
-
-<dt>13.10.2 <a href="#AEN5006"><tt class="COMMAND">talk</tt></a></dt>
-
-<dt>13.10.3 <a href="#AEN5033"><tt class="COMMAND">ytalk</tt></a></dt>
-</dl>
-</dd>
-</dl>
-</dd>
-
-<dt>14 <a href="#SECURITY">Security</a></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<dl>
-<dt>14.1 <a href="#SECURITY-DISABLE">Disabling Services</a></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<dl>
-<dt>14.1.1 <a href="#AEN5081">Services started from <tt
-class="COMMAND">inetd</tt></a></dt>
-
-<dt>14.1.2 <a href="#AEN5102">Services started from init scripts</a></dt>
-</dl>
-</dd>
-
-<dt>14.2 <a href="#SECURITY-HOST">Host Access Control</a></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<dl>
-<dt>14.2.1 <a href="#SECURITY-HOST-IPTABLES"><tt class="COMMAND">iptables</tt></a></dt>
-
-<dt>14.2.2 <a href="#SECURITY-HOST-TCPWRAPPERS"><tt
-class="COMMAND">tcpwrappers</tt></a></dt>
-</dl>
-</dd>
-
-<dt>14.3 <a href="#SECURITY-CURRENT">Keeping Current</a></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<dl>
-<dt>14.3.1 <a href="#SECURITY-CURRENT-LIST"><var class="LITERAL">slackware-security</var>
-mailing list</a></dt>
-
-<dt>14.3.2 <a href="#SECURITY-CURRENT-PATCHES">The <tt class="FILENAME">/patches</tt>
-directory</a></dt>
-</dl>
-</dd>
-</dl>
-</dd>
-
-<dt>15 <a href="#ARCHIVE-FILES">Archive Files</a></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<dl>
-<dt>15.1 <a href="#ARCHIVE-FILES-GZIP"><tt class="COMMAND">gzip</tt></a></dt>
-
-<dt>15.2 <a href="#ARCHIVE-FILES-BZIP2"><tt class="COMMAND">bzip2</tt></a></dt>
-
-<dt>15.3 <a href="#ARCHIVE-FILES-TAR"><tt class="COMMAND">tar</tt></a></dt>
-
-<dt>15.4 <a href="#ARCHIVE-FILES-ZIP"><tt class="COMMAND">zip</tt></a></dt>
-</dl>
-</dd>
-
-<dt>16 <a href="#VI">Vi</a></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<dl>
-<dt>16.1 <a href="#VI-STARTING">Starting vi</a></dt>
-
-<dt>16.2 <a href="#VI-MODES">Modes</a></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<dl>
-<dt>16.2.1 <a href="#VI-MODES-COMMAND-MODE">Command Mode</a></dt>
-
-<dt>16.2.2 <a href="#VI-MODES-INSET-MODE">Insert Mode</a></dt>
-</dl>
-</dd>
-
-<dt>16.3 <a href="#VI-OPENING-FILES">Opening Files</a></dt>
-
-<dt>16.4 <a href="#VI-SAVING-FILES">Saving Files</a></dt>
-
-<dt>16.5 <a href="#VI-QUITTING-VI">Quitting vi</a></dt>
-
-<dt>16.6 <a href="#VI-CONFIGURATION">vi Configuration</a></dt>
-
-<dt>16.7 <a href="#VI-KEYS">Vi Keys</a></dt>
-</dl>
-</dd>
-
-<dt>17 <a href="#EMACS">Emacs</a></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<dl>
-<dt>17.1 <a href="#EMACS-STARTING">Starting emacs</a></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<dl>
-<dt>17.1.1 <a href="#EMACS-COMMAND-KEYS">Command Keys</a></dt>
-</dl>
-</dd>
-
-<dt>17.2 <a href="#EMACS-BUFFERS">Buffers</a></dt>
-
-<dt>17.3 <a href="#EMACS-MODES">Modes</a></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<dl>
-<dt>17.3.1 <a href="#EMACS-OPENING-FILES">Opening files</a></dt>
-</dl>
-</dd>
-
-<dt>17.4 <a href="#EMACS-BASIC-EDITING">Basic Editing</a></dt>
-
-<dt>17.5 <a href="#EMACS-SAVING-FILES">Saving Files</a></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<dl>
-<dt>17.5.1 <a href="#EMACS-QUITING">Quitting Emacs</a></dt>
-</dl>
-</dd>
-</dl>
-</dd>
-
-<dt>18 <a href="#PACKAGE-MANAGEMENT">Slackware Package Management</a></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<dl>
-<dt>18.1 <a href="#PACKAGE-MANAGEMENT-OVERVIEW">Overview of Package Format</a></dt>
-
-<dt>18.2 <a href="#PACKAGE-MANAGEMENT-PACKAGE-UTILITIES">Package Utilities</a></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<dl>
-<dt>18.2.1 <a href="#PACKAGE-MANAGEMENT-PACKAGE-UTILITIES-PKGTOOL">pkgtool</a></dt>
-
-<dt>18.2.2 <a href="#PACKAGE-MANAGEMENT-PACKAGE-UTILITIES-INSTALLPKG">installpkg</a></dt>
-
-<dt>18.2.3 <a href="#PACKAGE-MANAGEMENT-PACKAGE-UTILITIES-REMOVEPKG">removepkg</a></dt>
-
-<dt>18.2.4 <a href="#PACKAGE-MANAGEMENT-PACKAGE-UTILITIES-UPGRADEPKG">upgradepkg</a></dt>
-
-<dt>18.2.5 <a href="#PACKAGE-MANAGEMENT-PACKAGE-UTILITIES-RPM"><tt
-class="COMMAND">rpm2tgz</tt>/<tt class="COMMAND">rpm2targz</tt></a></dt>
-</dl>
-</dd>
-
-<dt>18.3 <a href="#PACKAGE-MANAGEMENT-MAKING-PACKAGES">Making Packages</a></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<dl>
-<dt>18.3.1 <a href="#PACKAGE-MANAGEMENT-EXPLODEPKG"><tt
-class="COMMAND">explodepkg</tt></a></dt>
-
-<dt>18.3.2 <a href="#PACKAGE-MANAGEMENT-MAKEPKG"><tt
-class="COMMAND">makepkg</tt></a></dt>
-
-<dt>18.3.3 <a href="#PACKAGE-MANAGEMENT-SLACKBUILD-SCRIPTS">SlackBuild Scripts</a></dt>
-</dl>
-</dd>
-
-<dt>18.4 <a href="#PACKAGE-MANAGEMENT-MAKING-TAGS-AND-TAGFILES">Making Tags and Tagfiles
-(for setup)</a></dt>
-</dl>
-</dd>
-
-<dt>19 <a href="#ZIPSLACK">ZipSlack</a></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<dl>
-<dt>19.1 <a href="#ZIPSLACK-WHAT">What is ZipSlack?</a></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<dl>
-<dt>19.1.1 <a href="#ZIPSLACK-ADVANTAGES">Advantages</a></dt>
-
-<dt>19.1.2 <a href="#ZIPSLACK-DISADVANTAGES">Disadvantages</a></dt>
-</dl>
-</dd>
-
-<dt>19.2 <a href="#ZIPSLACK-GETTING">Getting ZipSlack</a></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<dl>
-<dt>19.2.1 <a href="#ZIPSLACK-INSTALLATION">Installation</a></dt>
-</dl>
-</dd>
-
-<dt>19.3 <a href="#ZIPSLACK-BOOTING">Booting ZipSlack</a></dt>
-</dl>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><a href="#GLOSSARY">Glossary</a></dt>
-
-<dt>A. <a href="#GPL">The GNU General Public License</a></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<dl>
-<dt>A.1. <a href="#AEN7088">Preamble</a></dt>
-
-<dt>A.2. <a href="#AEN7098">TERMS AND CONDITIONS</a></dt>
-
-<dt>A.3. <a href="#AEN7162">How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs</a></dt>
-</dl>
-</dd>
-</dl>
-</div>
-
-<div class="LOT">
-<dl class="LOT">
-<dt><b>List of Tables</b></dt>
-
-<dt>2-1. <a href="#AEN409">Man Page Sections</a></dt>
-
-<dt>3-1. <a href="#AEN661">Slackware Linux, Inc. Contact Information</a></dt>
-
-<dt>3-2. <a href="#AEN706">System Requirements</a></dt>
-
-<dt>3-3. <a href="#AEN746">Software Series</a></dt>
-
-<dt>9-1. <a href="#AEN3142">Octal Permission Values</a></dt>
-
-<dt>13-1. <a href="#AEN4883"><tt class="COMMAND">ftp</tt> commands</a></dt>
-
-<dt>16-1. <a href="#AEN5773">Movement</a></dt>
-
-<dt>16-2. <a href="#AEN5808">Editing</a></dt>
-
-<dt>16-3. <a href="#AEN5848">Searching</a></dt>
-
-<dt>16-4. <a href="#AEN5882">Saving and Quitting</a></dt>
-
-<dt>17-1. <a href="#TABLE-EMACS-BASIC-EDITING">Basic Emacs Editing Commands</a></dt>
-
-<dt>18-1. <a href="#AEN6446"><tt class="COMMAND">installpkg</tt> Options</a></dt>
-
-<dt>18-2. <a href="#AEN6491"><tt class="COMMAND">removepkg</tt> Options</a></dt>
-
-<dt>18-3. <a href="#AEN6621">Tagfile Status Options</a></dt>
-</dl>
-</div>
-
-<div class="LOT">
-<dl class="LOT">
-<dt><b>List of Figures</b></dt>
-
-<dt>4-1. <a href="#SYSTEM-CONFIGURATION-MAKE-MENUCONFIG">Kernel Configuration
-Menu</a></dt>
-
-<dt>6-1. <a href="#X-WINDOW-SYSTEM-1"><tt class="COMMAND">xorgconfig</tt> Mouse
-Configuration</a></dt>
-
-<dt>6-2. <a href="#X-WINDOW-SYSTEM-2"><tt class="COMMAND">xorgconfig</tt> Horizontal
-Sync</a></dt>
-
-<dt>6-3. <a href="#X-WINDOW-SYSTEM-3"><tt class="COMMAND">xorgconfig</tt> Vertical
-Sync</a></dt>
-
-<dt>6-4. <a href="#X-WINDOW-SYSTEM-4"><tt class="COMMAND">xorgconfig</tt> Video
-Card</a></dt>
-
-<dt>6-5. <a href="#FIG-X-WINDOW-SYSTEM-XWMCONFIG">Desktop Configuration with <tt
-class="COMMAND">xorgconfig</tt></a></dt>
-
-<dt>7-1. <a href="#BOOTING-SETUP-LILO"><tt class="COMMAND">liloconfig</tt></a></dt>
-
-<dt>7-2. <a href="#BOOTING-LILO-EXPERT"><tt class="COMMAND">liloconfig</tt> Expert
-Menu</a></dt>
-
-<dt>11-1. <a href="#FIG-PROCESS-CONTROL-PS-SHORT">Basic <tt class="COMMAND">ps</tt>
-output</a></dt>
-
-<dt>13-1. <a href="#FIG-BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-TELNET-WEB">Telnetting to a
-webserver</a></dt>
-
-<dt>13-2. <a href="#FIG-BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-EMAIL-PINE">The Pine main menu</a></dt>
-
-<dt>13-3. <a href="#FIG-BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-EMAIL-ELM">Elm main screen</a></dt>
-
-<dt>13-4. <a href="#FIG-BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-EMAIL-MUTT">Mutt main screen</a></dt>
-
-<dt>13-5. <a href="#FIG-BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-WEB-LYNX">Lynx default start page</a></dt>
-
-<dt>13-6. <a href="#FIG-BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-WEB-LINKS">Links, with the file menu
-open</a></dt>
-
-<dt>13-7. <a href="#FIG-BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-TALK-TALK">Two users in a <tt
-class="COMMAND">talk</tt> session</a></dt>
-
-<dt>13-8. <a href="#FIG-BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-TALK-YTALK">Two users in a <tt
-class="COMMAND">ytalk</tt> session</a></dt>
-
-<dt>16-1. <a href="#FIG-VI-VIM-SPLITEDIT">A vi session.</a></dt>
-
-<dt>18-1. <a href="#PKGTOOL-MAIN-MENU">Pkgtool's main menu.</a></dt>
-
-<dt>18-2. <a href="#PKGTOOL-VIEW-MODE">Pkgtool view mode</a></dt>
-</dl>
-</div>
-
-<div class="LOT">
-<dl class="LOT">
-<dt><b>List of Examples</b></dt>
-
-<dt>8-1. <a href="#EX-SHELL-BASH-ENVIRONMENT">Listing Environment Variables with <tt
-class="COMMAND">set</tt></a></dt>
-</dl>
-</div>
-
-<div class="PREFACE">
-<hr />
-<h1><a id="BOOK-PREFACE" name="BOOK-PREFACE"></a>Preface</h1>
-
-<h2 class="BRIDGEHEAD"><a id="PREFACE-AUDIENCE" name="PREFACE-AUDIENCE"></a>Intended
-Audience</h2>
-
-<p>The Slackware Linux operating system is a powerful platform for Intel-based computers.
-It is designed to be stable, secure, and functional as both a high-end server and
-powerful workstation.</p>
-
-<p>This book is designed to get you started with the Slackware Linux operating system.
-It's not meant to cover every single aspect of the distribution, but rather to show what
-it is capable of and give you a basic working knowledge of the system.</p>
-
-<p>As you gain experience with Slackware Linux, we hope you find this book to be a handy
-reference. We also hope you'll lend it to all of your friends when they come asking about
-that cool Slackware Linux operating system you're running.</p>
-
-<p>While this book may not an edge-of-your-seat novel, we certainly tried to make it as
-entertaining as possible. With any luck, we'll get a movie deal. Of course, we also hope
-you are able to learn from it and find it useful.</p>
-
-<p>And now, on with the show.</p>
-
-<h2 class="BRIDGEHEAD"><a id="PREFACE-CHANGES" name="PREFACE-CHANGES"></a>Changes from
-the First Edition</h2>
-
-<p>This second edition is the culmination of years of hard work by the dedicated members
-of the Slackware Documentation Project. The following are the major changes in this new
-edition:</p>
-
-<ul>
-<li>
-<p><a href="#INSTALLATION">Chapter 3</a>, Installation, has been modified with new
-screenshots of the installer, and reflects changes in disk-sets, and CD installation.</p>
-</li>
-
-<li>
-<p><a href="#SYSTEM-CONFIGURATION">Chapter 4</a>, System Configuration, has been updated
-with new information about Linux 2.6.x kernels.</p>
-</li>
-
-<li>
-<p><a href="#NETWORK-CONFIGURATION">Chapter 5</a>, Network Configuration, has been
-expanded with further explanation of Samba, NFS, and DHCP. A section on wireless
-networking has also been added. This chapter now reflects major changes in how Slackware
-handles network setup.</p>
-</li>
-
-<li>
-<p><a href="#X-WINDOW-SYSTEM">Chapter 6</a>, X Window System, has been substantially
-rewritten for Xorg based systems. This chapter now also covers the xdm graphical login
-manager.</p>
-</li>
-
-<li>
-<p><a href="#BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS">Chapter 13</a>, Basic Network Commands, has been
-enhanced with information about additional network utilities.</p>
-</li>
-
-<li>
-<p><a href="#SECURITY">Chapter 14</a>, Security, is a new chapter with this edition. It
-explains how to keep a Slackware Linux system secure.</p>
-</li>
-
-<li>
-<p><a href="#EMACS">Chapter 17</a>, Emacs, is a new chapter with this edition. It
-describes how to use Emacs, a powerful editor for Unix.</p>
-</li>
-
-<li>
-<p><a href="#PACKAGE-MANAGEMENT">Chapter 18</a>, Package Management, has been updated
-with information about SlackBuild scripts.</p>
-</li>
-
-<li>
-<p>There are many other changes, both minor and major, to reflect changes in Slackware as
-it has matured.</p>
-</li>
-</ul>
-
-<h2 class="BRIDGEHEAD"><a id="PREFACE-ORGANIZATION"
-name="PREFACE-ORGANIZATION"></a>Organization of this Book</h2>
-
-<div class="VARIABLELIST">
-<dl>
-<dt><a href="#INTRODUCTION">Chapter 1</a>, Introduction</dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Provides introductory material on Linux, Slackware, and the Open Source and Free
-Software Movements.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><a href="#HELP">Chapter 2</a>, Help</dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Describes the help resources available on a Slackware Linux system and online.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><a href="#INSTALLATION">Chapter 3</a>, Installation</dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Describes the installation process step-by-step with screenshots to provide an
-illustrative walk-through.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><a href="#SYSTEM-CONFIGURATION">Chapter 4</a>, System Configuration</dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Describes the important configuration files and covers kernel recompilation.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><a href="#NETWORK-CONFIGURATION">Chapter 5</a>, Network Configuration</dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Describes how to connect a Slackware Linux machine to a network. Covers TCP/IP,
-PPP/dial-up, wireless networking, and more.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><a href="#X-WINDOW-SYSTEM">Chapter 6</a>, The X Window System</dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Describes how to setup and use the graphical X Window System in Slackware.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><a href="#BOOTING">Chapter 7</a>, Booting</dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Describes the process by which a computer boots into Slackware Linux. Also covers
-dual-booting with Microsoft Windows operating systems.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><a href="#SHELL">Chapter 8</a>, The Shell</dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Describes the powerful command line interface for Linux.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><a href="#FILESYSTEM-STRUCTURE">Chapter 9</a>, Filesystem Structure</dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Describes the filesystem structure, including file ownership, permission, and
-linking.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><a href="#FILE-COMMANDS">Chapter 10</a>, Handling Files and Directories</dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Describes the commands used to manipulate files and directories from the command line
-interface.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><a href="#PROCESS-CONTROL">Chapter 11</a>, Process Control</dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Describes the powerful Linux process management commands used to manage multiple
-running applications.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><a href="#ESSENTIAL-SYSADMIN">Chapter 12</a>, Essential System Administration</dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Describes basic system administration tasks such as adding and removing users,
-shutting down the system properly, and more.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><a href="#BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS">Chapter 13</a>, Basic Network Commands</dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Describes the collection of network clients included with Slackware.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><a href="#SECURITY">Chapter 14</a>, Security</dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Describes many different tools available to help keep your Slackware system secure,
-including <tt class="COMMAND">iptables</tt> and <tt class="COMMAND">tcpwrappers</tt>.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><a href="#ARCHIVE-FILES">Chapter 15</a>, Archive Files</dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Describes the different compression and archive utilities available for Linux.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><a href="#VI">Chapter 16</a>, vi</dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Describes the powerful <tt class="COMMAND">vi</tt> text editor.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><a href="#EMACS">Chapter 17</a>, Emacs</dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Describes the powerful <tt class="COMMAND">Emacs</tt> text editor.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><a href="#PACKAGE-MANAGEMENT">Chapter 18</a>, Slackware Package Management</dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Describes the Slackware package utilities and the process used to create custom
-packages and tagfiles.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><a href="#ZIPSLACK">Chapter 19</a>, ZipSlack</dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Describes the ZipSlack version of Linux that can be used from Windows without
-requiring an installation.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><a href="#GPL">Appendix A</a>, The GNU General Public License</dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Describes the license terms under which Slackware Linux and this book can be copied
-and distributed.</p>
-</dd>
-</dl>
-</div>
-
-<h2 class="BRIDGEHEAD"><a id="PREFACE-CONV" name="PREFACE-CONV"></a>Conventions used in
-this book</h2>
-
-<p>To provide a consistent and easy to read text, several conventions are followed
-throughout the book.</p>
-
-<h3 class="BRIDGEHEAD"><a id="PREFACE-CONV-TYPOGRAPHIC"
-name="PREFACE-CONV-TYPOGRAPHIC"></a>Typographic Conventions</h3>
-
-<div class="VARIABLELIST">
-<dl>
-<dt><span class="emphasis"><i class="EMPHASIS">Italic</i></span></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>An <span class="emphasis"><i class="EMPHASIS">italic</i></span> font is used for
-commands, emphasized text, and the first usage of technical terms.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><var class="VARNAME">Monospace</var></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>A <var class="VARNAME">monospaced</var> font is used for error messages, commands,
-environment variables, names of ports, hostnames, user names, group names, device names,
-variables, and code fragments.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b class="APPLICATION">Bold</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>A <b class="APPLICATION">bold</b> font is used for user input in examples.</p>
-</dd>
-</dl>
-</div>
-
-<h3 class="BRIDGEHEAD"><a id="PREFACE-CONV-COMMANDS"
-name="PREFACE-CONV-COMMANDS"></a>User Input</h3>
-
-<p>Keys are shown in <b class="KEYCAP">bold</b> to stand out from other text. Key
-combinations that are meant to be typed simultaneously are shown with `<var
-class="LITERAL">+</var>' between the keys, such as:</p>
-
-<p><b class="KEYCAP">Ctrl</b>+<b class="KEYCAP">Alt</b>+<b class="KEYCAP">Del</b></p>
-
-<p>Meaning the user should type the <b class="KEYCAP">Ctrl</b>, <b
-class="KEYCAP">Alt</b>, and <b class="KEYCAP">Del</b> keys at the same time.</p>
-
-<p>Keys that are meant to be typed in sequence will be separated with commas, for
-example:</p>
-
-<p><b class="KEYCAP">Ctrl</b>+<b class="KEYCAP">X</b>, <b class="KEYCAP">Ctrl</b>+<b
-class="KEYCAP">S</b></p>
-
-<p>Would mean that the user is expected to type the <b class="KEYCAP">Ctrl</b> and <b
-class="KEYCAP">X</b> keys simultaneously and then to type the <b class="KEYCAP">Ctrl</b>
-and <b class="KEYCAP">S</b> keys simultaneously.</p>
-
-<h3 class="BRIDGEHEAD"><a id="PREFACE-CONV-EXAMPLES"
-name="PREFACE-CONV-EXAMPLES"></a>Examples</h3>
-
-<p>Examples starting with <tt class="DEVICENAME">E:\&gt;</tt> indicate a <span
-class="TRADEMARK">MS-DOS</span>&reg; command. Unless otherwise noted, these commands may
-be executed from a &#8220;Command Prompt&#8221; window in a modern <span
-class="TRADEMARK">Microsoft</span>&reg;&nbsp;<span class="TRADEMARK">Windows</span>&reg;
-environment.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">D:\&gt;</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">rawrite a: bare.i</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>Examples starting with <samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> indicate a command that must be
-invoked as the superuser in Slackware. You can login as <tt class="USERNAME">root</tt> to
-type the command, or login as your normal account and use <span
-class="CITEREFENTRY"><span class="REFENTRYTITLE">su</span>(1)</span> to gain superuser
-privileges.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">dd if=bare.i of=/dev/fd0</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>Examples starting with <samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> indicate a command that should be
-invoked from a normal user account. Unless otherwise noted, C-shell syntax is used for
-setting environment variables and other shell commands.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">top</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<h2 class="BRIDGEHEAD"><a id="PREFACE-ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS"
-name="PREFACE-ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS"></a>Acknowledgments</h2>
-
-<p>This project is the accumulation of months of work by many dedicated individuals. It
-would not have been possible for me to produce this work in a vacuum. Many people deserve
-our thanks for their selfless acts: Keith Keller for his work on wireless networking,
-Joost Kremers for his great work in single-handedly writing the emacs section, Simon
-Williams for the security chapter, Jurgen Phillippaerts for basic networking commands,
-Cibao Cu Ali G Colibri for the inspiration and a good kick in the pants. Countless others
-have sent in suggestions and fixes. An incomplete list includes: Jacob Anhoej, John Yast,
-Sally Welch, Morgan Landry, and Charlie Law. I'd also like to thank Keith Keller for
-hosting the mailing list for this project, as well as Carl Inglis for the initial web
-hosting. Last but not least, I'd like to thank Patrick J. Volkerding for Slackware Linux,
-and David Cantrell, Logan Johnson, and Chris Lumens for Slackware Linux Essentials 1st
-Edition. Without their initial framework, none of this would have ever happened. Many
-others have contributed in small and large ways to this project and have not been listed.
-I hope they will forgive me for a poor memory.</p>
-
-<p>Alan Hicks, May 2005</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="CHAPTER">
-<hr />
-<h1><a id="INTRODUCTION" name="INTRODUCTION"></a>Chapter 1 An Introduction to Slackware
-Linux</h1>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<h2 class="SECT1"><a id="INTRODUCTION-LINUX" name="INTRODUCTION-LINUX">1.1 What is
-Linux?</a></h2>
-
-<p>Linus Torvalds started Linux, an operating system kernel, as a personal project in
-1991. He started the project because he wanted to run a Unix-based operating system
-without spending a lot of money. In addition, he wanted to learn the ins and outs of the
-386 processor. Linux was released free of charge to the public so that anyone could study
-it and make improvements under the General Public License. (See <a
-href="#INTRODUCTION-OPENSOURCE">Section 1.3</a> and <a href="#GPL">Appendix A</a> for an
-explanation of the license.) Today, Linux has grown into a major player in the operating
-system market. It has been ported to run on a variety of system architectures, including
-HP/Compaq's Alpha, Sun's SPARC and UltraSPARC, and Motorola's PowerPC chips (through
-Apple Macintosh and IBM RS/6000 computers.) Hundreds, if not thousands, of programmers
-all over the world now develop Linux. It runs programs like Sendmail, Apache, and BIND,
-which are very popular software used to run Internet servers. It's important to remember
-that the term &#8220;Linux&#8221; really refers to the kernel - the core of the operating
-system. This core is responsible for controlling your computer's processor, memory, hard
-drives, and peripherals. That's all Linux really does: It controls the operations of your
-computer and makes sure that all of its programs behave. Various companies and
-individuals bundle the kernel and various programs together to make an operating system.
-We call each bundle a Linux distribution.</p>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="INTRODUCTION-LINUX-GNU" name="INTRODUCTION-LINUX-GNU">1.1.1 A
-Word on GNU</a></h3>
-
-<p>The Linux kernel project began as a solo endeavor by Linus Torvalds in 1991, but as
-Isaac Newton once said, &#8220;If I have seen further, it is by standing on the shoulders
-of giants.&#8221; When Linus Torvalds began the kernel the Free Software Foundation had
-already established the idea of collaborative software. They entitled their effort GNU, a
-recursive acronym that means simply &#8220;GNU's Not Unix&#8221;. GNU software ran atop
-the Linux kernel from day 1. Their compiler <tt class="COMMAND">gcc</tt> was used to
-compile the kernel. Today many GNU tools from <tt class="COMMAND">gcc</tt> to <tt
-class="COMMAND">gnutar</tt> are still at the basis of every major Linux distribution. For
-this reason many of the Free Software Foundation's proponents fervently state that their
-work should be given the same credit as the Linux kernel. They strongly suggest that all
-Linux distributions should refer to themselves as GNU/Linux distributions.</p>
-
-<p>This is the topic of many flamewars, surpassed only by the ancient vi versus emacs
-holy war. The purpose of this book is not to fan the fires of this heated discussion, but
-rather to clarify the terminology for neophytes. When one sees GNU/Linux it means a Linux
-distribution. When one sees Linux they can either be referring to the kernel, or to a
-distribution. It can be rather confusing. Typically the term GNU/Linux isn't used because
-it's a mouth full.</p>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<hr />
-<h2 class="SECT1"><a id="INTRODUCTION-SLACKWARE" name="INTRODUCTION-SLACKWARE">1.2 What
-is Slackware?</a></h2>
-
-<p>Slackware, started by Patrick Volkerding in late 1992, and initially released to the
-world on July 17, 1993, was the first Linux distribution to achieve widespread use.
-Volkerding first learned of Linux when he needed an inexpensive LISP interpreter for a
-project. One of the few distributions available at the time was SLS Linux from Soft
-Landing Systems. Volkerding used SLS Linux, fixing bugs as he found them. Eventually, he
-decided to merge all of these bugfixes into his own private distribution that he and his
-friends could use. This private distribution quickly gained popularity, so Volkerding
-decided to name it Slackware and make it publicly available. Along the way, Patrick added
-new things to Slackware; a user friendly installation program based on a menuing system,
-as well as the concept of package management, which allows users to easily add, remove,
-or upgrade software packages on their systems.</p>
-
-<p>There are many reasons why Slackware is Linux's oldest living distribution. It does
-not try to emulate Windows, it tries to be as Unix-like as possible. It does not try to
-cover up processes with fancy, point-and-click GUIs (Graphical User Interfaces). Instead,
-it puts users in control by letting them see exactly what's going on. Its development is
-not rushed to meet deadlines-each version comes out when it is ready.</p>
-
-<p>Slackware is for people who enjoy learning and tweaking their system to do exactly
-what they want. Slackware's stability and simplicity are why people will continue to use
-it for years to come. Slackware currently enjoys a reputation as a solid server and a
-no-nonsense workstation. You can find Slackware desktops running nearly any window
-manager or desktop environment, or none at all. Slackware servers power businesses,
-acting in every capacity that a server can be used in. Slackware users are among the most
-satisfied Linux users. Of course, we'd say that. :^)</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<hr />
-<h2 class="SECT1"><a id="INTRODUCTION-OPENSOURCE" name="INTRODUCTION-OPENSOURCE">1.3 Open
-Source and Free Software</a></h2>
-
-<p>Within the Linux community, there are two major ideological movements at work. The
-Free Software movement (which we'll get into in a moment) is working toward the goal of
-making all software free of intellectual property restrictions. Followers of this
-movement believe these restrictions hamper technical improvement and work against the
-good of the community. The Open Source movement is working toward most of the same goals,
-but takes a more pragmatic approach to them. Followers of this movement prefer to base
-their arguments on the economic and technical merits of making source code freely
-available, rather than the moral and ethical principles that drive the Free Software
-Movement.</p>
-
-<p>At the other end of the spectrum are groups that wish to maintain tighter controls
-over their software.</p>
-
-<p>The Free Software movement is headed by the Free Software Foundation, a fund-raising
-organization for the GNU project. Free software is more of an ideology. The oft-used
-expression is &#8220;free as in speech, not free as in beer&#8221;. In essence, free
-software is an attempt to guarantee certain rights for both users and developers. These
-freedoms include the freedom to run the program for any reason, to study and modify the
-source code, to redistribute the source, and to share any modifications you make. In
-order to guarantee these freedoms, the GNU General Public License (GPL) was created. The
-GPL, in brief, provides that anyone distributing a compiled program which is licensed
-under the GPL must also provide source code, and is free to make modifications to the
-program as long as those modifications are also made available in source code form. This
-guarantees that once a program is &#8220;opened&#8221; to the community, it cannot be
-&#8220;closed&#8221; except by consent of every author of every piece of code (even the
-modifications) within it. Most Linux programs are licensed under the GPL.</p>
-
-<p>It is important to note that the GPL does not say anything about price. As odd as it
-may sound, you can charge for free software. The &#8220;free&#8221; part is in the
-liberties you have with the source code, not in the price you pay for the software.
-(However, once someone has sold you, or even given you, a compiled program licensed under
-the GPL they are obligated to provide its source code as well.)</p>
-
-<p>Another popular license is the BSD license. In contrast to the GPL, the BSD license
-gives no requirement for the release of a program's source code. Software released under
-the BSD license allows redistribution in source or binary form provided only a few
-conditions are met. The author's credentials cannot be used as a sort of advertisement
-for the program. It also indemnifies the author from liability for damages that may arise
-from the use of the software. Much of the software included in Slackware Linux is BSD
-licensed.</p>
-
-<p>At the forefront of the younger Open Source movement, the Open Source Initiative is an
-organization that solely exists to gain support for open source software, that is,
-software that has the source code available as well as the ready-to-run program. They do
-not offer a specific license, but instead they support the various types of open source
-licenses available.</p>
-
-<p>The idea behind the OSI is to get more companies behind open source by allowing them
-to write their own open source licenses and have those licenses certified by the Open
-Source Initiative. Many companies want to release source code, but do not want to use the
-GPL. Since they cannot radically change the GPL, they are offered the opportunity to
-provide their own license and have it certified by this organization.</p>
-
-<p>While the Free Software Foundation and the Open Source Initiative work to help each
-other, they are not the same thing. The Free Software Foundation uses a specific license
-and provides software under that license. The Open Source Initiative seeks support for
-all open source licenses, including the one from the Free Software Foundation. The
-grounds on which each argues for making source code freely available sometimes divides
-the two movements, but the fact that two ideologically diverse groups are working toward
-the same goal lends credence to the efforts of each.</p>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="CHAPTER">
-<hr />
-<h1><a id="HELP" name="HELP"></a>Chapter 2 Help</h1>
-
-<p>Often there are times when you might need help with a specific command, setting up a
-program, or getting a piece of hardware to work. Maybe you simply want to understand a
-given command better, or see what other options are available to use with it. Luckily,
-there are a variety of ways that you can get the help you're looking for. When you
-install Slackware you have the option of installing packages from the &#8220;F&#8221;
-series which includes FAQs and HOWTOs. Programs also come with help about their options,
-configuration files, and usage.</p>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<hr />
-<h2 class="SECT1"><a id="HELP-SYSTEM" name="HELP-SYSTEM">2.1 System Help</a></h2>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="HELP-SYSTEM-MAN" name="HELP-SYSTEM-MAN">2.1.1 <tt
-class="COMMAND">man</tt></a></h3>
-
-<p>The <tt class="COMMAND">man</tt> command (short for &#8220;manual&#8221;) is the
-traditional form of online documentation in Unix and Linux operating systems. Comprised
-of specially formatted files, the &#8220;man pages&#8221;, are written for the vast
-majority of commands and are distributed with the software itself. Executing <tt
-class="COMMAND">man somecommand</tt> will display the man page for (naturally) the
-command specified, in our example this would be the imaginary program <tt
-class="COMMAND">somecommand</tt>.</p>
-
-<p>As you might imagine, the amount of man pages can quickly add up, becoming overly
-confusing and seriously complicated, even for an advanced user. So, for this reason, man
-pages are grouped into enumerated sections. This system has been around for a very long
-time; enough so that you will often see commands, programs, and even programming library
-functions referred to with their man section number.</p>
-
-<p>For example:</p>
-
-<p>You might see a reference to <tt class="COMMAND">man</tt>(1). The numbering tells you
-that &#8220;<tt class="COMMAND">man</tt>&#8221; is documented in section 1 (user
-commands); you can specify that you want the section 1 man page for &#8220;man&#8221;
-with the command <tt class="COMMAND">man 1 man</tt>. Specifying the section that man
-should look in is useful in the case of multiple items with the same name.</p>
-
-<div class="TABLE"><a id="AEN409" name="AEN409"></a>
-<p><b>Table 2-1. Man Page Sections</b></p>
-
-<table border="0" frame="void" width="100%" class="CALSTABLE">
-<col width="25%" />
-<col width="75%" />
-<thead>
-<tr>
-<th>Section</th>
-<th>Contents</th>
-</tr>
-</thead>
-
-<tbody>
-<tr>
-<td>Section 1</td>
-<td>user commands (intro only)</td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td>Section 2</td>
-<td>system calls</td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td>Section 3</td>
-<td>C library calls</td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td>Section 4</td>
-<td>devices (e.g., <tt class="FILENAME">hd</tt>, <tt class="FILENAME">sd</tt>)</td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td>Section 5</td>
-<td>file formats and protocols (e.g., wtmp, <tt class="FILENAME">/etc/passwd</tt>,
-nfs)</td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td>Section 6</td>
-<td>games (intro only)</td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td>Section 7</td>
-<td>conventions, macro packages, etc. (e.g., nroff, ascii)</td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td>Section 8</td>
-<td>system administration (intro only)</td>
-</tr>
-</tbody>
-</table>
-</div>
-
-<p>In addition to <tt class="COMMAND">man</tt>(1), there are the commands <tt
-class="COMMAND">whatis</tt>(1) and <tt class="COMMAND">apropos</tt>(1) available to you,
-whose shared purpose is to make it easier to find information in the man system.</p>
-
-<p>The command <tt class="COMMAND">whatis</tt> gives a very brief description of system
-commands, somewhat in the style of a pocket command reference.</p>
-
-<p>Example:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">whatis whatis</kbd>
-whatis (1) - search the whatis database for complete words
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>The command <tt class="COMMAND">apropos</tt> is used to search for a man page
-containing a given keyword.</p>
-
-<p>Example:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">apropos wav</kbd>
-cdda2wav (1) - a sampling utility that dumps CD audio data into wav sound files
-netwave_cs (4) - Xircom Creditcard Netwave device driver
-oggdec (1) - simple decoder, Ogg Vorbis file to PCM audio file (WAV or RAW)
-wavelan (4) - AT&amp;T GIS WaveLAN ISA device driver
-wavelan_cs (4) - AT&amp;T GIS WaveLAN PCMCIA device driver
-wvlan_cs (4) - Lucent WaveLAN/IEEE 802.11 device driver
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>If you'd like further information on any of these commands, read their man pages for
-the details. ;)</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="HELP-SYSTEM-DOC" name="HELP-SYSTEM-DOC">2.1.2 The <tt
-class="FILENAME">/usr/doc</tt> Directory</a></h3>
-
-<p>The source for most packages that we build comes with some sort of documentation:
-README files, usage instructions, license files, etc. Any sort of documentation that
-comes with the source is included and installed on your system in the <tt
-class="FILENAME">/usr/doc</tt> directory. Each program will (usually) install its own
-documentation in the order of:</p>
-
-<p><tt class="FILENAME">/usr/doc/<var
-class="REPLACEABLE">$program-$version</var></tt></p>
-
-<p>Where <var class="REPLACEABLE">$program</var> is the name of the program you are
-wanting to read about, and <var class="REPLACEABLE">$version</var> is (obviously) the
-appropriate version of software package installed on your system.</p>
-
-<p>For example, to read the documentation for the command <tt class="COMMAND">man</tt>(1)
-you would want to <tt class="COMMAND">cd</tt> to:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">cd /usr/doc/man-<var
-class="REPLACEABLE">$version</var></kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>If reading the appropriate man page(s) doesn't provide you with enough information, or
-address what you're looking for in particular, the <tt class="FILENAME">/usr/doc</tt>
-directory should be your next stop.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="HELP-SYSTEM-HOWTO" name="HELP-SYSTEM-HOWTO">2.1.3 HOWTOs and
-mini-HOWTOs</a></h3>
-
-<p>It is in the truest spirit of the Open Source community that brings us to the
-HOWTO/mini-HOWTO collection. These files are exactly what they sound like - documents and
-guides describing how to do stuff. If you installed the HOWTO collection, the HOWTOs will
-be installed to <tt class="FILENAME">/usr/doc/Linux-HOWTOs</tt> and the mini-HOWTOs to
-<tt class="FILENAME">/usr/doc/Linux-mini-HOWTOs</tt>.</p>
-
-<p>Also included in the same package series is a collection of FAQs, which is an acronym
-which stands for</p>
-
-<div class="INFORMALTABLE"><a id="AEN497" name="AEN497"></a>
-<table border="0" frame="void" class="CALSTABLE">
-<col />
-<tbody>
-<tr>
-<td><span class="emphasis"><i class="EMPHASIS">F</i></span>requently</td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td><span class="emphasis"><i class="EMPHASIS">A</i></span>sked</td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td><span class="emphasis"><i class="EMPHASIS">Q</i></span>uestions</td>
-</tr>
-</tbody>
-</table>
-</div>
-
-<p>These documents are written in a &#8220;Question and answer&#8221; style for
-(surprise) Frequently Asked Questions. The FAQs can often be a very useful place to look
-if you're just looking for a &#8220;Quick Fix&#8221; to something. If you decide to
-install the FAQs during setup, you will find them installed to the <tt
-class="FILENAME">/usr/doc/Linux-FAQs</tt> directory.</p>
-
-<p>These files are well worth reading whenever you're not quite sure how to proceed with
-something. They cover an amazing range of topics, more often than not in a surprisingly
-detailed manner. Good stuff!</p>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<hr />
-<h2 class="SECT1"><a id="HELP-ONLINE" name="HELP-ONLINE">2.2 Online Help</a></h2>
-
-<p>In addition to the documentation provided and installable with the Slackware Linux
-Operating System, there are a vast multitude of online resources available for you to
-learn from as well.</p>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="HELP-ONLINE-OFFICIAL" name="HELP-ONLINE-OFFICIAL">2.2.1 The
-Official Website and Help Forums</a></h3>
-
-<p><a href="http://www.slackware.com" target="_top">The Official Slackware
-Website</a></p>
-
-<p>The Official Slackware Linux website is sometimes out of date, but still contains
-information relevant to the latest Slackware versions. At one time an active help forum
-existed there before a horde of trolls, troublemakers, and whiners descended on the
-forum. Maintaining the forum was beginning to be too much work, and so Pat shut it down.
-One can find that old forum back up and running complete with searchable archives of the
-old data at <a href="http://www.userlocal.com/phorum/"
-target="_top">http://www.userlocal.com/phorum/</a>.</p>
-
-<p>After the forums were taken down on <a href="http://slackware.com"
-target="_top">http://slackware.com</a>, several other sites sprang up that offered forum
-support for Slackware. After much thought, Pat chose to endorse <a
-href="www.linuxquestions.org" target="_top">www.linuxquestions.org</a> as the official
-forum for Slackware Linux.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="HELP-ONLINE-EMAIL" name="HELP-ONLINE-EMAIL">2.2.2 E-mail
-Support</a></h3>
-
-<p>Everyone who purchases an official CD set is entitled to free installation support via
-e-mail from the developer. That having been said, please keep in mind that we, the
-developers, (and a vast majority of users) of Slackware are of &#8220;The Old
-School&#8221;. That means that we prefer to help those who have a sincere interest and
-are willing to help themselves in the process. We will always do our best to help
-everyone who emails us with support questions. However, Please check your documentation
-and the website (especially the FAQs and maybe some of the forums listed below) before
-e-mailing. You may get a faster answer that way, and the less e-mail we have to answer,
-obviously the sooner we will be of assistance to those that need it.</p>
-
-<p>The e-mail address for technical support is: <var
-class="LITERAL">support@slackware.com</var>. Other e-mail addresses and contact
-information are listed on the website.</p>
-
-<div class="SECT3">
-<hr />
-<h4 class="SECT3"><a id="AEN535" name="AEN535">2.2.2.1 Slackware Linux Project Mailing
-Lists</a></h4>
-
-<p>We have several mailing lists, available in digest and normal forms. Check the
-instructions for how to subscribe.</p>
-
-<p>To subscribe to a mailing list, email:</p>
-
-<p><var class="LITERAL">majordomo@slackware.com</var></p>
-
-<p>with the phrase &#8220;<var class="LITERAL">subscribe <var class="REPLACEABLE">[name
-of list]</var></var>&#8221; in the body of the email. The list choices are described
-below (use one the names below for the name of the list).</p>
-
-<p>Archives of the mailing list can be found on Slackware's website at:</p>
-
-<p><var class="LITERAL">http://slackware.com/lists/archive/</var></p>
-
-<div class="VARIABLELIST">
-<dl>
-<dt><var class="LITERAL">slackware-announce</var></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>The <var class="LITERAL">slackware-announce</var> mailing list is for announcements of
-new versions, major updates and other general information.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><var class="LITERAL">slackware-security</var></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>The <var class="LITERAL">slackware-security</var> mailing list is for announcements
-relating to security issues. Any exploits or other vulnerabilities directly pertaining to
-Slackware will get posted to this list immediately.</p>
-</dd>
-</dl>
-</div>
-
-<p>These lists are also available in digest format. This means that you get one large
-message per day instead of several messages throughout the day. Since the slackware
-mailing lists do not allow users to post, and the lists are such low traffic, most users
-find little advantage in the digest lists. Still, they are available if you want them by
-subscribing to <var class="LITERAL">slackware-announce-digest</var> or <var
-class="LITERAL">slackware-security-digest</var>.</p>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="HELP-ONLINE-NONOFFICIAL" name="HELP-ONLINE-NONOFFICIAL">2.2.3
-Non-Official Websites and Help Forums</a></h3>
-
-<div class="SECT3">
-<h4 class="SECT3"><a id="AEN571" name="AEN571">2.2.3.1 Websites</a></h4>
-
-<div class="VARIABLELIST">
-<dl>
-<dt><a href="http://www.google.com" target="_top">Google</a></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>The Kung-Fu Master of Search Engines. When you absolutely, positively gotta find every
-last kernel of information on a subject: Accept no substitutes.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><a href="http://www.google.com/linux" target="_top">Google:Linux</a></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Linux-Specific searches</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><a href="http://www.google.com/bsd" target="_top">Google:BSD</a></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>BSD-Specific searches. Slackware is so generic as a Unix work-a-like operating system
-that one can as often as not find very detailed information that is almost 100% relevant
-to Slackware here. Many times a BSD search reveals far more technical information than
-the often PR-related Linux searches.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><a href="http://groups.google.com" target="_top">Google:Groups</a></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Search through decades of Usenet posts for your pearls of wisdom.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><a href="http://userlocal.com" target="_top">http://userlocal.com</a></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>A virtual treasure-trove of knowledge, good advice, first-hand experience and
-interesting articles. Often the first place you'll hear about new developments in the
-world of Slackware.</p>
-</dd>
-</dl>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT3">
-<hr />
-<h4 class="SECT3"><a id="AEN601" name="AEN601">2.2.3.2 Web-based Resources</a></h4>
-
-<div class="VARIABLELIST">
-<dl>
-<dt><a href="http://www.linuxquestions.org/questions/forumdisplay.php?forumid=14"
-target="_top">linuxquestions.org</a></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>The officially sanctioned web-forum for Slackware users.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><a href="http://forums.linuxiso.org/viewforum.php?f=25" target="_top">LinuxISO.org
-Slackware Forum</a></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>&#8220;A place to download and get help with Linux.&#8221;</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><a href="http://wombat.san-francisco.ca.us/perl/fom"
-target="_top">alt.os.linux.slackware FAQ</a></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Another FAQ</p>
-</dd>
-</dl>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT3">
-<hr />
-<h4 class="SECT3"><a id="AEN620" name="AEN620">2.2.3.3 Usenet Groups (NNTP)</a></h4>
-
-<p>Usenet has long been a place for geeks to gather and help one another. There are few
-newsgroups dedicated to Slackware Linux, but they tend to be filled with very
-knowledgeable people.</p>
-
-<p><var class="LITERAL">alt.os.linux.slackware</var></p>
-
-<p><var class="LITERAL">alt.os.linux.slackware</var>, better known as aols (not to be
-confused with <span class="TRADEMARK">AOL</span>&reg;!) is one of the most active places
-to find technical help with Slackware problems. Like every Usenet newsgroup, a few
-unhelpful participants (&#8220;trolls&#8221;) can mar the experience with constant
-arguing. Learning to ignore the trolls and identifying the truly helpful people is key to
-making the most of this resource.</p>
-</div>
-</div>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="CHAPTER">
-<hr />
-<h1><a id="INSTALLATION" name="INSTALLATION"></a>Chapter 3 Installation</h1>
-
-<p>Before you can use Slackware Linux, you'll have to obtain and install it. Getting
-Slackware is as easy as purchasing it or downloading it for free over the Internet.
-Installing it is also easy as long as you have some basic knowledge about your computer
-and are willing to learn a few other things. The installation program itself is very much
-a step-by-step process. Because of this, you can be up and running very quickly. In fact,
-Slackware boasts one of the lowest installation times of any full-featured Linux
-distribution.</p>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<hr />
-<h2 class="SECT1"><a id="INSTALLATION-GETTING" name="INSTALLATION-GETTING">3.1 Getting
-Slackware</a></h2>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="AEN641" name="AEN641">3.1.1 The Official Disc and Box
-Sets</a></h3>
-
-<p>The official Slackware Linux CD set is available from Slackware Linux, Inc. The CD set
-consists of 4 discs. The first disk contains all the software needed for a basic server
-install, and the X window system. The second cd is a &#8220;live&#8221; cd; that is, a
-bootable cd that installs into RAM and gives you a temporary installation to play around
-with or do a data or machine rescue. This cd also contains a few packages such as the KDE
-and GNOME desktop environments. A few other goodies are included on the second cd
-including many non-vital packages in the &#8220;extra&#8221; folder. The third and fourth
-CDs contain the source code to all of Slackware, along with the original edition of this
-book.</p>
-
-<p>One may also purchase a boxed set that includes the 4 discs and a copy of this book,
-as well as lots of neat Slackware gear to show off your geek pride. CD subscriptions are
-available at a reduced rate also.</p>
-
-<p>The preferred method for shopping for Slackware merchandise is online at the Slackware
-store.</p>
-
-<p><a href="http://store.slackware.com" target="_top">http://store.slackware.com</a></p>
-
-<p>You can also call or e-mail your order in.</p>
-
-<div class="TABLE"><a id="AEN661" name="AEN661"></a>
-<p><b>Table 3-1. Slackware Linux, Inc. Contact Information</b></p>
-
-<table border="0" frame="void" class="CALSTABLE">
-<col width="1*" />
-<col width="2*" />
-<thead>
-<tr>
-<th>Method</th>
-<th>Contact Details</th>
-</tr>
-</thead>
-
-<tbody>
-<tr>
-<td>Telephone</td>
-<td>1-(925) 674-0783</td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td>Website</td>
-<td>http://store.slackware.com</td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td>Email</td>
-<td>orders@slackware.com</td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td>Postal</td>
-<td>1164 Claremont Drive, Brentwood, CA 94513</td>
-</tr>
-</tbody>
-</table>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="AEN683" name="AEN683">3.1.2 Via the Internet</a></h3>
-
-<p>Slackware Linux is also freely available over the Internet. You may email in your
-support questions, but higher priority will be given to those who have purchased the
-official CD set. With that said, we get a lot of e-mails and our time is rather limited.
-Before e-mailing for support consider reading <a href="#HELP">Chapter 2</a> first.</p>
-
-<p>The official Slackware Linux Project website is located at:</p>
-
-<p><a href="http://www.slackware.com/" target="_top">http://www.slackware.com/</a></p>
-
-<p>The primary FTP location for Slackware Linux is:</p>
-
-<p><a href="ftp://ftp.slackware.com/pub/slackware/"
-target="_top">ftp://ftp.slackware.com/pub/slackware/</a></p>
-
-<p>Bear in mind that our ftp site, while open for general use, does not have unlimited
-bandwidth. Please consider using a mirror near you to download Slackware. An incomplete
-list of mirrors can be found on our site at <a href="http://www.slackware.com/getslack"
-target="_top">http://www.slackware.com/getslack</a>.</p>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<hr />
-<h2 class="SECT1"><a id="INSTALLATION-REQUIREMENTS" name="INSTALLATION-REQUIREMENTS">3.2
-System Requirements</a></h2>
-
-<p>An easy Slackware installation requires, at minimum, the following:</p>
-
-<div class="TABLE"><a id="AEN706" name="AEN706"></a>
-<p><b>Table 3-2. System Requirements</b></p>
-
-<table border="0" frame="void" class="CALSTABLE">
-<col />
-<col />
-<thead>
-<tr>
-<th>Hardware</th>
-<th>Requirement</th>
-</tr>
-</thead>
-
-<tbody>
-<tr>
-<td>Processor</td>
-<td>586</td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td>RAM</td>
-<td>32 MB</td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td>Disk Space</td>
-<td>1GB</td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td>Media Drive</td>
-<td>4x CD-ROM</td>
-</tr>
-</tbody>
-</table>
-</div>
-
-<p>If you have the bootable CD, you will probably not need a floppy drive. Of course, it
-stands to reason that if you don't possess a CD-ROM drive, you will need a floppy drive
-to do a network install. A network card is required for an NFS install. See the section
-called NFS for more information.</p>
-
-<p>The disk space requirement is somewhat tricky. The 1GB recommendation is usually safe
-for a minimal install, but if you do a full install, you will need around two gigabytes
-of available hard disk space plus additional space for personal files.. Most users don't
-do a full install. In fact, many run Slackware on as little as 100MB of hard disk
-space.</p>
-
-<p>Slackware can be installed to systems with less RAM, smaller hard drives, and weaker
-CPUs, but doing so will require a little elbow grease. If you're up for a little work,
-take a look at the <tt class="FILENAME">LOWMEM.TXT</tt> file in the distribution tree for
-a few helpful hints.</p>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="INSTALLATION-SOFTWARE-SERIES"
-name="INSTALLATION-SOFTWARE-SERIES">3.2.1 The Software Series</a></h3>
-
-<p>For reasons of simplicity, Slackware has historically been divided into software
-series. Once called &#8220;disk sets&#8221; because they were designed for floppy-based
-installation, the software series are now used primarily to categorize the packages
-included in Slackware. Today, floppy installation is no longer possible.</p>
-
-<p>The following is a brief description of each software series.</p>
-
-<div class="TABLE"><a id="AEN746" name="AEN746"></a>
-<p><b>Table 3-3. Software Series</b></p>
-
-<table border="0" frame="void" class="CALSTABLE">
-<col width="1*" />
-<col width="4*" />
-<thead>
-<tr>
-<th>Series</th>
-<th>Contents</th>
-</tr>
-</thead>
-
-<tbody>
-<tr>
-<td>A</td>
-<td>The base system. Contains enough software to get up and running and have a text
-editor and basic communication program.</td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td>AP</td>
-<td>Various applications that do not require the X Window System.</td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td>D</td>
-<td>Program development tools. Compilers, debuggers, interpreters, and man pages are all
-here.</td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td>E</td>
-<td>GNU Emacs.</td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td>F</td>
-<td>FAQs, HOWTOs, and other miscellaneous documentation.</td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td>GNOME</td>
-<td>The GNOME desktop environment.</td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td>K</td>
-<td>The source code for the Linux kernel.</td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td>KDE</td>
-<td>The K Desktop Environment. An X environment which shares a lot of look-and-feel
-features with MacOS and Windows. The Qt library, which KDE requires, is also in this
-series.</td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td>KDEI</td>
-<td>Internationalization packages for the KDE desktop.</td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td>L</td>
-<td>Libraries. Dynamically linked libraries required by many other programs.</td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td>N</td>
-<td>Networking programs. Daemons, mail programs, telnet, news readers, and so on.</td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td>T</td>
-<td>teTeX document formatting system.</td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td>TCL</td>
-<td>The Tool Command Language. Tk, TclX, and TkDesk.</td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td>X</td>
-<td>The base X Window System.</td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td>XAP</td>
-<td>X Applications that are not part of a major desktop environment (for example,
-Ghostscript and Netscape).</td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td>Y</td>
-<td>BSD Console games</td>
-</tr>
-</tbody>
-</table>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="INSTALLATION-METHODS" name="INSTALLATION-METHODS">3.2.2
-Installation Methods</a></h3>
-
-<div class="SECT3">
-<h4 class="SECT3"><a id="INSTALLATION-INSTALLATION-METHODS-FLOPPY"
-name="INSTALLATION-INSTALLATION-METHODS-FLOPPY">3.2.2.1 Floppy</a></h4>
-
-<p>While it was once possible to install all of Slackware Linux from floppy disks, the
-increasing size of software packages (indeed, of some individual programs) has forced the
-abandonment of the floppy install. As late as Slackware version 7.1 a partial install was
-possible using floppy disks. The A and N series could be nearly entirely installed,
-providing a base system from which to install the rest of the distribution. If you are
-considering a floppy install (typically on older hardware), it is typically recommended
-to find another way, or use an older release. Slackware 4.0 is still very popular for
-this reason, as is 7.0.</p>
-
-<p>Please note that floppy disks are still required for a CD-ROM install if you do not
-have a bootable CD, as well as for an NFS install.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT3">
-<hr />
-<h4 class="SECT3"><a id="INSTALLATION-INSTALLLATION-METHODS-CDROM"
-name="INSTALLATION-INSTALLLATION-METHODS-CDROM">3.2.2.2 CD-ROM</a></h4>
-
-<p>If you have the bootable CD, available in the official disc set published by Slackware
-Linux, Inc. (see the section called Getting Slackware), a CD-based installation will be a
-bit simpler for you. If not, you will need to boot from floppies. Also, if you have
-special hardware that makes usage of the kernel on the bootable CD problematic, you may
-need to use specialized floppies.</p>
-
-<p>As of Slackware version 8.1, a new method is used for creating the bootable CDs, which
-does not work as well with certain flaky BIOS chips (it is worth noting that most all
-Linux CDs suffer from this these days). If that is the case, we recommend booting from a
-floppy disk.</p>
-
-<p><a href="#INSTALLATION-INSTALLATION-METHODS-BOOTDISK">Section 3.2.3</a> and <a
-href="#INSTALLATION-SUPPLEMENTAL-DISK">Section 3.2.5</a> provide information on choosing
-and creating floppies from which to boot, should this be necessary.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT3">
-<hr />
-<h4 class="SECT3"><a id="AEN823" name="AEN823">3.2.2.3 NFS</a></h4>
-
-<p>NFS (the Network File System) is a way of making filesystems available to remote
-machines. An NFS install allows you to install Slackware from another computer on your
-network. The machine from which you are installing needs to be configured to export the
-Slackware distribution tree to the machine to which you're installing. This, of course,
-involves some knowledge of NFS, which is covered in <a
-href="#NETWORK-CONFIGURATION-NFS">Section 5.6</a>.</p>
-
-<p>It is possible to perform an NFS install via such methods as PLIP (over a parallel
-port), SLIP, and PPP (though not over a modem connection). However, we recommend the use
-of a network card if available. After all, installing an operating system through your
-printer port is going to be a very, very slow process.</p>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="INSTALLATION-INSTALLATION-METHODS-BOOTDISK"
-name="INSTALLATION-INSTALLATION-METHODS-BOOTDISK">3.2.3 Boot Disk</a></h3>
-
-<p>The boot disk is the floppy you actually boot from to begin the installation. It
-contains a compressed kernel image which is used to control the hardware during
-installation. Therefore, it is very much required (unless you're booting from CD, as is
-discussed in the section called CD-ROM). The boot disks are located in the <tt
-class="FILENAME">bootdisks/</tt> directory in the distribution tree.</p>
-
-<p>There are more Slackware boot disks than you can shake a stick at (which is to say
-about 16). A complete list of boot disks, with a description of each, is available in the
-Slackware distribution tree in the file <tt class="FILENAME">bootdisks/README.TXT</tt>.
-However, most people are able to use the <tt class="FILENAME">bare.i</tt> (for IDE
-devices) or <tt class="FILENAME">scsi.s</tt> (for SCSI devices) boot disk image.</p>
-
-<p>See <a href="#INSTALLATION-MAKING-THE-DISKS">Section 3.2.6</a> for instructions on
-making a disk from an image.</p>
-
-<p>After booting, you will be prompted to insert the root disk. We recommend that you
-just humor the boot disk and play along.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="INSTALLATION-INSTALLATION-METHODS-ROOTDISK"
-name="INSTALLATION-INSTALLATION-METHODS-ROOTDISK">3.2.4 Root Disk</a></h3>
-
-<p>The root disks contain the setup program and a filesystem which is used during
-installation. They are also required. The root disk images are located in the directory
-rootdisks in the distribution tree. You'll have to make two root disks from the <tt
-class="FILENAME">install.1</tt> and <tt class="FILENAME">install.2</tt> images. Here you
-can also find the <tt class="FILENAME">network.dsk</tt>, <tt
-class="FILENAME">pcmcia.dsk</tt>, <tt class="FILENAME">rescue.dsk</tt>, and <tt
-class="FILENAME">sbootmgr.dsk</tt> disks.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="INSTALLATION-SUPPLEMENTAL-DISK"
-name="INSTALLATION-SUPPLEMENTAL-DISK">3.2.5 Supplemental Disk</a></h3>
-
-<p>A supplemental disk is needed if you are performing an NFS install or installing to a
-system with PCMCIA devices. Supplemental disks are in the rootdsks directory in the
-distribution tree, with the filenames <tt class="FILENAME">network.dsk</tt> and <tt
-class="FILENAME">pcmcia.dsk</tt>. Recently other supplemental disks such as <tt
-class="FILENAME">rescue.dsk</tt> and <tt class="FILENAME">sbootmgr.dsk</tt> have been
-added. The rescue disk is a small floppy root image that runs in a 4MB RAM drive. It
-includes some basic networking utilities and the vi editor for quick fixes on busted
-machines. The <tt class="FILENAME">sbootmgr.dsk</tt> disk is used to boot other devices.
-Boot off this disk if your bootable CD-ROM drive doesn't want to boot the Slackware CDs.
-It will prompt you for different things to boot and may offer a convenient way to work
-around a buggy BIOS.</p>
-
-<p>The root disk will instruct you on the use of supplemental disks when it is
-loaded.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="INSTALLATION-MAKING-THE-DISKS"
-name="INSTALLATION-MAKING-THE-DISKS">3.2.6 Making the Disks</a></h3>
-
-<p>Once you've selected a boot disk image, you need to put it on a floppy. The process is
-slightly different depending on which operating system you're using to make the disks. If
-you're running Linux (or pretty much any Unix-like OS) you'll need to use the <tt
-class="COMMAND">dd</tt>(1) command. Assuming <tt class="FILENAME">bare.i</tt> is your
-disk image file and your floppy drive is <tt class="FILENAME">/dev/fd0</tt>, the command
-to make a <tt class="FILENAME">bare.i</tt> floppy is:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">dd if=bare.i of=/dev/fd0</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>If you're running a Microsoft OS, you'll need to use the <tt
-class="FILENAME">RAWRITE.EXE</tt> program, which is included in the distribution tree in
-the same directories as the floppy images. Again assuming that <tt
-class="FILENAME">bare.i</tt> is your disk image file and your floppy drive is <tt
-class="FILENAME">A:</tt>, open a DOS prompt and type the following:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-C:\ <kbd class="USERINPUT">rawrite a: bare.i</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<hr />
-<h2 class="SECT1"><a id="INSTALLATION-PARTITIONING" name="INSTALLATION-PARTITIONING">3.3
-Partitioning</a></h2>
-
-<p>After booting from your preferred media, you will need to partition your hard disk.
-The disk partition is where the Linux filesystem will be created and is where Slackware
-will be installed. At the very minimum we recommend creating two partitions; one for your
-root filesystem (<tt class="FILENAME">/</tt>) and one for swap space.</p>
-
-<p>After the root disk finishes loading, it will present you with a login prompt. Log in
-as root (there is no password). At the shell prompt, run either <tt
-class="COMMAND">cfdisk</tt>(8) or <tt class="COMMAND">fdisk</tt>(8). The <tt
-class="COMMAND">cfdisk</tt> program provides a more user-friendly interface than the
-regular <tt class="COMMAND">fdisk</tt> program, but does lack some features. We will
-briefly explain the <tt class="COMMAND">fdisk</tt> program below.</p>
-
-<p>Begin by running <tt class="COMMAND">fdisk</tt> for your hard disk. In Linux, the hard
-disks do not have drive letters, but are represented by a file. The first IDE hard disk
-(primary master) is <tt class="FILENAME">/dev/hda</tt>, the primary slave is <tt
-class="FILENAME">/dev/hdb</tt>, and so on. SCSI disks follow the same type system, but
-are in the form of <tt class="FILENAME">/dev/sd<var class="REPLACEABLE">X</var></tt>. You
-will need to start <tt class="COMMAND">fdisk</tt> and pass it your hard disk:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">fdisk /dev/hda</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>Like all good Unix programs, <tt class="COMMAND">fdisk</tt> gives you a prompt
-(thought you were getting a menu, right?). The first thing you should do is examine your
-current partitions. We do that by typing <kbd class="USERINPUT">p</kbd> at the <tt
-class="COMMAND">fdisk</tt> prompt:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-Command (m for help): <kbd class="USERINPUT">p</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>This will display all sorts of information about your current partitions. Most people
-pick a free drive to install to and then remove any existing partitions on it to create
-room for the Linux partitions.</p>
-
-<div class="WARNING">
-<table class="WARNING" width="100%" border="0">
-<tr>
-<td width="25" align="CENTER" valign="TOP"><img src="./imagelib/admon/warning.png"
-hspace="5" alt="Warning" /></td>
-<td align="LEFT" valign="TOP">
-<p>IT IS VERY IMPORTANT THAT YOU BACK UP ANY INFORMATION YOU WANT TO SAVE BEFORE
-DESTROYING THE PARTITION IT LIVES ON.</p>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-</div>
-
-<p>There is no easy way to recover from deleting a partition, so always back up before
-playing with them.</p>
-
-<p>Looking at the table of partition information you should see a partition number, the
-size of the partition, and its type. There's more information, but don't worry about that
-for now. We are going to delete all of the partitions on this drive to create the Linux
-ones. We run the <kbd class="USERINPUT">d</kbd> command to delete those:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-Command (m for help): <kbd class="USERINPUT">d</kbd>
-Partition number (1-4): <kbd class="USERINPUT">1</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>This process should be continued for each of the partitions. After deleting the
-partitions we are ready to create the Linux ones. We have decided to create one partition
-for our root filesystem and one for swap. It is worth noting that Unix partitioning
-schemes are the subject of many flame wars, and that most users will tell you the best
-way to do it. At a minimum, you should create one partition for <tt
-class="FILENAME">/</tt> and one for swap. Over time, you'll develop a method that works
-well for you.</p>
-
-<p>I use two basic partition schemes. The first is for a desktop. I make 4 partitions,
-<tt class="FILENAME">/</tt>, <tt class="FILENAME">/home</tt>, <tt
-class="FILENAME">/usr/local</tt>, and swap. This lets me re-install or upgrade the entire
-installation under <tt class="FILENAME">/</tt> without wiping out my data files under
-/home or my custom compiled applications under <tt class="FILENAME">/usr/local</tt>. For
-servers, I often replace the <tt class="FILENAME">/usr/local</tt> partition with a <tt
-class="FILENAME">/var</tt> partition. Many different servers store information on that
-partition and having it kept separate from <tt class="FILENAME">/</tt> has certain
-performance benefits. For now, we're sticking with just two partitions: <tt
-class="FILENAME">/</tt> and swap.</p>
-
-<p>Now we create the partitions with the <kbd class="USERINPUT">n</kbd> command:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-Command (m for help): <kbd class="USERINPUT">n</kbd>
-Command action
- e extended
- p primary partition (1-4)
-<kbd class="USERINPUT">p</kbd>
-Partition number (1-4):<kbd class="USERINPUT">1</kbd>
-First cylinder (0-1060, default 0):<kbd class="USERINPUT">0</kbd>
- Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (0-1060, default 1060):<kbd
-class="USERINPUT">+64M</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>You need to make sure you create primary partitions. The first partition is going to
-be our swap partition. We tell fdisk to make partition number 1 a primary partition. We
-start it at cylinder 0 and for the ending cylinder we type +64M. This will give us a 64
-megabyte partition for swap. (The size of the swap partition you need actually depends on
-the amount of RAM you have. It is conventional wisdom that a swap space double the size
-of your RAM should be created.) Then we define primary partition number 2 starting at the
-first available cylinder and going all the way to the end of the drive.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-Command (m for help):<kbd class="USERINPUT">n</kbd>
-Command action
- e extended
- p primary partition (1-4)
-<kbd class="USERINPUT">p</kbd>
-Partition number (1-4):<kbd class="USERINPUT">2</kbd>
-First cylinder (124-1060, default 124):<kbd class="USERINPUT">124</kbd>
-Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (124-1060, default 1060):<kbd
-class="USERINPUT">1060</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>We are almost done. We need to change the type of the first partition to type 82
-(Linux swap). Type <kbd class="USERINPUT">t</kbd> to change the type, select the first
-partition, and type <var class="LITERAL">82</var>. Before writing your changes to the
-disk, you should look at the new partition table one last time. Use the <kbd
-class="USERINPUT">p</kbd> in <tt class="COMMAND">fdisk</tt> to display the partition
-table. If everything looks good, type <kbd class="USERINPUT">w</kbd> to write your
-changes to the disk and quit <tt class="COMMAND">fdisk</tt>.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<hr />
-<h2 class="SECT1"><a id="INSTALLATION-SETUP" name="INSTALLATION-SETUP">3.4 The <tt
-class="COMMAND">setup</tt> Program</a></h2>
-
-<p>Once you have created your partitions, you are ready to install Slackware. The next
-step in the installation process is running the <tt class="COMMAND">setup</tt>(8)
-program. To do so, simply type <tt class="COMMAND">setup</tt> at the shell prompt. <tt
-class="COMMAND">setup</tt> is a menu-driven system for actually installing the Slackware
-packages and configuring your system.</p>
-
-<div class="INFORMALFIGURE"><a id="AEN981" name="AEN981"></a>
-<p><img src="installation/setup-program-w.png" /></p>
-</div>
-
-<p>The setup process goes something like this: You step through each option in the <tt
-class="COMMAND">setup</tt> program, in the order they are listed. (Of course, you are
-free to do things in almost any order you choose, but chances are it isn't going to work
-out very well.) Menu items are selected using the up and down arrow keys, and the
-&#8220;Okay&#8221; and &#8220;Cancel&#8221; buttons can be chosen by using the left and
-right arrow keys. Alternatively, each option has a corresponding key, which is
-highlighted in the option name. Options which are flaggable (those indicated with a <var
-class="LITERAL">[X]</var>) are toggled using the spacebar.</p>
-
-<p>Of course, all of that is described in the &#8220;help&#8221; section of <tt
-class="COMMAND">setup</tt>, but we believe in giving our readers their money's worth.</p>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="AEN993" name="AEN993">3.4.1 HELP</a></h3>
-
-<p>If this is your first time installing Slackware, you might want to take a look at the
-help screen. It will give a description of each part of <tt class="COMMAND">setup</tt>
-(much like the one we're writing now, but less involved) and instructions for navigating
-the rest of the install.</p>
-
-<div class="INFORMALFIGURE"><a id="AEN997" name="AEN997"></a>
-<p><img src="installation/setup-help-w.png" /></p>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="AEN1001" name="AEN1001">3.4.2 KEYMAP</a></h3>
-
-<p>If you require a keymap other than the United States &#8220;qwerty&#8221; layout, you
-may want to take a look at this section. It offers a number of alternate layouts for your
-keyboarding enjoyment.</p>
-
-<div class="INFORMALFIGURE"><a id="AEN1009" name="AEN1009"></a>
-<p><img src="installation/setup-keymap-w.png" /></p>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="AEN1013" name="AEN1013">3.4.3 ADDSWAP</a></h3>
-
-<div class="INFORMALFIGURE"><a id="AEN1015" name="AEN1015"></a>
-<p><img src="installation/setup-swap-w.png" /></p>
-</div>
-
-<p>If you created a swap partition (back in <a href="#INSTALLATION-PARTITIONING">Section
-3.3</a>), this section will allow you to enable it. It will autodetect and display the
-swap partitions on your hard drive, allowing you to select one to format and enable.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="AEN1023" name="AEN1023">3.4.4 TARGET</a></h3>
-
-<div class="INFORMALFIGURE"><a id="AEN1025" name="AEN1025"></a>
-<p><img src="installation/setup-target-w.png" /></p>
-</div>
-
-<p>The target section is where your other (non-swap) partitions are formatted and mapped
-to filesystem mount points. A list of the partitions on your hard disk will be displayed.
-For each partition, you will be given the option of whether to format that partition or
-not. Depending on the kernel used, you can choose between reiserfs (the default), ext3,
-ext2, jfs, and xfs. Most people use either reiserfs or ext3. In the near future we may
-see support for reiserfs4 slip in.</p>
-
-<p>The first option in the target section is the selection of a partition on which to
-install your root (<tt class="FILENAME">/</tt>) filesystem. After that, you will be able
-to map other partitions to filesystems as you choose. (For instance, you may want your
-third partition, say <tt class="FILENAME">/dev/hda3</tt>, to be your home filesystem.
-This is just an example; map the partitions as you see fit.)</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="AEN1035" name="AEN1035">3.4.5 SOURCE</a></h3>
-
-<p>The source section is where you select the source media from which you are installing
-Slackware. Currently there are four sources to choose from. These are CD-ROM, NFS, or a
-premounted directory.</p>
-
-<div class="INFORMALFIGURE"><a id="AEN1038" name="AEN1038"></a>
-<p><img src="installation/setup-source-w.png" /></p>
-</div>
-
-<p>The CD-ROM selection enables a CD-ROM based installation. It will offer the option of
-scanning for a CD-ROM drive or displaying a list from which you can pick your drive type.
-Make sure you have the Slackware CD in your drive before allowing it to scan.</p>
-
-<p>The NFS selection prompts for your network information and the network information for
-your NFS server. The NFS server must be set up in advance. Also note that you cannot use
-hostnames, you must use the IP addresses for both your machine and the NFS server (there
-is no name resolver on the setup disk). Naturally you must have used the <tt
-class="FILENAME">network.dsk</tt> floppy to add support for your network controller.</p>
-
-<p>The premounted directory offers the most flexibility. You can use this method to
-install from things such as Jaz disks, NFS mounts over PLIP, and FAT filesystems. Mount
-the filesystem to a location of your choosing before running setup, then specify that
-location here.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="AEN1054" name="AEN1054">3.4.6 SELECT</a></h3>
-
-<p>The select option allows you to select the software series that you wish to install.
-These series are described in <a href="#INSTALLATION-SOFTWARE-SERIES">Section 3.2.1</a>.
-Please note that you must install the A series to have a working base system. All other
-series are optional.</p>
-
-<div class="INFORMALFIGURE"><a id="AEN1058" name="AEN1058"></a>
-<p><img src="installation/setup-select-w.png" /></p>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="AEN1062" name="AEN1062">3.4.7 INSTALL</a></h3>
-
-<p>Assuming that you have gone through the &#8220;target&#8221;, &#8220;source&#8221;,
-and &#8220;select&#8221; options, the <var class="OPTION">install</var> option will allow
-you to select packages from your chosen software series. If not, it will prompt you to go
-back and complete the other sections of the setup program. This option allows you to
-select from six different installation methods: <var class="OPTION">full</var>, <var
-class="OPTION">newbie</var>, <var class="OPTION">menu</var>, <var
-class="OPTION">expert</var>, <var class="OPTION">custom</var>, and <var
-class="OPTION">tag path</var>.</p>
-
-<div class="INFORMALFIGURE"><a id="AEN1077" name="AEN1077"></a>
-<p><img src="installation/setup-install-w.png" /></p>
-</div>
-
-<p>The <var class="OPTION">full</var> option will install every package from all the
-software series that you chose in the &#8220;select&#8221; section. There is no further
-prompting. This is the easiest installation method, since you do not need to make any
-decisions on the actual packages to install. Of course, this option also takes up the
-most hard drive space.</p>
-
-<p>The next option is <var class="OPTION">newbie</var>. This option installs all of the
-required packages in the selected series. For all other packages, it offers a prompt
-where you can select &#8220;Yes&#8221;, &#8220;No&#8221;, or &#8220;Skip&#8221;. Yes and
-No do the obvious, while Skip will go ahead to the next software series. Additionally,
-you will see a description and size requirement for each package to help you decide if
-you need it. We recommend this option for new users, as it ensures that you get all the
-required packages installed. However, it is a little slow because of the prompting.</p>
-
-<p><var class="OPTION">Menu</var> is a faster and more advanced version of the newbie
-option. For each series, a menu is displayed, from which you can select all the
-non-required packages you want to install. Required packages are not displayed on this
-menu.</p>
-
-<p>For the more advanced user, install offers the <var class="OPTION">expert</var>
-option. This allows you complete control over what packages get installed. You can
-deselect packages that are absolutely required, resulting in a broken system. On the
-other hand, you can control exactly what goes onto your system. Simply select the
-packages from each series that you want installed. This is not recommended for the new
-user, as it is quite easy to shoot yourself in the foot.</p>
-
-<p>The <var class="OPTION">custom</var> and <var class="OPTION">tag path</var> options
-are also for advanced users. These options allow you to install based upon custom tag
-files that you created in the distribution tree. This is useful for installing to large
-numbers of machines fairly quickly. For more information on using tag files, see <a
-href="#PACKAGE-MANAGEMENT-MAKING-TAGS-AND-TAGFILES">Section 18.4</a>.</p>
-
-<p>After selecting your installation method, one of a few things will happen. If you
-selected full or menu, a menu screen will appear, allowing you to select the packages to
-be installed. If you selected full, packages will immediately start getting installed to
-the target. If you selected newbie, packages will be installed until an optional package
-is reached.</p>
-
-<p>Note that it is possible to run out of space while installing. If you selected too
-many packages for the amount of free space on the target device, you will have problems.
-The safest thing to do is to select some software and add more later, if you need it.
-This can easily be done using Slackware's package management tools. For this information,
-see <a href="#PACKAGE-MANAGEMENT">Chapter 18</a>.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="AEN1100" name="AEN1100">3.4.8 CONFIGURE</a></h3>
-
-<p>The configure section allows you to do some basic system configuration, now that the
-packages have been installed. What you see here depends in large part upon which software
-you have installed. You will, however, always see the following:</p>
-
-<div class="SECT3">
-<hr />
-<h4 class="SECT3"><a id="AEN1103" name="AEN1103">3.4.8.1 Kernel selection</a></h4>
-
-<p>Here you will be asked to select a kernel to install. You can install the kernel from
-the boot disk you used to install, the Slackware CD-ROM, or from another floppy which you
-(always thinking ahead) have prepared. Or you can elect to skip, in which case the
-default kernel will be installed and play will continue to the dealer's left.</p>
-
-<div class="INFORMALFIGURE"><a id="AEN1106" name="AEN1106"></a>
-<p><img src="installation/setup-kernel-w.png" /></p>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT3">
-<hr />
-<h4 class="SECT3"><a id="AEN1110" name="AEN1110">3.4.8.2 Make a boot disk</a></h4>
-
-<p>Making a boot disk for future use is probably a good idea. You will have the option of
-formatting a floppy and then creating one of two types of boot disk. The first type, <var
-class="OPTION">simple</var>, simply (go figure) writes a kernel to the floppy. A more
-flexible (and highly recommended) option is <var class="OPTION">lilo</var>, which will of
-course create a lilo boot disk. See LILO in <a href="#BOOTING-LILO">Section 7.1</a> for
-more information. Of course, you may also choose to simply <var
-class="LITERAL">continue</var>, in which case no boot disk will be made.</p>
-
-<div class="INFORMALFIGURE"><a id="AEN1119" name="AEN1119"></a>
-<p><img src="installation/setup-bootdisk-w.png" /></p>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT3">
-<hr />
-<h4 class="SECT3"><a id="AEN1123" name="AEN1123">3.4.8.3 Modem</a></h4>
-
-<p>You will be prompted for modem information. More specifically, you will be asked
-whether you have a modem, and if so, what serial port it is on.</p>
-
-<div class="INFORMALFIGURE"><a id="AEN1128" name="AEN1128"></a>
-<p><img src="installation/setup-modem-w.png" /></p>
-</div>
-
-<p>These next configuration subsections may or may not appear, depending on whether or
-not you installed their corresponding packages.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT3">
-<hr />
-<h4 class="SECT3"><a id="AEN1133" name="AEN1133">3.4.8.4 Timezone</a></h4>
-
-<p>This one's pretty straightforward: you will be asked what time zone you are in. If you
-operate on Zulu time, we are very sorry; the (extremely long) list is alphabetically
-ordered, and you're at the bottom.</p>
-
-<div class="INFORMALFIGURE"><a id="AEN1138" name="AEN1138"></a>
-<p><img src="installation/setup-timezone-w.png" /></p>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT3">
-<hr />
-<h4 class="SECT3"><a id="AEN1142" name="AEN1142">3.4.8.5 Mouse</a></h4>
-
-<p>This subsection simply asks what kind of mouse you have, and whether you want <tt
-class="COMMAND">gpm</tt>(8) console mouse support enabled on bootup.</p>
-
-<div class="INFORMALFIGURE"><a id="AEN1148" name="AEN1148"></a>
-<p><img src="installation/setup-mouse-w.png" /></p>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT3">
-<hr />
-<h4 class="SECT3"><a id="AEN1152" name="AEN1152">3.4.8.6 Hardware clock</a></h4>
-
-<p>This subsection asks if your computer's hardware clock is set to Coordinated Universal
-Time (UTC or GMT). Most PCs are not, so you should probably say no.</p>
-
-<div class="INFORMALFIGURE"><a id="AEN1155" name="AEN1155"></a>
-<p><img src="installation/setup-hardware-clock-w.png" /></p>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT3">
-<hr />
-<h4 class="SECT3"><a id="AEN1159" name="AEN1159">3.4.8.7 Font</a></h4>
-
-<p>The font subsection allows you to choose from a list of custom console fonts.</p>
-
-<div class="INFORMALFIGURE"><a id="AEN1164" name="AEN1164"></a>
-<p><img src="installation/setup-font-w.png" /></p>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT3">
-<hr />
-<h4 class="SECT3"><a id="AEN1168" name="AEN1168">3.4.8.8 LILO</a></h4>
-
-<p>Here you are prompted for installation of LILO (the LInux LOader; see <a
-href="#BOOTING-LILO">Section 7.1</a> for more information).</p>
-
-<div class="INFORMALFIGURE"><a id="AEN1174" name="AEN1174"></a>
-<p><img src="installation/setup-lilo-w.png" /></p>
-</div>
-
-<p>If Slackware is to be the only operating system on your computer, <var
-class="OPTION">simple</var> should work just fine for you. If you are dual-booting, the
-<var class="OPTION">expert</var> option is a better choice. See <a
-href="#BOOTING-DUAL">Section 7.3</a> for more information on dual-booting. The third
-option, <var class="OPTION">do not install</var>, is not recommended unless you know what
-you're doing and have a very good reason for not installing LILO. If you are performing
-an expert install, you will be given a choice as to where LILO will be put. You may place
-LILO in the MBR (Master Boot Record) of your hard drive, in the superblock of your root
-Linux partition, or on a floppy disk.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT3">
-<hr />
-<h4 class="SECT3"><a id="AEN1183" name="AEN1183">3.4.8.9 Network</a></h4>
-
-<p>The network configuration subsection is actually <tt class="COMMAND">netconfig</tt>.
-See <a href="#NETWORK-CONFIGURATION-NETCONFIG">Section 5.1</a> for more information.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT3">
-<hr />
-<h4 class="SECT3"><a id="AEN1190" name="AEN1190">3.4.8.10 X Window Manager</a></h4>
-
-<p>This subsection will allow you to choose a default window manager for X. See <a
-href="#X-WINDOW-SYSTEM">Chapter 6</a> for more details on X and window managers.</p>
-
-<div class="INFORMALFIGURE"><a id="AEN1198" name="AEN1198"></a>
-<p><img src="installation/setup-xwmconfig-w.png" /></p>
-</div>
-
-<p>No matter which packages you installed, the last thing configure will do is ask you
-whether you want to go ahead and set a <tt class="USERNAME">root</tt> password. For
-security reasons, this is probably a good idea; however, like almost everything else in
-Slackware, this is your call.</p>
-</div>
-</div>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="CHAPTER">
-<hr />
-<h1><a id="SYSTEM-CONFIGURATION" name="SYSTEM-CONFIGURATION"></a>Chapter 4 System
-Configuration</h1>
-
-<p>Before you can configure the more advanced parts of your system, it's a good idea to
-learn how the system is organized and what commands can be used to search for files and
-programs. It's also good to know if you need to compile a custom kernel and what the
-steps for doing that are. This chapter will familiarize you with system organization and
-configuration files. Then, you can move on to configuring the more advanced parts of the
-system.</p>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<hr />
-<h2 class="SECT1"><a id="SYSTEM-CONFIGURATION-OVERVIEW"
-name="SYSTEM-CONFIGURATION-OVERVIEW">4.1 System Overview</a></h2>
-
-<p>It's important to understand how a Linux system is put together before diving into the
-various configuration aspects. A Linux system is significantly different from a DOS,
-Windows, or Macintosh system (with the exception of the Unix-based Mac OS X), but these
-sections will help you get acquainted with the layout so that you can easily configure
-your system to meet your needs.</p>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="SYSTEM-CONFIGURATION-LAYOUT"
-name="SYSTEM-CONFIGURATION-LAYOUT">4.1.1 File System Layout</a></h3>
-
-<p>The first noticeable difference between Slackware Linux and a DOS or Windows system is
-the filesystem. For starters, we do not use drive letters to denote different partitions.
-Under Linux, there is one main directory. You can relate this to the <tt
-class="DEVICENAME">C:</tt> drive under DOS. Each partition on your system is mounted to a
-directory on the main directory. It's kind of like an ever-expanding hard disk.</p>
-
-<p>We call the main directory the root directory, and it's denoted with a single slash
-(<tt class="FILENAME">/</tt>). This concept may seem strange, but it actually makes life
-easy for you when you want to add more space. For example, let's say you run out of space
-on the drive that has <tt class="FILENAME">/home</tt> on it. Most people install
-Slackware and make one big root drive. Well, since a partition can be mounted to any
-directory, you can simply go to the store and pick up a new hard drive and mount it to
-<tt class="FILENAME">/home</tt>. You've now grafted on some more space to your system.
-And all without having to move many things around.</p>
-
-<p>Below, you will find descriptions of the major top level directories under
-Slackware.</p>
-
-<div class="VARIABLELIST">
-<dl>
-<dt><tt class="FILENAME">bin</tt></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Essential user programs are stored here. These represent the bare minimum set of
-programs required for a user to use the system. Things like the shell and the filesystem
-commands (<tt class="COMMAND">ls</tt>, <tt class="COMMAND">cp</tt>, and so on) are stored
-here. The <tt class="FILENAME">/bin</tt> directory usually doesn't receive modification
-after installation. If it does, it's usually in the form of package upgrades that we
-provide.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><tt class="FILENAME">boot</tt></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Files that are used by the Linux Loader (LILO). This directory also receives little
-modification after an installation. The kernel is stored here as of Slackware 8.1. In
-earlier releases of Slackware, the kernel was simply stored under <tt
-class="FILENAME">/</tt> , but common practice is to put the kernel and related files here
-to facilitate dual-booting.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><tt class="FILENAME">dev</tt></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Everything in Linux is treated as a file, even hardware devices like serial ports,
-hard disks, and scanners. In order to access these devices, a special file called a
-device node has to be present. All device nodes are stored in the <tt
-class="FILENAME">/dev</tt> directory. You will find this to be true across many Unix-like
-operating systems.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><tt class="FILENAME">etc</tt></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>This directory holds system configuration files. Everything from the X Window
-configuration file, the user database, to the system startup scripts. The system
-administrator will become quite familiar with this directory over time.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><tt class="FILENAME">home</tt></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Linux is a multiuser operating system. Each user on the system is given an account and
-a unique directory for personal files. This directory is called the user's home
-directory. The <tt class="FILENAME">/home</tt> directory is provided as the default
-location for user home directories.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><tt class="FILENAME">lib</tt></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>System libraries that are required for basic operation are stored here. The C library,
-the dynamic loader, the ncurses library, and kernel modules are among the things stored
-here.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><tt class="FILENAME">mnt</tt></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>This directory contains temporary mount points for working on hard disks or removable
-drives. Here you'll find mount points for your CD-ROM and floppy drives.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><tt class="FILENAME">opt</tt></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Optional software packages. The idea behind <tt class="FILENAME">/opt</tt> is that
-each software package installs to <tt class="FILENAME">/opt/<var
-class="REPLACEABLE">software-package</var></tt>, which makes it easy to remove later.
-Slackware distributes some things in <tt class="FILENAME">/opt</tt> (such as KDE in <tt
-class="FILENAME">/opt/kde</tt>), but you are free to add anything you want to <tt
-class="FILENAME">/opt</tt>.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><tt class="FILENAME">proc</tt></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>This is a unique directory. It's not really part of the filesystem, but a virtual
-filesystem that provides access to kernel information. Various pieces of information that
-the kernel wants you to know are conveyed to you through files in the <tt
-class="FILENAME">/proc</tt> directory. You can also send information to the kernel
-through some of these files. Try doing <tt class="COMMAND">cat /proc/cpuinfo</tt>.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><tt class="FILENAME">root</tt></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>The system administrator is known as <tt class="USERNAME">root</tt> on the system. <tt
-class="USERNAME">root</tt>'s home directory is kept in <tt class="FILENAME">/root</tt>
-instead of <tt class="FILENAME">/home/root</tt>. The reason is simple. What if <tt
-class="FILENAME">/home</tt> was a different partition from <tt class="FILENAME">/</tt>
-and it could not be mounted? <tt class="USERNAME">root</tt> would naturally want to log
-in and repair the problem. If his home directory was on the damaged filesystem, it would
-make it difficult for him to log in.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><tt class="FILENAME">sbin</tt></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Essential programs that are run by <tt class="USERNAME">root</tt> and during the
-system bootup process are kept here. Normal users will not run programs in this
-directory.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><tt class="FILENAME">tmp</tt></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>The temporary storage location. All users have read and write access to this
-directory.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><tt class="FILENAME">usr</tt></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>This is the big directory on a Linux system. Everything else pretty much goes here,
-programs, documentation, the kernel source code, and the X Window system. This is the
-directory to which you will most likely be installing programs.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><tt class="FILENAME">var</tt></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>System log files, cache data, and program lock files are stored here. This is the
-directory for frequently-changing data.</p>
-</dd>
-</dl>
-</div>
-
-<p>You should now have a good feel for which directories contain what on the filesystem.
-More detailed information about the filesystem layout is available in the hier(7) man
-page. The next section will help you find specific files easily, so you don't have to do
-it by hand.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="SYSTEM-CONFIGURATION-FINDING"
-name="SYSTEM-CONFIGURATION-FINDING">4.1.2 Finding Files</a></h3>
-
-<p>You now know what each major directory holds, but it still doesn't really help you
-find things. I mean, you could go looking through directories, but there are quicker
-ways. There are four main file search commands available in Slackware.</p>
-
-<div class="SECT3">
-<hr />
-<h4 class="SECT3"><a id="AEN1329" name="AEN1329">4.1.2.1 <tt
-class="COMMAND">which</tt></a></h4>
-
-<p>The first is the <tt class="COMMAND">which</tt>(1) command. <tt
-class="COMMAND">which</tt> is usually used to locate a program quickly. It just searches
-your <tt class="ENVAR">PATH</tt> and returns the first instance it finds and the
-directory path to it. Take this example:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">which bash</kbd>
-/bin/bash
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>From that you see that <tt class="COMMAND">bash</tt> is in the <tt
-class="FILENAME">/bin</tt> directory. This is a very limited command for searching, since
-it only searches your <tt class="ENVAR">PATH</tt>.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT3">
-<hr />
-<h4 class="SECT3"><a id="AEN1347" name="AEN1347">4.1.2.2 <tt
-class="COMMAND">whereis</tt></a></h4>
-
-<p>The <tt class="COMMAND">whereis</tt>(1) command works similar to <tt
-class="COMMAND">which</tt>, but can also search for man pages and source files. A <tt
-class="COMMAND">whereis</tt> search for <tt class="COMMAND">bash</tt> should return
-this:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">whereis bash</kbd>
-bash: /bin/bash /usr/bin/bash /usr/man/man1/bash.1.gz
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>This command not only told us where the actual program is located, but also where the
-online documentation is stored. Still, this command is limited. What if you wanted to
-search for a specific configuration file? You can't use <tt class="COMMAND">which</tt> or
-<tt class="COMMAND">whereis</tt> for that.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT3">
-<hr />
-<h4 class="SECT3"><a id="AEN1363" name="AEN1363">4.1.2.3 <tt
-class="COMMAND">find</tt></a></h4>
-
-<p>The <tt class="COMMAND">find</tt>(1) command allows the user to search the filesystem
-with a rich collection of search predicates. Users may specify a search with filename
-wildcards, ranges of modification or creation times, or other advanced properties. For
-example, to search for the default <tt class="FILENAME">xinitrc</tt> file on the system,
-the following command could be used.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">find / -name xinitrc</kbd>
-/var/X11R6/lib/xinit/xinitrc
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">find</tt> will take a while to run, since it has to traverse the
-entire root directory tree. And if this command is run as a normal user, there will be
-permission denied error messages for directories that only <tt class="USERNAME">root</tt>
-can see. But <tt class="COMMAND">find</tt> found our file, so that's good. If only it
-could be a bit faster...</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT3">
-<hr />
-<h4 class="SECT3"><a id="AEN1378" name="AEN1378">4.1.2.4 <tt
-class="COMMAND">slocate</tt></a></h4>
-
-<p>The <tt class="COMMAND">slocate</tt>(1) command searches the entire filesystem, just
-like the find command can do, but it searches a database instead of the actual
-filesystem. The database is set to automatically update every morning, so you have a
-somewhat fresh listing of files on your system. You can manually run <tt
-class="COMMAND">updatedb</tt>(1) to update the slocate database (before running <tt
-class="COMMAND">updatedb</tt> by hand, you must first <tt class="COMMAND">su</tt> to the
-<tt class="USERNAME">root</tt> user). Here's an example of <tt
-class="COMMAND">slocate</tt> in action:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd
-class="USERINPUT">slocate xinitrc</kbd> # we don't have to go to the root
-/var/X11R6/lib/xinit/xinitrc
-/var/X11R6/lib/xinit/xinitrc.fvwm2
-/var/X11R6/lib/xinit/xinitrc.openwin
-/var/X11R6/lib/xinit/xinitrc.twm
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>We got more than what we were looking for, and quickly too. With these commands, you
-should be able to find whatever you're looking for on your Linux system.</p>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="SYSTEM-CONFIGURATION-RCD" name="SYSTEM-CONFIGURATION-RCD">4.1.3
-The <tt class="FILENAME">/etc/rc.d</tt> Directory</a></h3>
-
-<p>The system initialization files are stored in the <tt class="FILENAME">/etc/rc.d</tt>
-directory. Slackware uses the BSD-style layout for its initialization files as opposed to
-System V init scripts, which tend to make configuration changes much more difficult
-without using a program specifically designed for that purpose. In BSD-init scripts, each
-runlevel is given a single rc file. In System V, each runlevel is given its own
-directory, each containing numerous init scripts. This provides an organized structure
-that is easy to maintain.</p>
-
-<p>There are several categories of initialization files. These are system startup,
-runlevels, network initialization, and System V compatibility. As per tradition, we'll
-lump everything else into another category.</p>
-
-<div class="SECT3">
-<hr />
-<h4 class="SECT3"><a id="AEN1406" name="AEN1406">4.1.3.1 System Startup</a></h4>
-
-<p>The first program to run under Slackware besides the Linux kernel is <tt
-class="COMMAND">init</tt>(8). This program reads the <tt
-class="FILENAME">/etc/inittab</tt>(5) file to see how to run the system. It runs the <tt
-class="FILENAME">/etc/rc.d/rc.S</tt> script to prepare the system before going into your
-desired runlevel. The <tt class="FILENAME">rc.S</tt> file enables your virtual memory,
-mounts your filesystems, cleans up certain log directories, initializes Plug and Play
-devices, loads kernel modules, configures PCMCIA devices, sets up serial ports, and runs
-System V init scripts (if found). Obviously <tt class="FILENAME">rc.S</tt> has a lot on
-its plate, but here are some scripts in <tt class="FILENAME">/etc/rc.d</tt> that <tt
-class="FILENAME">rc.S</tt> will call on to complete its work:</p>
-
-<div class="VARIABLELIST">
-<dl>
-<dt><tt class="FILENAME">rc.S</tt></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>This is the actual system initialization script.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><tt class="FILENAME">rc.modules</tt></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Loads kernel modules. Things like your network card, PPP support, and other things are
-loaded here. If this script finds <tt class="FILENAME">rc.netdevice</tt>, it will run
-that as well.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><tt class="FILENAME">rc.pcmcia</tt></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Probes for and configures any PCMCIA devices that you might have on your system. This
-is most useful for laptop users, who probably have a PCMCIA modem or network card.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><tt class="FILENAME">rc.serial</tt></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Configures your serial ports by running the appropriate <tt
-class="COMMAND">setserial</tt> commands.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><tt class="FILENAME">rc.sysvinit</tt></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Looks for System V init scripts for the desired runlevel and runs them. This is
-discussed in more detail below.</p>
-</dd>
-</dl>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT3">
-<hr />
-<h4 class="SECT3"><a id="AEN1454" name="AEN1454">4.1.3.2 Runlevel Initialization
-Scripts</a></h4>
-
-<p>After system initialization is complete, <tt class="COMMAND">init</tt> moves on to
-runlevel initialization. A runlevel describes the state that your machine will be running
-in. Sound redundant? Well, the runlevel tells <tt class="COMMAND">init</tt> if you will
-be accepting multiuser logins or just a single user, whether or not you want network
-services, and if you will be using the X Window System or <tt
-class="COMMAND">agetty</tt>(8) to handle logins. The files below define the different
-runlevels in Slackware Linux.</p>
-
-<div class="VARIABLELIST">
-<dl>
-<dt><tt class="FILENAME">rc.0</tt></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Halt the system (runlevel 0). By default, this is symlinked to <tt
-class="FILENAME">rc.6</tt>.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><tt class="FILENAME">rc.4</tt></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Multiuser startup (runlevel 4), but in X11 with KDM, GDM, or XDM as the login
-manager.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><tt class="FILENAME">rc.6</tt></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Reboot the system (runlevel 6).</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><tt class="FILENAME">rc.K</tt></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Startup in single user mode (runlevel 1).</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><tt class="FILENAME">rc.M</tt></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Multiuser mode (runlevels 2 and 3), but with the standard text-based login. This is
-the default runlevel in Slackware.</p>
-</dd>
-</dl>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT3">
-<hr />
-<h4 class="SECT3"><a id="AEN1493" name="AEN1493">4.1.3.3 Network Initialization</a></h4>
-
-<p>Runlevels 2, 3, and 4 will start up the network services. The following files are
-responsible for the network initialization:</p>
-
-<div class="VARIABLELIST">
-<dl>
-<dt><tt class="FILENAME">rc.inet1</tt></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Created by <tt class="COMMAND">netconfig</tt>, this file is responsible for
-configuring the actual network interface.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><tt class="FILENAME">rc.inet2</tt></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Runs after <tt class="FILENAME">rc.inet1</tt> and starts up basic network
-services.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><tt class="FILENAME">rc.atalk</tt></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Starts up AppleTalk services.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><tt class="FILENAME">rc.httpd</tt></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Starts up the Apache web server. Like a few other rc scripts, this one can also be
-used to stop and restart a service. <tt class="FILENAME">rc.httpd</tt> takes arguments of
-stop, start, or restart. &#13;</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><tt class="FILENAME">rc.news</tt></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Starts up the news server.</p>
-</dd>
-</dl>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT3">
-<hr />
-<h4 class="SECT3"><a id="AEN1534" name="AEN1534">4.1.3.4 System V Compatibility</a></h4>
-
-<p>System V init compatibility was introduced in Slackware 7.0. Many other Linux
-distributions make use of this style instead of the BSD style. Basically each runlevel is
-given a subdirectory for init scripts, whereas BSD style gives one init script to each
-runlevel.</p>
-
-<p>The <tt class="FILENAME">rc.sysvinit</tt> script will search for any System V init
-scripts you have in <tt class="FILENAME">/etc/rc.d</tt> and run them, if the runlevel is
-appropriate. This is useful for certain commercial software packages that install System
-V init scripts</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT3">
-<hr />
-<h4 class="SECT3"><a id="AEN1546" name="AEN1546">4.1.3.5 Other Files</a></h4>
-
-<p>The scripts described below are the other system initialization scripts. They are
-typically run from one of the major scripts above, so all you need to do is edit the
-contents.</p>
-
-<div class="VARIABLELIST">
-<dl>
-<dt><tt class="FILENAME">rc.gpm</tt></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Starts up general purpose mouse services. Allows you to copy and paste at the Linux
-console. Occasionally, gpm will cause problems with the mouse when it is used under X
-windows. If you experience problems with the mouse under X, try taking away the
-executable permission from this file and stopping the gpm server.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><tt class="FILENAME">rc.font</tt></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Loads the custom screen font for the console.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><tt class="FILENAME">rc.local</tt></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Contains any specific startup commands for your system. This is empty after a fresh
-install, as it is reserved for local administrators. This script is run after all other
-initialization has taken place.</p>
-</dd>
-</dl>
-</div>
-
-<p>To enable a script, all you need to do is add the execute permissions to it with the
-<tt class="COMMAND">chmod</tt> command. To disable a script, remove the execute
-permissions from it. For more information about <tt class="COMMAND">chmod</tt>, see <a
-href="#FILESYSTEM-STRUCTURE-PERMISSIONS">Section 9.2</a>.</p>
-</div>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<hr />
-<h2 class="SECT1"><a id="SYSTEM-CONFIGURATION-KERNEL"
-name="SYSTEM-CONFIGURATION-KERNEL">4.2 Selecting a Kernel</a></h2>
-
-<p>The kernel is the part of the operating system that provides hardware access, process
-control, and overall system control. The kernel contains support for your hardware
-devices, so picking one for your system is an important setup step.</p>
-
-<p>Slackware provides more than a dozen precompiled kernels that you can pick from, each
-with a standard set of drivers and additional specific drivers. You can run one of the
-precompiled kernels or you can build your own kernel from source. Either way, you need to
-make sure that your kernel has the hardware support your system needs.</p>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="AEN1581" name="AEN1581">4.2.1 The <tt
-class="FILENAME">/kernels</tt> Directory on the Slackware CD-ROM</a></h3>
-
-<p>The precompiled Slackware kernels are available in the <tt
-class="FILENAME">/kernels</tt> directory on the Slackware CD-ROM or on the FTP site in
-the main Slackware directory. The available kernels change as new releases are made, so
-the documentation in that directory is always the authoritative source. The <tt
-class="FILENAME">/kernels</tt> directory has subdirectories for each kernel available.
-The subdirectories have the same name as their accompanying boot disk. In each
-subdirectory you will find the following files:</p>
-
-<div class="INFORMALTABLE"><a id="AEN1587" name="AEN1587"></a>
-<table border="0" frame="void" width="100%" class="CALSTABLE">
-<col width="33%" />
-<col width="67%" />
-<thead>
-<tr>
-<th>File</th>
-<th>Purpose</th>
-</tr>
-</thead>
-
-<tbody>
-<tr>
-<td><tt class="FILENAME">System.map</tt></td>
-<td>The system map file for this kernel</td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td><tt class="FILENAME">bzImage</tt></td>
-<td>The actual kernel image</td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td><tt class="FILENAME">config</tt></td>
-<td>The source configuration file for this kernel</td>
-</tr>
-</tbody>
-</table>
-</div>
-
-<p>To use a kernel, copy the <tt class="FILENAME">System.map</tt> and <tt
-class="FILENAME">config</tt> files to your <tt class="FILENAME">/boot</tt> directory and
-copy the kernel image to <tt class="FILENAME">/boot/vmlinuz</tt>. Run <tt
-class="COMMAND">/sbin/lilo</tt>(8) to install LILO for the new kernel, and then reboot
-your system. That's all there is to installing a new kernel.</p>
-
-<p>The kernels that end with a .i are IDE kernels. That is, they include no SCSI support
-in the base kernel. The kernels that end with .s are SCSI kernels. They include all the
-IDE support in .i kernels, plus SCSI support.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="SYSTEM-CONFIGURATION-KERNEL-COMPILE"
-name="SYSTEM-CONFIGURATION-KERNEL-COMPILE">4.2.2 Compiling a Kernel from Source</a></h3>
-
-<p>The question &#8220;Should I compile a kernel for my system?&#8221; is often asked by
-new users. The answer is a definite maybe. There are few instances where you will need to
-compile a kernel specific to your system. Most users can use a precompiled kernel and the
-loadable kernel modules to achieve a fully working system. You will want to compile a
-kernel for your system if you are upgrading kernel versions to one that we do not
-currently offer in Slackware, or if you have patched the kernel source to get special
-device support that is not in the native kernel source. Anyone with an SMP system will
-definitely want to compile a kernel with SMP support. Also, many users find a custom
-compiled kernel runs much faster on their machine. You may find it useful to compile the
-kernel with optimizations for the specific processor in your machine.</p>
-
-<p>Building your own kernel is not that hard. The first step is to make sure you have the
-kernel source installed on your system. Make sure that you installed the packages from
-the K series during the installation. You will also want to make sure you have the D
-series installed, specifically the C compiler, GNU make, and GNU binutils. In general,
-it's a good idea to have the entire D series installed if you plan on doing any kind of
-development. You can also download the latest kernel source from <a
-href="http://www.kernel.org/mirrors" target="_top">http://www.kernel.org/mirrors</a>.</p>
-
-<div class="SECT3">
-<hr />
-<h4 class="SECT3"><a id="AEN1624" name="AEN1624">4.2.2.1 Linux Kernel version 2.4.x
-Compilation</a></h4>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">su -</kbd>
-Password:
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">cd /usr/src/linux</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>The first step is to bring the kernel source into its base state. We issue this
-command to do that (note, you may wish to back-up the <tt class="FILENAME">.config</tt>
-file as this command will delete it without warning):</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">make mrproper</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>Now you can configure the kernel for your system. The current kernel offers three ways
-of doing this. The first is the original text-based question and answer system. It asks a
-bunch of questions and then builds a configuration file. The problem with this method is
-that if you mess up, you must start over. The method that most people prefer is the menu
-driven one. Lastly, there is an X-based kernel configuration tool. Pick the one you want
-and issue the appropriate command:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd
-class="USERINPUT">make config</kbd> (text-based Q&amp;A version)
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd
-class="USERINPUT">make menuconfig</kbd> (menu driven, text-based version)
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd
-class="USERINPUT">make xconfig</kbd> (X-based version, make sure you are in X first)
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<div class="FIGURE"><a id="SYSTEM-CONFIGURATION-MAKE-MENUCONFIG"
-name="SYSTEM-CONFIGURATION-MAKE-MENUCONFIG"></a>
-<p><b>Figure 4-1. Kernel Configuration Menu</b></p>
-
-<p><img src="system-configuration/make-menuconfig-w.png" /></p>
-</div>
-
-<p>New users will probably find <tt class="COMMAND">menuconfig</tt> to be the easiest to
-use. Help screens are provided that explain the various parts of the kernel. After
-configuring your kernel, exit the configuration program. It will write the necessary
-configuration files. Now we can prepare the source tree for a build:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">make dep</kbd>
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">make clean</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>The next step is to compile the kernel. First try issuing the <tt
-class="COMMAND">bzImage</tt> command below.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">make bzImage</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>This may take a while, depending on your CPU speed. During the build process, you will
-see the compiler messages. After building the kernel image, you will want to build any
-parts of the kernel that you flagged as modular.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">make modules</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>We can now install the kernel and modules that you compiled. To install the kernel on
-a Slackware system, these commands should be issued:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd
-class="USERINPUT">mv /boot/vmlinuz /boot/vmlinuz.old</kbd>
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd
-class="USERINPUT">cat arch/i386/boot/bzImage &#62; /vmlinuz</kbd>
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd
-class="USERINPUT">mv /boot/System.map /boot/System.map.old</kbd>
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">cp System.map /boot/System.map</kbd>
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">make modules_install</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>You will want to edit <tt class="FILENAME">/etc/lilo.conf</tt> and add a section to
-boot your old kernel in case your new one does not work. After doing that, run <tt
-class="COMMAND">/sbin/lilo</tt> to install the new boot block. You can now reboot with
-your new kernel.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT3">
-<hr />
-<h4 class="SECT3"><a id="AEN1686" name="AEN1686">4.2.2.2 Linux Kernel Version
-2.6.x</a></h4>
-
-<p>The compilation of a 2.6 kernel is only slightly different from a 2.4 or a 2.2 kernel,
-but it is important that you understand the differences before delving in. It's no longer
-necessary to run <tt class="COMMAND">make dep</tt> and <tt class="COMMAND">make
-clean</tt>. Also, the kernel compilation process is not as verbose in the 2.6 kernel
-series. This results in a build process that is easier to understand, but has some short
-comings as well. If you have trouble building the kernel, it's highly recommended that
-you turn verbosity back up. You do this simply by appending <var class="OPTION">V=1</var>
-to the build. This allows you to log more information that could help a kernel developer
-or other friendly geek aid you in resolving the issue.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">make bzImage V=1</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="SYSTEM-CONFIGURATION-KERNEL-MODULES"
-name="SYSTEM-CONFIGURATION-KERNEL-MODULES">4.2.3 Using Kernel Modules</a></h3>
-
-<p>Kernel modules are another name for device drivers that can be inserted into a running
-kernel. They allow you to extend the hardware supported by your kernel without needing to
-pick another kernel or compile one yourself.</p>
-
-<p>Modules can also be loaded and unloaded at any time, even when the system is running.
-This makes upgrading specific drivers easy for system administrators. A new module can be
-compiled, the old one removed, and the new one loaded, all without rebooting the
-machine.</p>
-
-<p>Modules are stored in the <tt class="FILENAME">/lib/modules/<var
-class="REPLACEABLE">kernel version</var></tt> directory on your system. They can be
-loaded at boot time through the <tt class="FILENAME">rc.modules</tt> file. This file is
-very well commented and offers examples for major hardware components. To see a list of
-modules that are currently active, use the <tt class="COMMAND">lsmod</tt>(1) command:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">lsmod</kbd>
-Module Size Used by
-parport_pc 7220 0
-parport 7844 0 [parport_pc]
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>You can see here that I only have the parallel port module loaded. To remove a module,
-you use the <tt class="COMMAND">rmmod</tt>(1) command. Modules can be loaded by the <tt
-class="COMMAND">modprobe</tt>(1) or <tt class="COMMAND">insmod</tt>(1) command. <tt
-class="COMMAND">modprobe</tt> is usually safer because it will load any modules that the
-one you're trying to load depends on.</p>
-
-<p>A lot of users never have to load or unload modules by hand. They use the kernel
-autoloader for module management. By default, Slackware includes <var
-class="OPTION">kmod</var> in its kernels. <var class="OPTION">kmod</var> is a kernel
-option that enables the kernel to automatically load modules as they are requested. For
-more information on <var class="OPTION">kmod</var> and how it is configured, see <tt
-class="FILENAME">/usr/src/linux/Documentation/kmod.txt</tt>. You'll have needed to have
-the kernel source package, or downloaded kernel source from <a href="http://kernel.org"
-target="_top">http://kernel.org</a>.</p>
-
-<p>More information can be found in the man pages for each of these commands, plus the
-<tt class="FILENAME">rc.modules</tt> file.</p>
-</div>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="CHAPTER">
-<hr />
-<h1><a id="NETWORK-CONFIGURATION" name="NETWORK-CONFIGURATION"></a>Chapter 5 Network
-Configuration</h1>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<h2 class="SECT1"><a id="NETWORK-CONFIGURATION-NETCONFIG"
-name="NETWORK-CONFIGURATION-NETCONFIG">5.1 Introduction: netconfig is your
-friend.</a></h2>
-
-<p>When you initially installed Slackware, the setup program invoked the <tt
-class="COMMAND">netconfig</tt> program. <tt class="COMMAND">netconfig</tt> attempted to
-perform the following functions for you:</p>
-
-<ul>
-<li>
-<p>It asked you for the name of your computer, and the domain name for your computer.</p>
-</li>
-
-<li>
-<p>It gave a brief explanation of the various types of addressing schemes, told when they
-should be used, and asked you which IP addressing scheme you wished to use to configure
-your network card:</p>
-
-<ul>
-<li>
-<p>Static-IP</p>
-</li>
-
-<li>
-<p>DHCP</p>
-</li>
-
-<li>
-<p>Loopback</p>
-</li>
-</ul>
-
-<br />
-<br />
-</li>
-
-<li>
-<p>It then offered to probe for a network card to configure.</p>
-</li>
-</ul>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">netconfig</tt> will generally take care of about 80% of the work
-of configuring your LAN network connection if you will let it. Note that I would strongly
-suggest that you review your config file for a couple of reasons:</p>
-
-<ol type="1">
-<li>
-<p>You should never trust a setup program to properly configure your computer. If you use
-a setup program, you should review the configuration yourself.</p>
-</li>
-
-<li>
-<p>If you are still learning Slackware and Linux system management, viewing a working
-configuration can be helpful. You'll at least know what the configuration should look
-like. This will allow you to correct problems due to misconfiguration of the system at a
-later date.</p>
-</li>
-</ol>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<hr />
-<h2 class="SECT1"><a id="NETWORK-CONFIGURATION-HARDWARE"
-name="NETWORK-CONFIGURATION-HARDWARE">5.2 Network Hardware Configuration</a></h2>
-
-<p>Having decided that you wish to bring your Slackware machine on to some form of
-network, the first thing you'll need is a Linux-compatible network card. You will need to
-take a little care to ensure that the card is truly Linux-compatible (please refer to the
-Linux Documentation Project and/or the kernel documentation for information on the
-current status of your proposed network card). As a general rule, you will most likely be
-pleasantly surprised by the number of networking cards that are supported under the more
-modern kernels. Having said that, I'd still suggest referring to any of the various Linux
-hardware compatibility lists (such as <a
-href="http://www.eskimo.com/%7Elo/linux/hardwarelinks.html" target="_top">The GNU/Linux
-Beginners Group Hardware Compatibility Links</a> and <a
-href="http://www.linux.org/docs/ldp/howto/Hardware-HOWTO/" target="_top">The Linux
-Documentation Project Hardware HOWTO</a>) that are available on the Internet before
-purchasing your card. A little extra time spent in research can save days or even weeks
-trying to troubleshoot a card that isn't compatible with Linux at all.</p>
-
-<p>When you visit the Linux Hardware Compatibility lists available on the Internet, or
-when you refer to the kernel documentation installed on your machine, it would be wise to
-note which kernel module you'll need to use to support your network card.</p>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="NETWORK-CONFIGURATION-HARDWARE-MODULES"
-name="NETWORK-CONFIGURATION-HARDWARE-MODULES">5.2.1 Loading Network Modules</a></h3>
-
-<p>Kernel modules that are to be loaded on boot-up are loaded from the <tt
-class="FILENAME">rc.modules</tt> file in <tt class="FILENAME">/etc/rc.d</tt> or by the
-kernel's auto module loading started by <tt class="FILENAME">/etc/rc.d/rc.hotplug</tt>.
-The default <tt class="FILENAME">rc.modules</tt> file includes a Network device support
-section. If you open <tt class="FILENAME">rc.modules</tt> and look for that section,
-you'll notice that it first checks for an executable <tt
-class="FILENAME">rc.netdevice</tt> file in <tt class="FILENAME">/etc/rc.d/</tt>. This
-script is created if <tt class="COMMAND">setup</tt> successfully autoprobes your network
-device during installation.</p>
-
-<p>Below that &#8220;if&#8221; block is a list of network devices and modprobe lines,
-each commented out. Find your device and uncomment the corresponding modprobe line, then
-save the file. Running <tt class="FILENAME">rc.modules</tt> as <tt
-class="USERNAME">root</tt> should now load your network device driver (as well as any
-other modules that are listed and uncommented). Note that some modules (such as the
-ne2000 driver) require parameters; make sure you select the correct line.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="NETWORK-CONFIGURATION-HARDWARE-LAN"
-name="NETWORK-CONFIGURATION-HARDWARE-LAN">5.2.2 LAN (10/100/1000Base-T and Base-2)
-cards</a></h3>
-
-<p>This heading encompasses all of the internal PCI and ISA networking cards. Drivers for
-these cards are provided via loadable kernel modules as covered in the previous
-paragraph. <tt class="FILENAME">/sbin/netconfig</tt> should have probed for your card and
-successfully set up your <tt class="FILENAME">rc.netdevice</tt> file. If this did not
-occur, the most likely problem would be that the module that you're attempting to load
-for a given card is incorrect (it is not unheard of for different generations of the same
-brand of card from the same manufacturer to require different modules). If you are
-certain that the module that you're attempting to load is the correct one, your next best
-bet would be to refer to the documentation for the module in an attempt to discover
-whether or not specific parameters are required during when the module is
-initialized.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="NETWORK-CONFIGURATION-HARDWARE-MODEMS"
-name="NETWORK-CONFIGURATION-HARDWARE-MODEMS">5.2.3 Modems</a></h3>
-
-<p>Like LAN cards, modems can come with various bus support options. Until recently, most
-modems were 8 or 16 bit ISA cards. With the efforts of Intel and motherboard
-manufacturers everywhere to finally kill off the ISA bus completely, it is common now to
-find that most modems are either external modems that connect to a serial or USB port or
-are internal PCI modems. If you wish for your modem to work with Linux, it is <span
-class="emphasis"><i class="EMPHASIS">VITALLY</i></span> important to research your
-prospective modem purchase, particularly if you are considering purchasing a PCI modem.
-Many, if not most, PCI modems available on store shelves these days are WinModems.
-WinModems lack some basic hardware on the modem card itself: the functions performed by
-this hardware are typically offloaded onto the CPU by the modem driver and the Windows
-operating system. This means that they do not have the standard serial interface that
-PPPD will be expecting to see when you try to dial out to your Internet Service
-Provider.</p>
-
-<p>If you want to be absolutely sure that the modem you're purchasing will work with
-Linux, purchase an external hardware modem that connects to the serial port on your PC.
-These are guaranteed to work better and be less trouble to install and maintain, though
-they require external power and tend to cost more.</p>
-
-<p>There are several web sites that provide drivers and assistance for configuring
-WinModem based devices. Some users have reported success configuring and installing
-drivers for the various winmodems, including Lucent, Conexant, and Rockwell chipsets. As
-the required software for these devices is not an included part of Slackware, and varies
-from driver to driver, we will not go into detail on them.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="NETWORK-CONFIGURATION-HARDWARE-PCMCIA"
-name="NETWORK-CONFIGURATION-HARDWARE-PCMCIA">5.2.4 PCMCIA</a></h3>
-
-<p>As part of your Slackware install, you are given the opportunity to install the pcmcia
-package (in the &#8220;A&#8221; series of packages). This package contains the
-applications and setup files required to work with PCMCIA cards under Slackware. It is
-important to note that the pcmcia package only installs the generic software required to
-work with PCMCIA cards under Slackware. It does NOT install any drivers or modules. The
-available modules and drivers will be in the <tt class="FILENAME">/lib/modules/`uname
--r`/pcmcia</tt> directory. You may need to do some experimentation to find a module that
-will work with your network card.</p>
-
-<p>You will need to edit <tt class="FILENAME">/etc/pcmcia/network.opts</tt> (for an
-Ethernet card) or <tt class="FILENAME">/etc/pcmcia/wireless.opts</tt> (if you have a
-wireless networking card). Like most Slackware configuration files, these two files are
-very well commented and it should be easy to determine which modifications need to be
-made.</p>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<hr />
-<h2 class="SECT1"><a id="NETWORK-CONFIGURATION-TCPIP"
-name="NETWORK-CONFIGURATION-TCPIP">5.3 TCP/IP Configuration</a></h2>
-
-<p>At this point, your network card should be physically installed in your computer, and
-the relevant kernel modules should be loaded. You will not yet be able to communicate
-over your network card, but information about the network device can be obtained with <tt
-class="COMMAND">ifconfig -a</tt>.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">ifconfig -a</kbd>
-eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:A0:CC:3C:60:A4
-UP BROADCAST NOTRAILERS RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
-RX packets:110081 errors:1 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
-TX packets:84931 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
-collisions:0 txqueuelen:100
-RX bytes:114824506 (109.5 Mb) TX bytes:9337924 (8.9 Mb)
-Interrupt:5 Base address:0x8400
-
-lo Link encap:Local Loopback
-inet addr:127.0.0.1 Mask:255.0.0.0
-UP LOOPBACK RUNNING MTU:16436 Metric:1
-RX packets:2234 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
-TX packets:2234 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
-collisions:0 txqueuelen:0
-RX bytes:168758 (164.8 Kb) TX bytes:168758 (164.8 Kb)
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>If you just typed <tt class="COMMAND">/sbin/ifconfig</tt> without the <var
-class="OPTION">-a</var> suffix, you would not see the <tt class="FILENAME">eth0</tt>
-interface, as your network card does not yet have a valid IP address or route.</p>
-
-<p>While there are many different ways to setup and subnet a network, all of them can be
-broken down into two types: Static and Dynamic. Static networks are setup such that each
-node (geek lingo for thing with an IP address) always has the same IP address. Dynamic
-networks are setup in such a way that the IP addresses for the nodes are controlled by a
-single server called the DHCP server.</p>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="NETWORK-CONFIGURATION-TCPIP-DHCP"
-name="NETWORK-CONFIGURATION-TCPIP-DHCP">5.3.1 DHCP</a></h3>
-
-<p>DHCP (or Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol), is a means by which an IP address may
-be assigned to a computer on boot. When the DHCP <span class="emphasis"><i
-class="EMPHASIS">client</i></span> boots, it puts out a request on the Local Area Network
-for a DHCP <span class="emphasis"><i class="EMPHASIS">server</i></span> to assign it an
-IP address. The DHCP server has a pool (or <span class="emphasis"><i
-class="EMPHASIS">scope</i></span>) of IP addresses available. The server will respond to
-this request with an IP address from the pool, along with a <span class="emphasis"><i
-class="EMPHASIS">lease time</i></span>. Once the lease time for a given IP address lease
-has expired, the client must contact the server again and repeat the negotiation.</p>
-
-<p>The client will then accept the IP address from the server and will configure the
-requested interface with the IP address. There is one more handy trick that DHCP clients
-use for negotiating the IP address that they will be assigned, however. The client will
-remember it's last assigned IP address, and will request that the server re-assign that
-IP address to the client again upon next negotiation. If possible, the server will do so,
-but if not, a new address is assigned. So, the negotiation resembles the following:</p>
-
-<p class="LITERALLAYOUT">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="emphasis"><i
-class="EMPHASIS">Client</i></span>:&nbsp;Is&nbsp;there&nbsp;a&nbsp;DHCP&nbsp;server&nbsp;available&nbsp;on&nbsp;the&nbsp;LAN?<br />
-
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="emphasis"><i
-class="EMPHASIS">Server</i></span>:&nbsp;Yes,&nbsp;there&nbsp;is.&nbsp;Here&nbsp;I&nbsp;am.<br />
-
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="emphasis"><i
-class="EMPHASIS">Client</i></span>:&nbsp;I&nbsp;need&nbsp;an&nbsp;IP&nbsp;address.<br />
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="emphasis"><i
-class="EMPHASIS">Server</i></span>:&nbsp;You&nbsp;may&nbsp;take&nbsp;192.168.10.10&nbsp;for&nbsp;19200&nbsp;seconds.<br />
-
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="emphasis"><i
-class="EMPHASIS">Client</i></span>:&nbsp;Thank&nbsp;you.</p>
-
-<p class="LITERALLAYOUT">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="emphasis"><i
-class="EMPHASIS">Client</i></span>:&nbsp;Is&nbsp;there&nbsp;a&nbsp;DHCP&nbsp;server&nbsp;available&nbsp;on&nbsp;the&nbsp;LAN?<br />
-
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="emphasis"><i
-class="EMPHASIS">Server</i></span>:Yes,&nbsp;there&nbsp;is.&nbsp;Here&nbsp;I&nbsp;am.<br />
-
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="emphasis"><i
-class="EMPHASIS">Client</i></span>:I&nbsp;need&nbsp;an&nbsp;IP&nbsp;address.&nbsp;The&nbsp;last&nbsp;time&nbsp;we<br />
-
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;talked,&nbsp;I&nbsp;had&nbsp;192.168.10.10;<br />
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;May&nbsp;I&nbsp;have&nbsp;it&nbsp;again?<br />
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="emphasis"><i
-class="EMPHASIS">Server</i></span>:Yes,&nbsp;you&nbsp;may&nbsp;(or&nbsp;No,&nbsp;you&nbsp;may&nbsp;not:&nbsp;take&nbsp;192.168.10.12&nbsp;instead).<br />
-
-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<span class="emphasis"><i
-class="EMPHASIS">Client</i></span>:&nbsp;Thank&nbsp;you.</p>
-
-<p>The DHCP client in Linux is <tt class="COMMAND">/sbin/dhcpcd</tt>. If you load <tt
-class="FILENAME">/etc/rc.d/rc.inet1</tt> in your favorite text editor, you will notice
-that <tt class="COMMAND">/sbin/dhcpcd</tt> is called about midway through the script.
-This will force the conversation shown above. <tt class="COMMAND">dhcpcd</tt> will also
-track the amount of time left on the lease for the current IP address, and will
-automatically contact the DHCP server with a request to renew the lease when necessary.
-DHCP can also control related information, such as what ntp server to use, what route to
-take, etc.</p>
-
-<p>Setting up DHCP on Slackware is simple. Just run <tt class="COMMAND">netconfig</tt>
-and select DHCP when offered. If you have more than one NIC and do not wish <tt
-class="FILENAME">eth0</tt> to be configured by DHCP, just edit the <tt
-class="FILENAME">/etc/rc.d/rc.inet1.conf</tt> file and change the related variable for
-your NIC to &#8220;<var class="LITERAL">YES</var>&#8221;.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="NETWORK-CONFIGURATION-TCPIP-STATIC"
-name="NETWORK-CONFIGURATION-TCPIP-STATIC">5.3.2 Static IP</a></h3>
-
-<p>Static IP addresses are fixed addresses that only change if manually told to. These
-are used in any case where an administrator doesn't want the IP information to change,
-such for internal servers on a LAN, any server connected to the Internet, and networked
-routers. With static IP addressing, you assign an address and leave it at that. Other
-machines know that you are always at that certain IP address and can contact you at that
-address always.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="NETWORK-CONFIGURATION-TCPIP-CONF"
-name="NETWORK-CONFIGURATION-TCPIP-CONF">5.3.3 <tt
-class="FILENAME">/etc/rc.d/rc.inet1.conf</tt></a></h3>
-
-<p>If you plan on assigning an IP address to your new Slackware box, you may do so either
-through the <tt class="FILENAME">netconfig</tt> script, or you may edit <tt
-class="FILENAME">/etc/rc.d/rc.inet1.conf</tt>. In <tt
-class="FILENAME">/etc/rc.d/rc.inet1.conf</tt> , you will notice:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="PROGRAMLISTING">
- # Primary network interface card (eth0)
- IPADDR[0]=""
- NETMASK[0]=""
- USE_DHCP[0]=""
- DHCP_HOSTNAME[0]=""
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>Then further at the bottom:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="PROGRAMLISTING">
- GATEWAY=""
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>In this case, our task is merely to place the correct information between the
-double-quotes. These variables are called by <tt class="FILENAME">/etc/rc.d/rc.inet1</tt>
-at boot time to setup the nics. For each NIC, just enter the correct IP information, or
-put &#8220;<var class="LITERAL">YES</var>&#8221; for <var class="LITERAL">USE_DHCP</var>.
-Slackware will startup the interfaces with the information placed here in the order they
-are found.</p>
-
-<p>The <var class="LITERAL">DEFAULT_GW</var> variable sets up the default route for
-Slackware. All communications between your computer and other computers on the Internet
-must pass through that gateway if no other route is specified for them. If you are using
-DHCP, you will usually not need to enter anything here, as the DHCP server will specify
-what gateway to use.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="NETWORK-CONFIGURATION-TCPIP-RESOLVER"
-name="NETWORK-CONFIGURATION-TCPIP-RESOLVER">5.3.4 <tt
-class="FILENAME">/etc/resolv.conf</tt></a></h3>
-
-<p>Ok, so you've got an IP address, you've got a default gateway, you may even have ten
-million dollars (give us some), but what good is that if you can't resolve names to IP
-addresses? No one wants to type in <tt class="HOSTID">72.9.234.112</tt> into their web
-browser to reach <tt class="HOSTID">www.slackbook.org</tt>. After all, who other than the
-authors would memorize that IP address? We need to setup DNS, but how? That's where <tt
-class="FILENAME">/etc/resolv.conf</tt> comes into play.</p>
-
-<p>Chances are you already have the proper options in <tt
-class="FILENAME">/etc/resolv.conf</tt>. If you setup your network connection using DHCP,
-the DHCP server should handle updating this file for you. (Technically the DHCP server
-just tells <tt class="COMMAND">dhcpcd</tt> what to put here, and it obeys.) If you need
-to manually update your DNS server list though, you'll need to hand edit <tt
-class="FILENAME">/etc/resolv.conf</tt>. Below is an example:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">cat /etc/resolv.conf</kbd>
-nameserver 192.168.1.254
-search lizella.net
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>The first line is simple. The nameserver directive tells us what DNS servers to query.
-By necessity these are always IP addresses. You may have as many listed there as you
-like. Slackware will happily check one after the other until one returns a match.</p>
-
-<p>The second line is a little more interesting. The search directive gives us a list of
-domain names to assume whenever a DNS request is made. This allows you to contact a
-machine by only the first part of its FQDN (Fully Qualified Domain Name). For example, if
-&#8220;slackware.com&#8221; were in your search path, you could reach <tt
-class="HOSTID">http://store.slackware.com</tt> by just pointing your web browser at <tt
-class="HOSTID">http://store</tt>.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">ping -c 1 store</kbd>
-PING store.slackware.com (69.50.233.153): 56 data bytes
-64 bytes from 69.50.233.153 : icmp_seq=0 ttl=64 time=0.251 ms
-1 packets transmitted, 1 packets received, 0% packet loss
-round-trip min/avg/max = 0.251/0.251/0.251 ms
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<br />
-<br />
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="NETWORK-CONFIGURATION-TCPIP-HOSTS"
-name="NETWORK-CONFIGURATION-TCPIP-HOSTS">5.3.5 <tt
-class="FILENAME">/etc/hosts</tt></a></h3>
-
-<p>Now that we've got DNS working fine, what if we want to bypass our DNS server, or add
-a DNS entry for a machine that isn't in DNS? Slackware includes the oft-loved <tt
-class="FILENAME">/etc/hosts</tt> file which contains a local list of DNS names and IP
-addresses they should match to.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">cat /etc/hosts</kbd>
-127.0.0.1 localhost locahost.localdomain
-192.168.1.101 redtail
-172.14.66.32 foobar.slackware.com
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>Here you can see that localhost has an IP address of <tt class="HOSTID">127.0.0.1</tt>
-(always reserved for localhost), redtail can be reached at <tt
-class="HOSTID">192.168.1.101</tt>, and <tt class="HOSTID">foobar.slackware.com</tt> is
-<tt class="HOSTID">172.14.66.32</tt>.</p>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<hr />
-<h2 class="SECT1"><a id="NETWORK-CONFIGURATION-PPP" name="NETWORK-CONFIGURATION-PPP">5.4
-PPP</a></h2>
-
-<p>Many people still connect to the Internet through some kind of dialup connection. The
-most common method is PPP, though SLIP is still occasionally used. Setting up your system
-to speak PPP to a remote server is pretty easy. We've included a few tools to help you in
-setting it up.</p>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="AEN1954" name="AEN1954">5.4.1 <tt
-class="COMMAND">pppsetup</tt></a></h3>
-
-<p>Slackware includes a program called <tt class="COMMAND">pppsetup</tt> to configure
-your system to use your dialup account. It shares a look and feel similar to our <tt
-class="COMMAND">netconfig</tt> program. To run the program, make sure you are logged in
-as root. Then type <tt class="COMMAND">pppsetup</tt> to run it. You should see a screen
-like this:</p>
-
-<p>The program will present a series of questions, to which you will feed it appropriate
-answers. Things like your modem device, the modem initialization string, and the ISP
-phone number. Some items will have a default, which you can accept in most cases.</p>
-
-<p>After the program runs, it will create a <tt class="COMMAND">ppp-go</tt> program and a
-<tt class="COMMAND">ppp-off</tt> program. These are used to start and stop, respectively,
-the PPP connection. The two programs are located in <tt class="FILENAME">/usr/sbin</tt>
-and need root privileges to run.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="AEN1969" name="AEN1969">5.4.2 <tt
-class="FILENAME">/etc/ppp</tt></a></h3>
-
-<p>For most users, running <tt class="COMMAND">pppsetup</tt> will be sufficient. However,
-there may be an instance where you want to tweak some of the values used by the PPP
-daemon. All of the configuration information is kept in <tt
-class="FILENAME">/etc/ppp</tt>. Here is a list of what the different files are for:</p>
-
-<div class="INFORMALTABLE"><a id="AEN1975" name="AEN1975"></a>
-<table border="0" frame="void" class="CALSTABLE">
-<col width="1*" />
-<col width="3*" />
-<tbody>
-<tr>
-<td><tt class="COMMAND">ip-down</tt></td>
-<td>
-<p>This script is run by <tt class="COMMAND">pppd</tt> after the PPP connection is
-ended.</p>
-</td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td><tt class="COMMAND">ip-up</tt></td>
-<td>
-<p>This script is run by <tt class="COMMAND">pppd</tt> when there's a successful ppp
-connection. Put any commands you want run after a successful connection in this file.</p>
-</td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td><tt class="FILENAME">options</tt></td>
-<td>
-<p>General configuration options for <tt class="COMMAND">pppd</tt>.</p>
-</td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td><tt class="FILENAME">options.demand</tt></td>
-<td>
-<p>General configuration options for <tt class="COMMAND">pppd</tt> when run in demand
-dialing mode.</p>
-</td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td><tt class="COMMAND">pppscript</tt></td>
-<td>
-<p>The commands sent to the modem.</p>
-</td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td><tt class="FILENAME">pppsetup.txt</tt></td>
-<td>
-<p>A log of what you entered when you ran <tt class="COMMAND">pppsetup</tt>.</p>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</tbody>
-</table>
-</div>
-
-<div class="NOTE">
-<table class="NOTE" width="100%" border="0">
-<tr>
-<td width="25" align="CENTER" valign="TOP"><img src="./imagelib/admon/note.png"
-hspace="5" alt="Note" /></td>
-<td align="LEFT" valign="TOP">
-<p>Most of these files won't be there until after you run <tt
-class="COMMAND">pppsetup</tt>.</p>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-</div>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<hr />
-<h2 class="SECT1"><a id="NETWORK-CONFIGURATION-WIRELESS"
-name="NETWORK-CONFIGURATION-WIRELESS">5.5 Wireless</a></h2>
-
-<p>Wireless networking is still a relatively new thing in the world of computers, yet is
-quickly catching on as more people begin to purchase laptops and want networking on the
-go, without having to fool with some old twisted pair cable. This trend doesn't appear to
-be slowing down. Unfortunately, wireless networking isn't yet as strongly supported in
-Linux as traditional wired networking.</p>
-
-<p>There are three basic steps to configuring an 802.11 wireless Ethernet card:</p>
-
-<ol type="1">
-<li>
-<p>Hardware support for the wireless card</p>
-</li>
-
-<li>
-<p>Configure the card to connect to a wireless access point</p>
-</li>
-
-<li>
-<p>Configure the network</p>
-</li>
-</ol>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="AEN2033" name="AEN2033">5.5.1 Hardware Support</a></h3>
-
-<p>Hardware support for a wireless card is provided through the kernel, either with a
-module or built in to the kernel. Generally, most newer Ethernet cards are provided
-through kernel modules, so you'll want to determine the appropriate kernel module and
-load it through <tt class="FILENAME">/etc/rc.d/rc.modules</tt>. <tt
-class="COMMAND">netconfig</tt> may not detect your wireless card, so you'll probably need
-to determine the card yourself. See <a
-href="http://www.hpl.hp.com/personal/Jean_Tourrilhes/Linux/"
-target="_top">http://www.hpl.hp.com/personal/Jean_Tourrilhes/Linux/</a> for more
-information on kernel drivers for various wireless cards.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="AEN2044" name="AEN2044">5.5.2 Configure the Wireless
-Settings</a></h3>
-
-<p>The vast majority of this work is done by <tt class="COMMAND">iwconfig</tt>, so as
-always read the man page for <tt class="COMMAND">iwconfig</tt> if you need more
-information.</p>
-
-<p>First, you'll want to configure your wireless access point. Wireless access points
-vary quite a bit in their terminology, and how to configure them, so you may need to
-adjust a bit to accommodate your hardware. In general, you'll need at least the following
-information:</p>
-
-<ul>
-<li>
-<p>The domain ID, or name of the network (called the ESSID by <tt
-class="COMMAND">iwconfig</tt>)</p>
-</li>
-
-<li>
-<p>The channel the WAP uses</p>
-</li>
-
-<li>
-<p>The encryption settings, including any keys used (preferably in hexadecimal)</p>
-</li>
-</ul>
-
-<div class="WARNING">
-<table class="WARNING" width="100%" border="0">
-<tr>
-<td width="25" align="CENTER" valign="TOP"><img src="./imagelib/admon/warning.png"
-hspace="5" alt="Warning" /></td>
-<td align="LEFT" valign="TOP">
-<p>A NOTE ABOUT WEP. WEP is quit flawed, but it's much better than nothing. If you wish a
-greater degree of security on your wireless network, you should investigate VPNs or
-IPSec, both of which are beyond the scope of this document. You might also configure your
-WAP not to advertise its domain ID/ ESSID. A thorough discussion of wireless policy is
-beyond the scope of this section, but a quick Google search will turn up more than you
-ever wanted to know.</p>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-</div>
-
-<p>Once you've gathered the above information, and assuming you've used <tt
-class="COMMAND">modprobe</tt> to load the appropriate kernel driver, you can edit <tt
-class="FILENAME">rc.wireless.conf</tt> and add your settings. The <tt
-class="FILENAME">rc.wireless.conf</tt> file is a bit untidy. The least effort is to
-modify the generic section with your ESSID and KEY, and CHANNEL if required by your card.
-(Try not setting CHANNEL, and if it works, great; if not, set the CHANNEL as
-appropriate.) If you're daring, you can modify the file so that only the necessary
-variables are set. The variable names in <tt class="FILENAME">rc.wireless.conf</tt>
-correspond to the <tt class="COMMAND">iwconfig</tt> parameters, and are read by <tt
-class="FILENAME">rc.wireless</tt> and used in the appropriate <tt
-class="COMMAND">iwconfig</tt> commands.</p>
-
-<p>If you have your key in hexadecimal, that's ideal, since you can be fairly confident
-that your WAP and <tt class="COMMAND">iwconfig</tt> will agree on the key. If you only
-have a string, you can't be sure how your WAP will translate that into a hexadecimal key,
-so some guesswork may be needed (or get your WAP's key in hex).</p>
-
-<p>Once you've modified <tt class="FILENAME">rc.wireless.conf</tt>, run <tt
-class="FILENAME">rc.wireless</tt> as <tt class="USERNAME">root</tt>, then run <tt
-class="FILENAME">rc.inet1</tt>, again as <tt class="USERNAME">root</tt>. You can test
-your wireless networking with standard testing tools such as <tt
-class="COMMAND">ping</tt>, along with <tt class="COMMAND">iwconfig</tt>. If you have a
-wired interface you may wish to use <tt class="COMMAND">ifconfig</tt> to turn those
-interfaces off while you test your wireless networking to ensure there's no interference.
-You may also want to test your changes through a reboot.</p>
-
-<p>Now that you've seen how to edit <tt class="FILENAME">/etc/rc.d/rc.wireless</tt> for
-you default network, let's take a closer look at iwconfig and see how it all works. This
-will teach you the quick and dirty way of setting up wifi for those times when you find
-yourself at an Internet cafe, coffee shop, or any other wifi hot spot and wish to get
-online.</p>
-
-<p>The first step is to tell your wireless NIC what network to join. Make sure you
-replace &#8220;<tt class="FILENAME">eth0</tt>&#8221; with whatever network interface your
-wireless card uses and change &#8220;<var class="REPLACEABLE">mynetwork</var>&#8221; to
-the essid you wish to use. Yes, we know you're smarter than that. Next you'll have to
-specify the encryption key (if any) used on your wireless network. Finally specify the
-channel to use (if needed).</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">iwconfig eth0 essid "<var
-class="REPLACEABLE">mynetwork</var>"</kbd>
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">iwconfig eth0 key <var
-class="REPLACEABLE">XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX</var></kbd>
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">iwconfig eth0 channel n</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>That should be all on the wireless end of things.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="AEN2101" name="AEN2101">5.5.3 Configure the Network</a></h3>
-
-<p>This is done in the exact same way as wired networks. Simply refer to earlier sections
-of this chapter.</p>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<hr />
-<h2 class="SECT1"><a id="NETWORK-CONFIGURATION-NFS" name="NETWORK-CONFIGURATION-NFS">5.6
-Network File Systems</a></h2>
-
-<p>At this point, you should have a working TCP/IP connection to your network. You should
-be able to ping other computers on your internal network and, if you have configured an
-appropriate gateway, you should also be able to ping computers on the Internet itself. As
-we know, the whole point in bringing a computer onto a network is to access information.
-While some people might bring a computer up on a network just for the fun of it, most
-people wish to be able to share files and printers. They wish to be able to access
-documents on the Internet or play an online game. Having TCP/IP installed and functional
-on your new Slackware system is a means to that end, but with just TCP/IP installed,
-functionality will be very rudimentary. To share files, we will have to transfer them
-back and forth using either FTP or SCP. We cannot browse files on our new Slackware
-computer from the Network Neighborhood or My Network Places icons on Windows computers.
-We'd like to be able to access files on other Unix machines seamlessly.</p>
-
-<p>Ideally, we'd like to be able to use a <span class="emphasis"><i
-class="EMPHASIS">network file system</i></span> to allow us transparent access to our
-files on other computers. The programs that we use to interact with information stored on
-our computers really do not need to know on what computer a given file is stored; they
-just need to know that it exists and how to get to it. It is then the responsibility of
-the operating system to manage access to that file through the available file systems and
-network file systems. The two most commonly used network file systems are SMB (as
-implemented by Samba) and NFS.</p>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="NETWORK-CONFIGURATION-NSF-SMB"
-name="NETWORK-CONFIGURATION-NSF-SMB">5.6.1 SMB/Samba/CIFS</a></h3>
-
-<p>SMB (for Server Message Block) is a descendant of the older NetBIOS protocol that was
-initially used by IBM in their LAN Manager product. Microsoft has always been fairly
-interested in NetBIOS and it's successors (NetBEUI, SMB and CIFS). The Samba project has
-existed since 1991, when it was originally written to link an IBM PC running NetBIOS with
-a Unix server. These days, SMB is the preferred method for sharing file and print
-services over a network for virtually the entire civilized world because Windows supports
-it.</p>
-
-<p>Samba's configuration file is <tt class="FILENAME">/etc/samba/smb.conf</tt>; one of
-the most well commented and documented configuration files you will find anywhere. Sample
-shares have been setup for you to view and modify for your needs. If you need even
-tighter control the man page for smb.conf is indispensable. Since Samba is documented so
-well in the places I've mentioned above, we will not rewrite the documentation here. We
-will, however, quickly cover the basics.</p>
-
-<p><tt class="FILENAME">smb.conf</tt> is broken down into multiple sections: one section
-per share, and a global section for setting options that are to be used everywhere. Some
-options are only valid in the global section; some are only valid outside the global
-section. Remember that the global section can be over-ridden by any other section. Refer
-to the man pages for more information.</p>
-
-<p>You will most likely wish to edit your <tt class="FILENAME">smb.conf</tt> file to
-reflect the network settings in your LAN. I would suggest modifying the items listed
-below:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="PROGRAMLISTING">
-[global]
-# workgroup = NT-Domain-Name or Workgroup-Name, eg: LINUX2
-workgroup = MYGROUP
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>Change the workgroup name to reflect the workgroup or domain name that you are using
-locally.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="PROGRAMLISTING">
-# server string is the equivalent of the NT Description field
-server string = Samba Server
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>This will be the name of your Slackware computer displayed in the Network Neighborhood
-(or My Network Places) folder.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="PROGRAMLISTING">
-# Security mode. Most people will want user level security. See
-# security_level.txt for details. NOTE: To get the behaviour of
-# Samba-1.9.18, you'll need to use "security = share".
-security = user
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>You'll almost certainly wish to implement user level security on your Slackware
-system.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="PROGRAMLISTING">
-# You may wish to use password encryption. Please read
-# ENCRYPTION.txt, Win95.txt and WinNT.txt in the Samba
-# documentation.
-# Do not enable this option unless you have read those documents
-encrypt passwords = yes
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>If encrypt passwords is not enabled, you will not be able to use Samba with NT4.0,
-Win2k, WinXP, and Win2003. Earlier Windows operating systems did not require encryption
-to share files.</p>
-
-<p>SMB is an authenticated protocol, meaning you must supply a correct username and
-password in order to use this service. We tell the samba server what usernames and
-passwords are valid with the <tt class="COMMAND">smbpasswd</tt> command. <tt
-class="COMMAND">smbpasswd</tt> takes a couple of common switches to tell it to either add
-traditional users, or add machine users (SMB requires that you add the computers' NETBIOS
-names as machine users, restricting what computers one can authenticate from).</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-Adding a user to the <tt class="FILENAME">/etc/samba/private/smbpasswd</tt> file.
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">smbpasswd -a user</kbd>
-Adding a machine name to the /etc/samba/private/smbpasswd file.
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">smbpasswd -a -m machine</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>It's important to note that a given username or machine name must already exist in the
-<tt class="FILENAME">/etc/passwd</tt> file. You can accomplish this simply with the <tt
-class="COMMAND">adduser</tt> command. Note that when using the <tt
-class="COMMAND">adduser</tt> command to add a machine name one must append a dollar sign
-(&#8220;<var class="LITERAL">$</var>&#8221;) to the machine name. This should <span
-class="emphasis"><i class="EMPHASIS">not</i></span> however, be done with <tt
-class="COMMAND">smbpasswd</tt>. <tt class="COMMAND">smbpasswd</tt> appends the dollar
-sign on its own. Failing to mangle the machine name this way with <tt
-class="COMMAND">adduser</tt> will result in an error when adding the machine name to
-samba.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">adduser machine$</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="NETWORK-CONFIGURATION-NFS-NFS"
-name="NETWORK-CONFIGURATION-NFS-NFS">5.6.2 Network File System (NFS)</a></h3>
-
-<p>NFS (or Network File System) was originally written by Sun for their Solaris
-implementation of Unix. While it is significantly easier to get up and running when
-compared to SMB, it is also significantly less secure. The primary insecurity in NFS is
-that it is easy to spoof user and group id's from one machine to another. NFS is an
-unauthenticated protocol. Future versions of the NFS protocol are being devised that
-enhance security, but these are not common at the time of this writing.</p>
-
-<p>NFS configuration is governed by the <tt class="FILENAME">/etc/exports</tt> file. When
-you load the default <tt class="FILENAME">/etc/exports</tt> file into an editor, you'll
-see a blank file with a two line comment on top. We'll need to add a line to the exports
-file for each directory that we wish to export, with a listing of client workstations
-that will be allowed to access that file. For instance, if we wished to export directory
-<tt class="FILENAME">/home/foo</tt> to workstation Bar, we would simply add the line:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="PROGRAMLISTING">
-/home/foo Bar(rw)
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>to our <tt class="FILENAME">/etc/exports</tt>. Below, you'll find the example from the
-man page for the <tt class="FILENAME">exports</tt> file:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="PROGRAMLISTING">
-# sample /etc/exports file
-/ master(rw) trusty(rw,no_root_squash)
-/projects proj*.local.domain(rw)
-/usr *.local.domain(ro) @trusted(rw)
-/home/joe pc001(rw,all_squash,anonuid=150,anongid=100)
-/pub (ro,insecure,all_squash)
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>As you can see, there are various options available, but most should be fairly clear
-from this example.</p>
-
-<p>NFS works under the assumption that a given user on one machine in a network has the
-same user ID on all machines across the network. When an attempt is made to read or write
-from a NFS client to an NFS server, a UID is passed as part of the read/write request.
-This UID is treated the same as if the read/write request originated on the local
-machine. As you can see, if one could arbitrarily specify a given UID when accessing
-resources on a remote system, Bad Things (tm) could and would happen. As a partial hedge
-against this, each directory is mounted with the <var class="OPTION">root_squash</var>
-option. This maps the UID for any user claiming to be root to a different UID, thus
-preventing root access to the files or folders in the exported directory. <var
-class="OPTION">root_squash</var> seems to be enabled by default as a security measure,
-but the authors recommend specifying it anyway in your <tt
-class="FILENAME">/etc/exports</tt> file.</p>
-
-<p>You can also export a directory directly from the command line on the server by using
-the <tt class="COMMAND">exportfs</tt> command as follows:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd
-class="USERINPUT">exportfs -o rw,no_root_squash Bar:/home/foo</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>This line exports the <tt class="FILENAME">/home/foo</tt> directory to the computer
-&#8220;<tt class="HOSTID">Bar</tt>&#8221; and grants <tt class="HOSTID">Bar</tt>
-read/write access. Additionally, the NFS server will not invoke <var
-class="OPTION">root_squash</var>, which means any user on Bar with a UID of
-&#8220;0&#8221; (root's UID) will have the same privileges as root on the server. The
-syntax does look strange (usually when a directory is specified in <var
-class="LITERAL">computer:/directory/file</var> syntax, you are referring to a file in a
-directory on a given computer).</p>
-
-<p>You'll find more information on the man page for the exports file.</p>
-</div>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="CHAPTER">
-<hr />
-<h1><a id="X-WINDOW-SYSTEM" name="X-WINDOW-SYSTEM"></a>Chapter 6 X Configuration</h1>
-
-<p>Starting with Slackware-10.0, the X Window environment in Slackware is provided by
-Xorg. X is responsible for providing a graphical user interface. It is independent from
-the operating system, unlike Windows or the MacOS.</p>
-
-<p>The X Window System is implemented through many programs that run in userland. The two
-main components are the server and the window manager. The server provides the lowlevel
-functions for interacting with your video hardware, thus it is system specific. The
-window manager sits on top of the server and provides the user interface. The advantage
-to this is you can have many different graphical interfaces by simply changing the window
-manager you use.</p>
-
-<p>Configuring X can be a complex task. The reason for this is the vast numbers of video
-cards available for the PC architecture, most of which use different programming
-interfaces. Luckily, most cards today support basic video standards known as VESA, and if
-your card is among them you'll be able to start X using the <tt
-class="COMMAND">startx</tt> command right out of the box.</p>
-
-<p>If this doesn't work with your card, or if you'd like to take advantage of the
-high-performance features of your video card such as hardware acceleration or 3-D
-hardware rendering, then you'll need to reconfigure X.</p>
-
-<p>To configure X, you'll need to make an <tt class="FILENAME">/etc/X11/xorg.conf</tt>
-file. This file contains lots of details about your video hardware, mouse, and monitor.
-It's a very complex configuration file, but fortunately there are several programs to
-help create one for you. We'll mention a few of them here.</p>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<hr />
-<h2 class="SECT1"><a id="X-WINDOW-SYSTEM-XORGCONFIG"
-name="X-WINDOW-SYSTEM-XORGCONFIG">6.1 <tt class="COMMAND">xorgconfig</tt></a></h2>
-
-<p>This is a simple menu driven frontend that's similar in feel to the Slackware
-installer. It simply tells the X server to take a look at the card, and then set up the
-best initial configuration file it can make based on the information it gathers. The
-generated <tt class="FILENAME">/etc/X11/xorg.conf</tt> file should be a good starting
-point for most systems (and should work without modification).</p>
-
-<p>This is a text-based X configuration program that's designed for the advanced system
-administrator. Here's a sample walkthrough using <tt class="COMMAND">xorgconfig</tt>.
-First, start the program:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">xorgconfig</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>This will present a screenful of information about <tt
-class="COMMAND">xorgconfig</tt>. To continue, press <kbd class="USERINPUT">ENTER</kbd>.
-<tt class="COMMAND">xorgconfig</tt> will ask you to verify you have set your <tt
-class="ENVAR">PATH</tt> correctly. It should be fine, so go ahead and hit <kbd
-class="USERINPUT">ENTER</kbd>.</p>
-
-<div class="FIGURE"><a id="X-WINDOW-SYSTEM-1" name="X-WINDOW-SYSTEM-1"></a>
-<p><b>Figure 6-1. <tt class="COMMAND">xorgconfig</tt> Mouse Configuration</b></p>
-
-<p><img src="x-window-system/xorgconfig1-w.png" /></p>
-</div>
-
-<p>Select your mouse from the menu presented. If you don't see your serial mouse listed,
-pick the Microsoft protocol -- it's the most common and will probably work. Next <tt
-class="COMMAND">xorgconfig</tt> will ask you about using <var
-class="OPTION">ChordMiddle</var> and <var class="OPTION">Emulate3Buttons</var>. You'll
-see these options described in detail on the screen. Use them if the middle button on
-your mouse doesn't work under X, or if your mouse only has two buttons (<var
-class="OPTION">Emulate3Buttons</var> lets you simulate the middle button by pressing both
-buttons simultaneously). Then, enter the name of your mouse device. The default choice,
-<tt class="FILENAME">/dev/mouse</tt>, should work since the link was configured during
-Slackware setup. If you're running GPM (the Linux mouse server) in repeater mode, you can
-set your mouse type to <tt class="FILENAME">/dev/gpmdata</tt> to have X get information
-about the mouse through <tt class="COMMAND">gpm</tt>. In some cases (with busmice
-especially) this can work better, but most users shouldn't do this.</p>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">xorgconfig</tt> will ask you about enabling special key bindings.
-If you need this say &#8220;<kbd class="USERINPUT">y</kbd>&#8221;. Most users can say
-&#8220;<kbd class="USERINPUT">n</kbd>&#8221; -- enter this if you're not sure.</p>
-
-<div class="FIGURE"><a id="X-WINDOW-SYSTEM-2" name="X-WINDOW-SYSTEM-2"></a>
-<p><b>Figure 6-2. <tt class="COMMAND">xorgconfig</tt> Horizontal Sync</b></p>
-
-<p><img src="x-window-system/xorgconfig2-w.png" /></p>
-</div>
-
-<p>In the next section you enter the sync range for your monitor. To start configuring
-your monitor, press <kbd class="USERINPUT">ENTER</kbd>. You will see a list of monitor
-types -- choose one of them. Be careful not to exceed the specifications of your monitor.
-Doing so could damage your hardware.</p>
-
-<div class="FIGURE"><a id="X-WINDOW-SYSTEM-3" name="X-WINDOW-SYSTEM-3"></a>
-<p><b>Figure 6-3. <tt class="COMMAND">xorgconfig</tt> Vertical Sync</b></p>
-
-<p><img src="x-window-system/xorgconfig3-w.png" /></p>
-</div>
-
-<p>Specify the vertical sync range for your monitor (you should find this in the manual
-for the monitor). xorgconfig will ask you to enter strings to identify the monitor type
-in the <tt class="FILENAME">xorg.conf</tt> file. Enter anything you like on these 3 lines
-(including nothing at all).</p>
-
-<div class="FIGURE"><a id="X-WINDOW-SYSTEM-4" name="X-WINDOW-SYSTEM-4"></a>
-<p><b>Figure 6-4. <tt class="COMMAND">xorgconfig</tt> Video Card</b></p>
-
-<p><img src="x-window-system/xorgconfig4-w.png" /></p>
-</div>
-
-<p>Now you have the opportunity to look at the database of video card types. You'll want
-to do this, so say &#8220;<kbd class="USERINPUT">y</kbd>&#8221;, and select a card from
-the list shown. If you don't see your exact card, try selecting one that uses the same
-chipset and it will probably work fine.</p>
-
-<p>Next, tell <tt class="COMMAND">xorgconfig</tt> how much RAM you have on your video
-card. <tt class="COMMAND">xorgconfig</tt> will want you to enter some more descriptive
-text about your video card. If you like, you can enter descriptions on these three
-lines.</p>
-
-<p>You'll then be asked which display resolutions you want to use. Again, going with the
-provided defaults should be fine to start with. Later on, you can edit the <tt
-class="FILENAME">/etc/X11/xorg.conf</tt> file and rearrange the modes so 1024x768 (or
-whatever mode you like) is the default.</p>
-
-<p>At this point, the <tt class="COMMAND">xorgconfig</tt> program will ask if you'd like
-to save the current configuration file. Answer yes, and the X configuration file is
-saved, completing the setup process. You can start X now with the <tt
-class="COMMAND">startx</tt> command.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<hr />
-<h2 class="SECT1"><a id="X-WINDOW-SYSTEM-XORGSETUP" name="X-WINDOW-SYSTEM-XORGSETUP">6.2
-<tt class="COMMAND">xorgsetup</tt></a></h2>
-
-<p>The second way to configure X is to use <tt class="COMMAND">xorgsetup</tt>, an
-automagical configuration program that comes with Slackware.</p>
-
-<p>To run <tt class="COMMAND">xorgsetup</tt>, log in as root and type:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">xorgsetup</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>If you've already got an <tt class="FILENAME">/etc/X11/xorg.conf</tt> file (because
-you've already configured X), you'll be asked if you want to backup the existing config
-file before continuing. The original file will be renamed to <tt
-class="FILENAME">/etc/X11/xorg.conf.backup</tt>.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<hr />
-<h2 class="SECT1"><a id="X-WINDOW-SYSTEM-XINITRC" name="X-WINDOW-SYSTEM-XINITRC">6.3
-xinitrc</a></h2>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">xinit</tt>(1) is the program that actually starts X; it is called
-by <tt class="COMMAND">startx</tt>(1), so you may not have noticed it (and probably don't
-really need to). Its configuration file, however, determines which programs (including
-and especially the window manager) are run when X starts up. <tt
-class="COMMAND">xinit</tt> first checks your home directory for a <tt
-class="FILENAME">.xinitrc</tt> file. If the file is found, it gets run; otherwise, <tt
-class="FILENAME">/var/X11R6/lib/xinit/xinitrc</tt> (the systemwide default) is used.
-Here's a simple <tt class="FILENAME">xinitrc</tt> file:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="PROGRAMLISTING">
-#!/bin/sh
-# $XConsortium: xinitrc.cpp,v 1.4 91/08/22 11:41:34 rws Exp $
-
-userresources=$HOME/.Xresources
-usermodmap=$HOME/.Xmodmap
-sysresources=/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/xinit/.Xresources
-sysmodmap=/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/xinit/.Xmodmap
-
-# merge in defaults and keymaps
-
-if [ -f $sysresources ]; then
- xrdb -merge $sysresources
-fi
-
-if [ -f $sysmodmap ]; then
- xmodmap $sysmodmap
-fi
-
-if [ -f $userresources ]; then
- xrdb -merge $userresources
-fi
-
-if [ -f $usermodmap ]; then
- xmodmap $usermodmap
-fi
-
-# start some nice programs
-
-twm &#38;
-xclock -geometry 50x50-1+1 &#38;
-xterm -geometry 80x50+494+51 &#38;
-xterm -geometry 80x20+494-0 &#38;
-exec xterm -geometry 80x66+0+0 -name login
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>All of those &#8220;if&#8221; blocks are there to merge in various configuration
-settings from other files. The interesting part of the file is toward the end, where
-various programs are run. This X session will begin with the <tt
-class="COMMAND">twm</tt>(1) window manager, a clock, and three terminals. Note the <tt
-class="COMMAND">exec</tt> before the last <tt class="COMMAND">xterm</tt>. What that does
-is replace the currently running shell (the one that's executing this <tt
-class="FILENAME">xinitrc</tt> script) with that <tt class="COMMAND">xterm</tt>(1)
-command. When the user quits that <tt class="COMMAND">xterm</tt>, the X session will
-end.</p>
-
-<p>To customize your X startup, copy the default <tt
-class="FILENAME">/var/X11R6/lib/xinit/xinitrc</tt> to <tt
-class="FILENAME">~/.xinitrc</tt> and edit it, replacing those program lines with whatever
-you like. The end of mine is simply:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="PROGRAMLISTING">
-# Start the window manager:
-exec startkde
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>Note that there are several <tt class="FILENAME">xinitrc.*</tt> files in <tt
-class="FILENAME">/var/X11R6/lib/xinit</tt> that correspond to various window managers and
-GUIs. You can use any of those, if you like.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<hr />
-<h2 class="SECT1"><a id="X-WINDOW-SYSTEM-XWMCONFIG" name="X-WINDOW-SYSTEM-XWMCONFIG">6.4
-<tt class="COMMAND">xwmconfig</tt></a></h2>
-
-<p>For years, Unix was used almost exclusively as the operating system for servers, with
-the exception of high-powered professional workstations. Only the technically inclined
-were likely to use a Unix-like operating system, and the user interface reflected this
-fact. GUIs tended to be fairly bare-bones, designed to run a few necessarily graphical
-applications like CAD programs and image renderers. Most file and system management was
-conducted at the command line. Various vendors (Sun Microsystems, Silicon Graphics, etc)
-were selling workstations with an attempt to provide a cohesive &#8220;look and
-feel&#8221;, but the wide variety of GUI toolkits in use by developers led inevitably to
-the dissolution of the desktop's uniformity. A scrollbar might not look the same in two
-different applications. Menus might appear in different places. Programs would have
-different buttons and checkboxes. Colors ranged widely, and were generally hard-coded in
-each toolkit. As long as the users were primarily technical professionals, none of this
-mattered much.</p>
-
-<p>With the advent of free Unix-like operating systems and the growing number and variety
-of graphical applications, X has recently gained a wide desktop user base. Most users, of
-course, are accustomed to the consistent look and feel provided by Microsoft's Windows or
-Apple's MacOS; the lack of such consistency in X-based applications became a barrier to
-its wider acceptance. In response, two open source projects have been undertaken: The K
-Desktop Environment, or KDE, and the GNU Network Object Model Environment, known as
-GNOME. Each has a wide variety of applications, from taskbars and file managers to games
-and office suites, written with the same GUI toolkit and tightly integrated to provide a
-uniform, consistent desktop.</p>
-
-<p>The differences in KDE and GNOME are generally fairly subtle. They each look different
-from the other, because each uses a different GUI toolkit. KDE is based on the Qt library
-from Troll Tech AS, while GNOME uses GTK, a toolkit originally developed for The GNU
-Image Manipulation Program (or The GIMP, for short). As separate projects, KDE and GNOME
-each have their own designers and programmers, with different development styles and
-philosophies. The result in each case, however, has been fundamentally the same: a
-consistent, tightly integrated desktop environment and application collection. The
-functionality, usability, and sheer prettiness of both KDE and GNOME rival anything
-available on other operating systems.</p>
-
-<p>The best part, though, is that these advanced desktops are free. This means you can
-have either or both (yes, at the same time). The choice is yours.</p>
-
-<p>In addition to the GNOME and KDE desktops, Slackware includes a large collection of
-window managers. Some are designed to emulate other operating systems, some for
-customization, others for speed. There's quite a variety. Of course you can install as
-many as you want, play with them all, and decide which you like the most.</p>
-
-<p>To make desktop selection easy, Slackware also includes a program called <tt
-class="COMMAND">xwmconfig</tt> that can be used to select a desktop or window manager. It
-is run like so:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">xwmconfig</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<div class="FIGURE"><a id="FIG-X-WINDOW-SYSTEM-XWMCONFIG"
-name="FIG-X-WINDOW-SYSTEM-XWMCONFIG"></a>
-<p><b>Figure 6-5. Desktop Configuration with <tt class="COMMAND">xorgconfig</tt></b></p>
-
-<p><img src="x-window-system/xwmconfig-w.png" /></p>
-</div>
-
-<p>You'll be given a list of all the desktops and window managers installed. Just select
-the one you want from the list. Each user on your system will need to run this program,
-since different users can use different desktops, and not everyone will want the default
-one you selected at installation.</p>
-
-<p>Then just start up X, and you're good to go.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<hr />
-<h2 class="SECT1"><a id="X-WINDOW-SYSTEM-XDM" name="X-WINDOW-SYSTEM-XDM">6.5 <tt
-class="COMMAND">xdm</tt></a></h2>
-
-<p>As Linux becomes more and more useful as a desktop operating system, many users find
-it desirable for the machine to boot straight into a graphical environment. For this, you
-will need to tell Slackware to boot straight into X, and assign a graphical login
-manager. Slackware ships with three graphical login tools, <tt
-class="COMMAND">xdm</tt>(1), <tt class="COMMAND">kdm</tt>, and <tt
-class="COMMAND">gdm</tt>(1).</p>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">xdm</tt> is the graphical login manager shipped with the X.org
-system. It's ubiquitous, but not as fully features as alternatives. <tt
-class="COMMAND">kdm</tt> is the graphical login manager shipped with KDE, The K Desktop
-Environment. Finally, <tt class="COMMAND">gdm</tt> is the login manager shipped with
-GNOME. Any of the choices will allow you to log in as any user, and choose what desktop
-you wish to use.</p>
-
-<p>Unfortunately, Slackware doesn't include a nice program like <tt
-class="COMMAND">xwmconfig</tt> for choosing what login manager to use, so if all three
-are installed you may have to do some editing to choose your preference. But first, we'll
-discuss how to boot into a graphical environment.</p>
-
-<p>In order to start X at boot, you need to boot into run-level 4. Run-levels are just a
-way of telling <tt class="COMMAND">init</tt>(8) to do something different when it starts
-the OS. We do this by editing the config file for <tt class="COMMAND">init</tt>, <tt
-class="FILENAME">/etc/inittab</tt>.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="PROGRAMLISTING">
-# These are the default runlevels in Slackware:
-# 0 = halt
-# 1 = single user mode
-# 2 = unused (but configured the same as runlevel 3)
-# 3 = multiuser mode (default Slackware runlevel)
-# 4 = X11 with KDM/GDM/XDM (session managers)
-# 5 = unused (but configured the same as runlevel 3)
-# 6 = reboot
-
-# Default runlevel. (Do not set to 0 or 6)
-id:3:initdefault:
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>In order to make Slackware boot to a graphical environment, we just change the 3 to a
-4.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="PROGRAMLISTING">
- # Default runlevel. (Do not set to 0 or 6)
- id:4:initdefault:
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>Now Slackware will boot into runlevel 4 and execute <tt
-class="FILENAME">/etc/rc.d/rc.4</tt>. This file starts up X and calls whatever login
-manager you've chosen. So, how do we choose login managers? There are a few ways to do
-this, and I'll explain them after we look at <tt class="FILENAME">rc.4</tt>.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="PROGRAMLISTING">
- # Try to use GNOME's gdm session manager:
- if [ -x /usr/bin/gdm ]; then
- exec /usr/bin/gdm -nodaemon
- fi
-
- # Not there? OK, try to use KDE's kdm session manager:
- if [ -x /opt/kde/bin/kdm ]; then
- exec /opt/kde/bin/kdm -nodaemon
- fi
-
- # If all you have is XDM, I guess it will have to do:
- if [ -x /usr/X11R6/bin/xdm ]; then
- exec /usr/X11R6/bin/xdm -nodaemon
- fi
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>As you can see here, <tt class="FILENAME">rc.4</tt> first checks to see if <tt
-class="COMMAND">gdm</tt> is executable, and if so runs it. Second on the list is <tt
-class="COMMAND">kdm</tt>, and finally <tt class="COMMAND">xdm</tt>. One way of choosing a
-login manager is to simply remove the ones you don't wish to use using <tt
-class="COMMAND">removepkg</tt>. You can find out more about <tt
-class="COMMAND">removepkg</tt> in <a href="#PACKAGE-MANAGEMENT">Chapter 18</a>.</p>
-
-<p>Optionally, you can remove the executable permission from those files that you don't
-want to use. We discuss <tt class="COMMAND">chmod</tt> in <a
-href="#FILESYSTEM-STRUCTURE">Chapter 9</a>.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">chmod -x /usr/bin/gdm</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>Finally, you can just comment out the lines for the login manager you don't want to
-use.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="PROGRAMLISTING">
- # Try to use GNOME's gdm session manager:
- # if [ -x /usr/bin/gdm ]; then
- # exec /usr/bin/gdm -nodaemon
- # fi
-
- # Not there? OK, try to use KDE's kdm session manager:
- if [ -x /opt/kde/bin/kdm ]; then
- exec /opt/kde/bin/kdm -nodaemon
- fi
-
- # If all you have is XDM, I guess it will have to do:
- if [ -x /usr/X11R6/bin/xdm ]; then
- exec /usr/X11R6/bin/xdm -nodaemon
- fi
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>Any lines preceded by the hash mark (<var class="LITERAL">#</var>) are considered
-comments and the shell silently passes them. Thus, even if <tt class="COMMAND">gdm</tt>
-is installed and executable, the shell (in this case <tt class="COMMAND">bash</tt>) won't
-bother checking for it.</p>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="CHAPTER">
-<hr />
-<h1><a id="BOOTING" name="BOOTING"></a>Chapter 7 Booting</h1>
-
-<p>The process of booting your Linux system can sometimes be easy and sometimes be
-difficult. Many users install Slackware on their computer and that's it. They just turn
-it on and it's ready to use. Othertimes, simply booting the machine can be a chore. For
-most users, LILO works best. Slackware includes LILO and Loadlin for booting Slackware
-Linux. LILO will work from a hard drive partition, a hard drive's master boot record, or
-a floppy disk, making it a very versatile tool. Loadlin works from a DOS command line,
-killing DOS and invoking Linux.</p>
-
-<p>Another popular utility for booting Linux is GRUB. GRUB is not included or officially
-supported by Slackware. Slackware holds to the &#8220;tried and true&#8221; standard for
-what gets included inside the distribution. While GRUB works well and includes some
-features that LILO does not, LILO handles all the essential tasks of a boot loader
-reliably with a proven track record. Being younger, GRUB hasn't quite lived up to that
-legacy yet. As it is not included with Slackware, we do not discuss it here. If you wish
-to use GRUB (perhaps it came with another Linux OS and you want to use it to dual-boot)
-consult GRUB's documentation.</p>
-
-<p>This section covers using LILO and Loadlin, the two booters included with Slackware.
-It also explains some typical dual booting scenarios and how you could go about setting
-it up.</p>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<hr />
-<h2 class="SECT1"><a id="BOOTING-LILO" name="BOOTING-LILO">7.1 LILO</a></h2>
-
-<p>The Linux Loader, or LILO, is the most popular booter in use on Linux systems. It is
-quite configurable and can easily be used to boot other operating systems.</p>
-
-<p>Slackware Linux comes with a menu-driven configuration utility called <tt
-class="COMMAND">liloconfig</tt>. This program is first run during the setup process, but
-you can invoke it later by typing <tt class="COMMAND">liloconfig</tt> at the prompt.</p>
-
-<p>LILO reads its settings from the <tt class="COMMAND">/etc/lilo.conf</tt>(5) file. It
-is not read each time you boot up, but instead is read each time you install LILO. LILO
-must be reinstalled to the boot sector each time you make a configuration change. Many
-LILO errors come from making changes to the <tt class="FILENAME">lilo.conf</tt> file, but
-failing to re-run lilo to install these changes. <tt class="COMMAND">liloconfig</tt> will
-help you build the configuration file so that you can install LILO for your system. If
-you prefer to edit <tt class="FILENAME">/etc/lilo.conf</tt> by hand, then reinstalling
-LILO just involves typing <tt class="COMMAND">/sbin/lilo</tt> (as <tt
-class="USERNAME">root</tt>) at the prompt.</p>
-
-<p>When you first invoke <tt class="COMMAND">liloconfig</tt>, it will look like this:</p>
-
-<div class="FIGURE"><a id="BOOTING-SETUP-LILO" name="BOOTING-SETUP-LILO"></a>
-<p><b>Figure 7-1. <tt class="COMMAND">liloconfig</tt></b></p>
-
-<p><img src="booting/setup-lilo-w.png" /></p>
-</div>
-
-<p>If this is your first time setting up LILO, you should pick simple. Otherwise, you
-might find expert to be faster if you are familiar with LILO and Linux. Selecting simple
-will begin the LILO configuration.</p>
-
-<p>If kernel frame buffer support is compiled into your kernel, <tt
-class="COMMAND">liloconfig</tt> will ask which video resolution you would like to use.
-This is the resolution that is also used by the XFree86 frame buffer server. If you do
-not want the console to run in a special video mode, selecting normal will keep the
-standard 80x25 text mode in use.</p>
-
-<p>The next part of the LILO configuration is selecting where you want it installed. This
-is probably the most important step. The list below explains the installation places:</p>
-
-<div class="VARIABLELIST">
-<dl>
-<dt><var class="OPTION">Root</var></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>This option installs LILO to the beginning of your Linux root partition. This is the
-safest option if you have other operating systems on your computer. It ensures that any
-other booters are not overwritten. The disadvantage is that LILO will only load from here
-if your Linux drive is the first drive on your system. This is why many people chose to
-create a very small <tt class="FILENAME">/boot</tt> partition as the first drive on their
-system. This allows the kernel and LILO to be installed at the beginning of the drive
-where LILO can find them. Previous versions of LILO contained an infamous flaw known as
-the &#8220;1024 cylinder limit&#8221;. LILO was unable to boot kernels on partitions past
-the 1024th cylinder. Recent editions of LILO have eliminated this problem.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><var class="OPTION">Floppy</var></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>This method is even safer than the previous one. It creates a boot floppy that you can
-use to boot your Linux system. This keeps the booter off the hard disk entirely, so you
-only boot this floppy when you want to use Slackware. The flaws with this method are
-obvious. Floppies are notoriously fickle, prone to failures. Secondly, the boot loader is
-no longer self-contained within the computer. If you loose your floppy disk, you'll have
-to make another to boot your system.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><var class="OPTION">MBR</var></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>You will want to use this method if Slackware is the only operating system on your
-computer, or if you will be using LILO to choose between multiple operating systems on
-your computer. This is the most preferred method for installing LILO and will work with
-almost any computer system.</p>
-
-<div class="WARNING">
-<table class="WARNING" width="90%" border="0">
-<tr>
-<td width="25" align="CENTER" valign="TOP"><img src="./imagelib/admon/warning.png"
-hspace="5" alt="Warning" /></td>
-<td align="LEFT" valign="TOP">
-<p>This option will overwrite any other booter you have in the MBR.</p>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-</div>
-</dd>
-</dl>
-</div>
-
-<p>After selecting the installation location, <tt class="COMMAND">liloconfig</tt> will
-write the configuration file and install LILO. That's it. If you select the expert mode
-you will receive a special menu. This menu allows you to tweak the <tt
-class="FILENAME">/etc/lilo.conf</tt> file, add other operating systems to your boot menu,
-and set LILO to pass special kernel parameters at boot time. The expert menu looks like
-this:</p>
-
-<div class="FIGURE"><a id="BOOTING-LILO-EXPERT" name="BOOTING-LILO-EXPERT"></a>
-<p><b>Figure 7-2. <tt class="COMMAND">liloconfig</tt> Expert Menu</b></p>
-
-<p><img src="booting/setup-lilo-expert-w.png" /></p>
-</div>
-
-<p>Whatever your system configuration is, setting up a working boot loader is easy. <tt
-class="COMMAND">liloconfig</tt> makes setting it up a cinch.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<hr />
-<h2 class="SECT1"><a id="BOOTING-LOADLIN" name="BOOTING-LOADLIN">7.2 LOADLIN</a></h2>
-
-<p>The other booting option that comes with Slackware Linux is LOADLIN. LOADLIN is a DOS
-executable that can be used to start Linux from a running DOS system. It requires the
-Linux kernel to be on the DOS partition so that LOADLIN can load it and properly boot the
-system.</p>
-
-<p>During the installation process, LOADLIN will be copied to root's home directory as a
-.ZIP file. There is no automatic setup process for LOADLIN. You will need to copy the
-Linux kernel (typically <tt class="FILENAME">/boot/vmlinuz</tt>) and the LOADLIN file
-from root's home directory to the DOS partition.</p>
-
-<p>LOADLIN is useful if you would like to make a boot menu on your DOS partition. A menu
-could be added to your <tt class="FILENAME">AUTOEXEC.BAT</tt> file that would allow you
-to pick between Linux or DOS. A choice of Linux would run LOADLIN, thus booting your
-Slackware system. This <tt class="FILENAME">AUTOEXEC.BAT</tt> file under Windows 95 will
-provide a sufficient boot menu:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="PROGRAMLISTING">
- @ECHO OFF
- SET PROMPT=$P$G
- SET PATH=C:\WINDOWS;C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND;C:\
- CLS
- ECHO Please Select Your Operating System:
- ECHO.
- ECHO [1] Slackware Linux
- ECHO [2] Windows 95
- ECHO.
- CHOICE /C:12 "Selection? -&gt; "
- IF ERRORLEVEL 2 GOTO WIN
- IF ERRORLEVEL 1 GOTO LINUX
- :WIN
- CLS
- ECHO Starting Windows 95...
- WIN
- GOTO END
- :LINUX
- ECHO Starting Slackware Linux...
- CD \LINUX
- LOADLIN C:\LINUX\VMLINUZ ROOT=&lt;root partition device&gt; RO
- GOTO END
- :END
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>You will want to specify your root partition as a Linux device name, like <tt
-class="FILENAME">/dev/hda2</tt> or something else. You can always use LOADLIN at the
-command line. You simply use it in the same manner as it is in the example above. The
-LOADLIN documentation comes with many examples on how to use it.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<hr />
-<h2 class="SECT1"><a id="BOOTING-DUAL" name="BOOTING-DUAL">7.3 Dual Booting</a></h2>
-
-<p>Many users set up their computers to boot Slackware Linux and another operating
-system. We've described several typical dual boot scenarios below, in case you are having
-difficulty setting up your system.</p>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="BOOTING-DUAL-WINDOWS" name="BOOTING-DUAL-WINDOWS">7.3.1
-Windows</a></h3>
-
-<p>Setting up a computer with both MS Windows and Linux is probably the most common dual
-boot scenario. There are numerous ways you can setup the booting, but this section will
-cover two.</p>
-
-<p>Often times when setting up a dual boot system, a person will devise a perfect plan
-for where everything should go but mess up the installation order. It is very important
-to understand that operating systems need to be installed in a certain order for a dual
-boot setup to work. Linux always offers control over what, if anything, gets written to
-the Master Boot Record. Therefore, it's always advisable to install Linux last. Windows
-should be installed first, since it will always write its booter to the Master Boot
-Record, overwriting any entry Linux may have put there.</p>
-
-<div class="SECT3">
-<hr />
-<h4 class="SECT3"><a id="AEN2577" name="AEN2577">7.3.1.1 Using LILO</a></h4>
-
-<p>Most people will want to use LILO to chose between Linux and Windows. As stated above,
-you should install Windows first, then Linux.</p>
-
-<p>Let's say you have a 40GB IDE hard disk as the only drive in your system. Let's also
-say that you want to give half of that space to Windows and half of that space to Linux.
-This will present a problem when trying to boot Linux.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="PROGRAMLISTING">
- 20GB Windows boot (C:)
- 1GB Linux root (/)
- 19GB Linux /usr (/usr)
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>You would also want to set aside an adequate amount of space for a Linux swap
-partition. The unwritten rule is to use twice the amount of RAM you have in disk space. A
-64MB system would have 128MB of swap, and so on. Adequate swap space is the discussion of
-many flames on IRC and Usenet. There's no truly &#8220;right&#8221; way to do it, but
-sticking with the rule above should be sufficient.</p>
-
-<p>With your partitions laid out, you should proceed to install Windows. After that is
-set up and working, you should install Linux. The LILO installation needs special
-attention. You will want to select the expert mode for installing LILO.</p>
-
-<p>Begin a new LILO configuration. You will want to install it to Master Boot Record so
-that it can be used to choose between the two operating systems. From the menu, add your
-Linux partition and add your Windows (or DOS) partition. Once that's complete, you can
-install LILO.</p>
-
-<p>Reboot the computer. LILO should load and will display a menu letting you select
-between the operating systems you have installed. Select the name of the OS you wish to
-load (these names were selected when you setup LILO).</p>
-
-<p>LILO is quite a configurable boot loader. It's not just limited to booting Linux or
-DOS. It can boot just about anything. The man pages for <tt class="COMMAND">lilo</tt>(8)
-and <tt class="FILENAME">lilo.conf</tt>(5) provide more detailed information.</p>
-
-<p>What if LILO doesn't work? There are instances where LILO just won't work on a
-particular machine. Fortunately, there is another way to dual boot Linux and Windows.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT3">
-<hr />
-<h4 class="SECT3"><a id="AEN2591" name="AEN2591">7.3.1.2 Using LOADLIN</a></h4>
-
-<p>This method can be used if LILO doesn't work on your system, or if you just don't want
-to set up LILO. This method is also ideal for the user that reinstalls Windows often.
-Each time you reinstall Windows, it will overwrite the Master Boot Record, thus
-destroying any LILO installation. With LOADLIN, you are not subject to that problem. The
-biggest disadvantage is that you can only use LOADLIN to boot Linux.</p>
-
-<p>With LOADLIN, you can install the operating systems in any order desired. Be careful
-about installing things to the Master Boot Record, you do not want to do that. LOADLIN
-relies on the Windows partition being bootable. So during the Slackware installation,
-make sure you skip the LILO setup.</p>
-
-<p>After installing the operating systems, copy the <tt class="FILENAME">loadlin<var
-class="REPLACEABLE">X</var>.zip</tt> (where <var class="REPLACEABLE">X</var> is a version
-number, such as <var class="LITERAL">16a</var>) file from root's home directory to your
-Windows partition. Also copy your kernel image to the Windows partition. You will need to
-be in Linux for this to work. This example shows how to do this:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">mkdir /win</kbd>
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">mount -t vfat /dev/hda1 /win</kbd>
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">mkdir /win/linux</kbd>
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">cd /root</kbd>
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">cp loadlin* /win/linux</kbd>
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">cp /boot/vmlinuz /win/linux</kbd>
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">cd /win/linuz</kbd>
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">unzip loadlin16a.zip</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>That will create a <tt class="FILENAME">C:\LINUX</tt> directory on your Windows
-partition (assuming it's <tt class="FILENAME">/dev/hda1</tt>) and copy over the necessary
-stuff for LOADLIN. After doing this, you will need to reboot into Windows to setup a boot
-menu.</p>
-
-<p>Once in Windows, get to a DOS prompt. First, we need to make sure the system is set to
-not boot into the graphical interface.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-C:\&#62; <kbd class="USERINPUT">cd \</kbd>
-C:\&#62; <kbd class="USERINPUT">attrib -r -a -s -h MSDOS.SYS</kbd>
-C:\&#62; <kbd class="USERINPUT">edit MSDOS.SYS</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>Add this line to the file:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="PROGRAMLISTING">
-BootGUI=0
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>Now save the file and exit the editor. Now edit <tt
-class="FILENAME">C:\AUTOEXEC.BAT</tt> so we can add a boot menu. The following provides
-an example of what a boot menu block in <tt class="FILENAME">AUTOEXEC.BAT</tt> would look
-like:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="PROGRAMLISTING">
-cls
-echo System Boot Menu
-echo.
-echo 1 - Linux
-echo 2 - Windows
-echo.
-choice /c:12 "Selection? -&#62; "
-if errorlevel 2 goto WIN
-if errorlevel 1 goto LINUX
-:LINUX
-cls
-echo "Starting Linux..."
-cd \linux
-loadlin c:\linux\vmlinuz root=/dev/hda2 ro
-goto END
-:WIN
-cls
-echo "Starting Windows..."
-win
-goto END
-:END
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>The key line is the one that runs LOADLIN. We tell it the kernel to load, the Linux
-root partition, and that we want it mounted read-only initially.</p>
-
-<p>The tools for these two methods are provided with Slackware Linux. There are numerous
-other booters on the market, but these should work for most dual boot setups.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT3">
-<hr />
-<h4 class="SECT3"><a id="AEN2633" name="AEN2633">7.3.1.3 Deprecated Windows NT
-Hack</a></h4>
-
-<p>This is the least common dual booting situation. In the days of old, LILO was unable
-to boot Windows NT, requiring Linux users to hack NTLDR, which presented several more
-problems than dual booting between Windows 9x and Linux. Understand that the following
-instructions are deprecated. LILO has been able to boot Windows NT/2000/XP/2003 for many
-years now. If you are using a legacy machine though, you may need to use just such a
-hack.</p>
-
-<ol type="1">
-<li>
-<p>Install Windows NT</p>
-</li>
-
-<li>
-<p>Install Linux, making sure LILO is installed to the superblock of the Linux
-partition</p>
-</li>
-
-<li>
-<p>Get the first 512 bytes of the Linux root partition and store it on the Windows NT
-partition</p>
-</li>
-
-<li>
-<p>Edit <tt class="FILENAME">C:\BOOT.INI</tt> under Windows NT to add a Linux option</p>
-</li>
-</ol>
-
-<p>Installing Windows NT should be fairly straightforward, as should installing Linux.
-From there, it gets a little more tricky. Grabbing the first 512 bytes of the Linux
-partition is easier than it sounds. You will need to be in Linux to accomplish this.
-Assuming your Linux partition is <tt class="FILENAME">/dev/hda2</tt>, issue this
-command:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd
-class="USERINPUT">dd if=/dev/hda2 of=/tmp/bootsect.lnx bs=1 count=512</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>That's it. Now you need to copy bootsect.lnx to the Windows NT partition. Here's where
-we run into another problem. Linux does not have stable write support for the NTFS
-filesystem. If you installed Windows NT and formatted your drive as NTFS, you will need
-to copy this file to a FAT floppy and then read from it under Windows NT. If you
-formatted the Windows NT drive as FAT, you can simply mount it under Linux and copy the
-file over. Either way, you will want to get <tt class="FILENAME">/tmp/bootsect.lnx</tt>
-from the Linux drive to <tt class="FILENAME">C:\BOOTSECT.LNX</tt> on the Windows NT
-drive.</p>
-
-<p>The last step is adding a menu option to the Windows NT boot menu. Under Windows NT
-open a command prompt.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-C:\WINNT&#62; <kbd class="USERINPUT">cd \</kbd>
-C:\&#62; <kbd class="USERINPUT">attrib -r -a -s -h boot.ini</kbd>
-C:\&#62; <kbd class="USERINPUT">edit boot.ini</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>Add this line to the end of the file:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="PROGRAMLISTING">
-C:\bootsect.lnx="Slackware Linux"
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>Save the changes and exit the editor. When you reboot Windows NT, you will have a
-Linux option on the menu. Choosing it will boot into Linux.</p>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="BOOTING-DUAL-LINUX" name="BOOTING-DUAL-LINUX">7.3.2
-Linux</a></h3>
-
-<p>Yes, people really do this. This is definitely the easiest dual boot scenario. You can
-simply use LILO and add more entries to the <tt class="FILENAME">/etc/lilo.conf</tt>
-file. That's all there is to it.</p>
-</div>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="CHAPTER">
-<hr />
-<h1><a id="SHELL" name="SHELL"></a>Chapter 8 The Shell</h1>
-
-<p>In a graphical environment, the interface is provided by a program that creates
-windows, scrollbars, menus, etc. In a commandline environment, the user interface is
-provided by a shell, which interprets commands and generally makes things useable.
-Immediately after logging in (which is covered in this chapter), users are put into a
-shell and allowed to go about their business. This chapter serves as an introduction to
-the shell, and to the most common shell among Linux users-- the Bourne Again Shell
-(bash). For more detailed information on anything in this chapter, check out the <tt
-class="COMMAND">bash</tt>(1) man page.</p>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<hr />
-<h2 class="SECT1"><a id="SHELL-USERS" name="SHELL-USERS">8.1 Users</a></h2>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="AEN2678" name="AEN2678">8.1.1 Logging In</a></h3>
-
-<p>So you've booted, and you're looking at something that looks like this:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-Welcome to Linux 2.4.18
-Last login: Wed Jan 1 15:59:14 -0500 2005 on tty6.
-darkstar login:
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>Hmm.. nobody said anything about a login. And what's a darkstar? Don't worry; you
-probably didn't accidentally fire up a hyperspace comm-link to the Empire's artificial
-moon. (I'm afraid the hyperspace comm-link protocol isn't currently supported by the
-Linux kernel. Maybe the 2.8 kernel branch will at last provide this oft looked-for
-support.) No, darkstar is just the name of one of our computers, and its name gets
-stamped on as the default. If you specified a name for your computer during setup, you
-should see it instead of darkstar.</p>
-
-<p>As for the login... If this is your first time, you'll want to log in as <tt
-class="USERNAME">root</tt>. You'll be prompted for a password; if you set one during the
-setup process, that's what it's looking for. If not, just hit enter. That's it-- you're
-in!</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="AEN2693" name="AEN2693">8.1.2 Root: The Superuser</a></h3>
-
-<p>Okay, who or <span class="emphasis"><i class="EMPHASIS">what</i></span> is <tt
-class="USERNAME">root</tt>? And what's it doing with an account on <span
-class="emphasis"><i class="EMPHASIS">your</i></span> system?</p>
-
-<p>Well, in the world of Unix and similar operating systems (like Linux), there are users
-and then there are users. We'll go into this in more detail later, but the important
-thing to know now is that <tt class="USERNAME">root</tt> is the user above all users; <tt
-class="USERNAME">root</tt> is all-powerful and all-knowing, and <span class="emphasis"><i
-class="EMPHASIS">nobody</i></span> disobeys <tt class="USERNAME">root</tt>. It just isn't
-allowed. <tt class="USERNAME">root</tt> is what we call a &#8220;superuser&#8221;, and
-rightly so. And best of all, <tt class="USERNAME">root</tt> is <span class="emphasis"><i
-class="EMPHASIS">you</i></span>.</p>
-
-<p>Cool, huh?</p>
-
-<p>If you're not sure: yes, that's very cool. The catch is, though, that root is
-inherently allowed to break anything it so desires. You might want to skip ahead to <a
-href="#ESSENTIAL-SYSADMIN-USERS-SCRIPTS">Section 12.1.1</a> and see about adding a user;
-then login as that user and work from there. The traditional wisdom is that it's best to
-only become the superuser when absolutely necessary, so as to minimize the possibility of
-accidentally breaking something.</p>
-
-<p>By the way, if you decide you want to be root while you're logged in as someone else,
-no problem. Just use the <tt class="COMMAND">su</tt>(1) command. You'll be asked for <tt
-class="USERNAME">root's</tt> password and then it will make you <tt
-class="USERNAME">root</tt> until you <tt class="COMMAND">exit</tt> or <tt
-class="COMMAND">logout</tt>. You can also become any other user using <tt
-class="COMMAND">su</tt>, provided you know that user's password: <tt class="COMMAND">su
-logan</tt>, for instance, would make you me.</p>
-
-<div class="NOTE">
-<table class="NOTE" width="100%" border="0">
-<tr>
-<td width="25" align="CENTER" valign="TOP"><img src="./imagelib/admon/note.png"
-hspace="5" alt="Note" /></td>
-<td align="LEFT" valign="TOP">
-<p><tt class="USERNAME">root</tt> is allowed to su to any user, without requiring their
-password.</p>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-</div>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<hr />
-<h2 class="SECT1"><a id="SHELL-COMMAND-LINE" name="SHELL-COMMAND-LINE">8.2 The Command
-Line</a></h2>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="SHELL-COMMAND-LINE-RUNNING"
-name="SHELL-COMMAND-LINE-RUNNING">8.2.1 Running Programs</a></h3>
-
-<p>It's hard to get much accomplished without running a program; you might be able to
-prop something up with your computer or hold a door open, and some will make the most
-lovely humming noise when running, but that's really about it. And I think we can all
-agree that its use as a humming doorstop isn't what brought the personal computer the
-popularity it now enjoys.</p>
-
-<p>So, remember how almost everything in Linux is a file? Well, that goes for programs,
-too. Every command you run (that isn't built into the shell) resides as a file somewhere.
-You run a program simply by specifying the full path to it.</p>
-
-<p>For instance, remember that <tt class="COMMAND">su</tt> command from the last section?
-Well, it's actually in the <tt class="FILENAME">/bin</tt> directory: <tt
-class="COMMAND">/bin/su</tt> would run it nicely.</p>
-
-<p>So why, then, does just typing <tt class="COMMAND">su</tt> work? After all, you didn't
-say it was in <tt class="FILENAME">/bin</tt>. It could just as easily have been in <tt
-class="FILENAME">/usr/local/share</tt>, right? How did it <span class="emphasis"><i
-class="EMPHASIS">know</i></span>? The answer to that lies in the <tt
-class="ENVAR">PATH</tt> environment variable; most shells have either <tt
-class="ENVAR">PATH</tt> or something very much like <tt class="ENVAR">PATH</tt>. It
-basically contains a list of directories to look in for programs you try to run. So when
-you ran <tt class="COMMAND">su</tt>, your shell ran through its list of directories,
-checking each one for an executable file called <tt class="COMMAND">su</tt> that it could
-run; the first one it came to, it ran. This happens whenever you run a program without
-specifying a full path to it; if you get a &#8220;&#8220;<tt class="ERRORNAME">Command
-not found</tt>&#8221;&#8221; error, that only means that the program you tried to run
-isn't in your <tt class="ENVAR">PATH</tt>. (Of course, this would be true if the program
-doesn't exist at all...) We'll discuss environment variables in more depth in <a
-href="#SHELL-BASH-ENVIRONMENT">Section 8.3.1</a>.</p>
-
-<p>Remember also that &#8220;<tt class="FILENAME">.</tt>&#8221; is shorthand for the
-current directory, so if you happened to be in <tt class="FILENAME">/bin</tt>, <tt
-class="FILENAME">./su</tt> would have worked as an explicit full path.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="SHELL-COMMAND-LINE-WILDCARD"
-name="SHELL-COMMAND-LINE-WILDCARD">8.2.2 Wildcard Matching</a></h3>
-
-<p>Nearly every shell recognizes some characters as being substitutes or abbreviations
-that mean anything goes here. Such characters are aptly named wildcards; the most common
-are <var class="LITERAL">*</var> and <var class="LITERAL">?</var>. By convention, <var
-class="LITERAL">?</var> usually matches any single character. For instance, suppose
-you're in a directory with three files: <tt class="FILENAME">ex1.txt</tt>, <tt
-class="FILENAME">ex2.txt</tt>, and <tt class="FILENAME">ex3.txt</tt>. You want to copy
-all of those files (using the <tt class="COMMAND">cp</tt> command we cover in <a
-href="#FILE-COMMANDS-COPYMOVE-CP">Section 10.5.1</a>) to another directory, say <tt
-class="FILENAME">/tmp</tt>. Well, typing <tt class="COMMAND">cp ex1.txt ex2.txt ex3.txt
-/tmp</tt> is entirely too much work. It's much easier to type <tt class="COMMAND">cp
-ex?.txt /tmp</tt>; the <var class="LITERAL">?</var> will match each of the characters
-&#8220;1&#8221;, &#8220;2&#8221;, and &#8220;3&#8221;, and each in turn will be
-substituted in.</p>
-
-<p>What's that you say? That's <span class="emphasis"><i
-class="EMPHASIS">still</i></span> too much work? You're right. It's appalling; we have
-labor laws to protect us from that sort of thing. Fortunately, we also have <var
-class="LITERAL">*</var>. As was already mentioned, <var class="LITERAL">*</var> matches
-&#8220;any number of characters&#8221;, including 0. So if those three files were the
-only ones in the directory, we could have simply said <tt class="COMMAND">cp * /tmp</tt>
-and gotten them all in one fell swoop. Suppose, though, that there is also a file called
-<tt class="FILENAME">ex.txt</tt> and one called <tt class="FILENAME">hejaz.txt</tt>. We
-want to copy <tt class="FILENAME">ex.txt</tt> but not <tt
-class="FILENAME">hejaz.txt</tt>; <tt class="COMMAND">cp ex* /tmp</tt> will do that for
-us.</p>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">cp ex?.txt /tmp</tt>, would, of course, only get our original
-three files; there's no character in <tt class="FILENAME">ex.txt</tt> to match that <var
-class="LITERAL">?</var>, so it would be left out.</p>
-
-<p>Another common wildcard is the bracket pair <var class="LITERAL">[ ]</var>. Any
-characters inside the brackets will be substituted in place of the <var class="LITERAL">[
-]</var> to find matches. Sound confusing? It's not too bad. Suppose for instance, we have
-a directory containing the following 8 files: <tt class="FILENAME">a1</tt>, <tt
-class="FILENAME">a2</tt>, <tt class="FILENAME">a3</tt>, <tt class="FILENAME">a4</tt>, <tt
-class="FILENAME">aA</tt>, <tt class="FILENAME">aB</tt>, <tt class="FILENAME">aC</tt>, and
-<tt class="FILENAME">aD</tt> . We want to only find the files ending in numbers; <var
-class="LITERAL">[ ]</var> will do this for us.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">ls a[1-4]</kbd>
-a1 a2 a3 a4
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>But what we really want is just <tt class="FILENAME">a1</tt>, <tt
-class="FILENAME">a2</tt>, and <tt class="FILENAME">a4</tt>? In the previous example we
-used - to mean all values between 1 and 4. We can also separate individual entries with
-commas.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">ls a[1,2,4]</kbd>
-a1 a2 a4
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>I know what you're thinking now, &#8220;Well what about letters?&#8221; Linux is
-case-sensitive, meaning that <var class="LITERAL">a</var> and <var
-class="LITERAL">A</var> are different characters and are only related in your mind.
-Capitals always come before lowercase letters, so <var class="LITERAL">A</var> and <var
-class="LITERAL">B</var> come before <var class="LITERAL">a</var> and <var
-class="LITERAL">b</var>. Continuing with our earlier example, if we wanted files <tt
-class="FILENAME">a1</tt>, and <tt class="FILENAME">A1</tt>, we can find these quickly
-with <var class="LITERAL">[ ]</var>.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">ls [A,a]1</kbd>
-A1 a1
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>Note, that if we had included a hyphen instead of a comma, we would have gotten
-incorrect results.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">ls [A-a]1</kbd>
-A1 B1 C1 D1 a1
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>You can also combine hyphen and comma strings.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">ls [A,a-d]</kbd>
-A1 a1 b1 c1 d1
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="SHELL-COMMAND-LINE-PIPING"
-name="SHELL-COMMAND-LINE-PIPING">8.2.3 Input/Output Redirection and Piping</a></h3>
-
-<p>(Here comes something cool.)</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">ps &#62; blargh</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>Y'know what that is? That's me running <tt class="COMMAND">ps</tt> to see which
-processes are running; <tt class="COMMAND">ps</tt> is covered in <a
-href="#PROCESS-CONTROL-PS">Section 11.3</a>. That's not the cool part. The cool part is
-<var class="LITERAL">&gt; blargh</var>, which means, roughly, take the output from <tt
-class="COMMAND">ps</tt> and write it to a file called <tt class="FILENAME">blargh</tt>.
-But wait, it gets cooler.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">ps | less</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>That one takes the output from <tt class="COMMAND">ps</tt> and pipes it through <tt
-class="COMMAND">less</tt>, so I can scroll through it at my leisure.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">ps &gt;&gt; blargh</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>This is the third most commonly used redirector; it does the same thing as
-&#8220;&gt;&#8221;, except that &#8220;&gt;&gt;&#8221; will append output from <tt
-class="COMMAND">ps</tt> to the file <tt class="FILENAME">blargh</tt>, if said file
-exists. If not, just like &#8220;&gt;&#8221;, it will be created. (&#8220;&gt;&#8221;
-will obliterate the current contents of <tt class="FILENAME">blargh</tt>.)</p>
-
-<p>There is also a &#8220;&lt;&#8221; operator, which means take your input from the
-following, but it's not used nearly so often.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd
-class="USERINPUT">fromdos &lt; dosfile.txt &gt; unixfile.txt</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>Redirection gets really fun when you start piling it up:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">ps | tac &gt;&gt; blargh</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>That will run <tt class="COMMAND">ps</tt>, reverse the lines of its output, and append
-those to the file <tt class="FILENAME">blargh</tt>. You can stack as many of these up as
-you want; just be careful to remember that they get interpreted from left to right.</p>
-
-<p>See the <tt class="COMMAND">bash</tt>(1) man page for more detailed information on
-redirection.</p>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<hr />
-<h2 class="SECT1"><a id="SHELL-BASH" name="SHELL-BASH">8.3 The Bourne Again Shell
-(bash)</a></h2>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="SHELL-BASH-ENVIRONMENT" name="SHELL-BASH-ENVIRONMENT">8.3.1
-Environment Variables</a></h3>
-
-<p>A Linux system is a complex beast, and there's a lot to keep track of, a lot of little
-details that come into play in your normal interactions with various programs (some of
-which you might not even need to be aware of). Nobody wants to pass a bunch of options to
-every program that gets run, telling it what kind of terminal is being used, the hostname
-of the computer, how their prompt should look...</p>
-
-<p>So as a coping mechanism, users have what's called an environment. The environment
-defines the conditions in which programs run, and some of this definition is variable;
-the user can alter and play with it, as is only right in a Linux system. Pretty much any
-shell will have environment variables (if not, it's probably not a very useable shell).
-Here we will give an overview of the commands bash provides for manipulating its
-environment variables.</p>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">set</tt> by itself will show you all of the environment variables
-that are currently defined, as well as their values. Like most <tt
-class="COMMAND">bash</tt> built-ins, it can also do several other things (with
-parameters); we'll leave it to the <tt class="COMMAND">bash</tt>(1) man page to cover
-that, though. <a href="#EX-SHELL-BASH-ENVIRONMENT">Example 8-1</a> shows an excerpt from
-a <tt class="COMMAND">set</tt> command run on one of the author's computers. Notice in
-this example the <tt class="ENVAR">PATH</tt> variable that was discussed earlier.
-Programs in any of those directories can be run simply by typing the base filename.</p>
-
-<div class="EXAMPLE"><a id="EX-SHELL-BASH-ENVIRONMENT"
-name="EX-SHELL-BASH-ENVIRONMENT"></a>
-<p><b>Example 8-1. Listing Environment Variables with <tt
-class="COMMAND">set</tt></b></p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">set</kbd>
-PATH=/usr/local/lib/qt/bin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:/bin:/usr/X11R6/bin:
-/usr/openwin/bin:/usr/games:.:/usr/local/ssh2/bin:/usr/local/ssh1/bin:
-/usr/share/texmf/bin:/usr/local/sbin:/usr/sbin:/home/logan/bin
-PIPESTATUS=([0]="0")
-PPID=4978
-PS1='\h:\w\$ '
-PS2='&#62; '
-PS4='+ '
-PWD=/home/logan
-QTDIR=/usr/local/lib/qt
-REMOTEHOST=ninja.tdn
-SHELL=/bin/bash
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-</div>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">unset <var
-class="REPLACEABLE">VARIABLE</var></kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">unset</tt> will remove any variables that you give it, wiping out
-both the variable and its value; <tt class="COMMAND">bash</tt> will forget that variable
-ever existed. (Don't worry. Unless it's something you explicitly defined in that shell
-session, it'll probably get redefined in any other session.)</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">export <var
-class="REPLACEABLE">VARIABLE=some_value</var></kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>Now, <tt class="COMMAND">export</tt> is truly handy. Using it, you give the
-environment variable <tt class="ENVAR">VARIABLE</tt> the value &#8220;<var
-class="LITERAL">some_value</var>&#8221;; if <tt class="ENVAR">VARIABLE</tt> didn't exist,
-it does now. If <tt class="ENVAR">VARIABLE</tt> already had a value, well, it's gone.
-That's not so good, if you're just trying to add a directory to your <tt
-class="ENVAR">PATH</tt>. In that case, you probably want to do something like this:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">export PATH=$PATH:<var
-class="REPLACEABLE">/some/new/directory</var></kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>Note the use of <tt class="ENVAR">$PATH</tt> there: when you want <tt
-class="COMMAND">bash</tt> to interpret a variable (replace it with its value), tack a
-<var class="LITERAL">$</var> onto the beginning of the variable's name. For instance, <tt
-class="COMMAND">echo $PATH</tt> will echo the value of <tt class="ENVAR">PATH</tt>, in my
-case:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">echo $PATH</kbd>
-/usr/local/lib/qt/bin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:/bin:/usr/X11R6/bin:
-/usr/openwin/bin:/usr/games:.:/usr/local/ssh2/bin:/usr/local/ssh1/bin:
-/usr/share/texmf/bin:/usr/local/sbin:/usr/sbin:/home/logan/bin
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="SHELL-BASH-TAB" name="SHELL-BASH-TAB">8.3.2 Tab
-Completion</a></h3>
-
-<p>(Here comes something cool again.)</p>
-
-<ol type="1">
-<li>
-<p>A commandline interface means lots of typing.</p>
-</li>
-
-<li>
-<p>Typing is work.</p>
-</li>
-
-<li>
-<p>Nobody likes work.</p>
-</li>
-</ol>
-
-<p>From 3 and 2, we can determine that (4) nobody likes typing. Fortunately, <tt
-class="COMMAND">bash</tt> saves us from (5) (nobody likes a commandline interface).</p>
-
-<p>How does <tt class="COMMAND">bash</tt> accomplish this wonderful feat, you ask? In
-addition to the wildcard expansion we discussed before, <tt class="COMMAND">bash</tt>
-features tab completion.</p>
-
-<p>Tab completion works something like this: You're typing the name of a file. Maybe it's
-in your <tt class="ENVAR">PATH</tt>, maybe you're typing it out explicitly. All you have
-to do is type enough of the filename to uniquely identify it. Then hit the tab key. <tt
-class="COMMAND">bash</tt> will figure out what you want and finish typing it for you!</p>
-
-<p>Example time. <tt class="FILENAME">/usr/src</tt> contains two subdirectories: <tt
-class="FILENAME">/usr/src/linux</tt> and <tt class="FILENAME">/usr/src/sendmail</tt>. I
-want to see what's in <tt class="FILENAME">/usr/src/linux</tt>. So I just type <tt
-class="COMMAND">ls /usr/src/l</tt>, hit the <kbd class="USERINPUT">TAB</kbd> key, and <tt
-class="COMMAND">bash</tt> gives me <tt class="COMMAND">ls /usr/src/linux</tt>.</p>
-
-<p>Now, suppose there are two directories <tt class="FILENAME">/usr/src/linux</tt> and
-<tt class="FILENAME">/usr/src/linux-old</tt>; If I type <tt
-class="FILENAME">/usr/src/l</tt> and hit <kbd class="USERINPUT">TAB</kbd>, <tt
-class="COMMAND">bash</tt> will fill in as much as it can, and I'll get <tt
-class="FILENAME">/usr/src/linux</tt>. I can stop there, or I can hit <kbd
-class="USERINPUT">TAB</kbd> again, and <tt class="COMMAND">bash</tt> will show a list of
-directories that match what I've typed so far.</p>
-
-<p>Hence, less typing (and hence, people can like commandline interfaces). I told you it
-was cool.</p>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<hr />
-<h2 class="SECT1"><a id="SHELL-VT" name="SHELL-VT">8.4 Virtual Terminals</a></h2>
-
-<p>So you're in the middle of working on something and you decide you need to do
-something else. You could just drop what you're doing and switch tasks, but this is a
-multi-user system, right? And you can log in as many times simultaneously as you want,
-right? So why should you have to do one thing at a time?</p>
-
-<p>You don't. We can't all have multiple keyboards, mice, and monitors for one machine;
-chances are most of us don't want them. Clearly, hardware isn't the solution. That leaves
-software, and Linux steps up on this one, providing &#8220;virtual terminals&#8221;, or
-&#8220;VTs&#8221;.</p>
-
-<p>By pressing <kbd class="USERINPUT">Alt</kbd> and a function key, you can switch
-between virtual terminals; each function key corresponds to one. Slackware has logins on
-6 VTs by default. <b class="KEYCAP">Alt</b>+<b class="KEYCAP">F2</b> will take you to the
-second one, <b class="KEYCAP">Alt</b>+<b class="KEYCAP">F3</b> to the third, etc.</p>
-
-<p>The rest of the function keys are reserved for X sessions. Each X session uses its own
-VT, beginning with the seventh (<b class="KEYCAP">Alt</b>+<b class="KEYCAP">F7</b>) and
-going up. When in X, the <b class="KEYCAP">Alt</b>+<b class="KEYCAP">Function key</b>
-combination is replaced with <b class="KEYCAP">Ctrl</b>+<b class="KEYCAP">Alt</b>+<b
-class="KEYCAP">Function</b>; so if you are in X and want to get back to a text login
-(without exiting your X session), <b class="KEYCAP">Ctrl</b>+<b class="KEYCAP">Alt</b>+<b
-class="KEYCAP">F3</b> will take you to the third. (<b class="KEYCAP">Alt</b>+<b
-class="KEYCAP">F7</b> will take you back, assuming you're using the first X session.)</p>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="AEN3024" name="AEN3024">8.4.1 Screen</a></h3>
-
-<p>But what about situations where there are no virtual terminals? What then?
-Fortunately, slackware includes a beautiful screen manager aptly named <tt
-class="COMMAND">screen</tt>. <tt class="COMMAND">screen</tt> is a terminal emulator that
-has virtual terminal like capabilities. Executing <tt class="COMMAND">screen</tt> flashes
-a brief introduction, then dumps to a terminal. Unlike the standard virtual terminals,
-<tt class="COMMAND">screen</tt> has its own commands. All <tt class="COMMAND">screen</tt>
-commands are prefixed with a <b class="KEYCAP">Crtl</b>+<b class="KEYCAP">A</b>
-keystroke. For example, <b class="KEYCAP">Ctrl</b>+<b class="KEYCAP">A</b>+<b
-class="KEYCAP">C</b> will create a new terminal session. <b class="KEYCAP">Ctrl</b>+<b
-class="KEYCAP">A</b>+<b class="KEYCAP">N</b> will switch to the next terminal. <b
-class="KEYCAP">Ctrl</b>+<b class="KEYCAP">A</b>+<b class="KEYCAP">P</b> switches to the
-previous terminal.</p>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">screen</tt> also supports detaching and re-attaching to <tt
-class="COMMAND">screen</tt> sessions which is particularly useful for remote sessions via
-<tt class="COMMAND">ssh</tt> and <tt class="COMMAND">telnet</tt>, (more on those later).
-<b class="KEYCAP">Ctrl</b>+<b class="KEYCAP">A</b>+<b class="KEYCAP">D</b> will detach
-from the currently running screen. Executing <tt class="COMMAND">screen -r</tt> will list
-all currently running screen sessions you may reattach to.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">screen -r</kbd>
-There are several suitable screens on:
- 1212.pts-1.redtail (Detached)
- 1195.pts-1.redtail (Detached)
- 1225.pts-1.redtail (Detached)
- 17146.pts-1.sanctuary (Dead ???)
-Remove dead screens with 'screen -wipe'.
-Type "screen [-d] -r [pid.]tty.host" to resume one of them.
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>Running <tt class="COMMAND">screen -r 1212</tt> would reattach to the first screen
-listed. I mentioned earlier how useful this was for remote sessions. If I were to login
-to a remote slackware server via <tt class="COMMAND">ssh</tt>, and my connection was
-severed by some chance occurrence such as a local power failure, whatever I was doing at
-that moment would instantly perish, which can be a horrible thing for your server. Using
-<tt class="COMMAND">screen</tt> prevents this by detaching my session if my connection is
-dropped. Once my connection is restored, I can reattach to my screen session and resume
-right where I left off.</p>
-</div>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="CHAPTER">
-<hr />
-<h1><a id="FILESYSTEM-STRUCTURE" name="FILESYSTEM-STRUCTURE"></a>Chapter 9 Filesystem
-Structure</h1>
-
-<p>We have already discussed the directory structure in Slackware Linux. By this point,
-you should be able to find files and directories that you need. But there is more to the
-filesystem than just the directory structure.</p>
-
-<p>Linux is a multiuser operating system. Every aspect of the system is multiuser, even
-the filesystem. The system stores information like who owns a file and who can read it.
-There are other unique parts about the filesystems, such as links and NFS mounts. This
-section explains these, as well as the multiuser aspects of the filesystem.</p>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<hr />
-<h2 class="SECT1"><a id="FILESYSTEM-STRUCTURE-OWNERSHIP"
-name="FILESYSTEM-STRUCTURE-OWNERSHIP">9.1 Ownership</a></h2>
-
-<p>The filesystem stores ownership information for each file and directory on the system.
-This includes what user and group own a particular file. The easiest way to see this
-information is with the <tt class="COMMAND">ls</tt> command:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">ls -l /usr/bin/wc</kbd>
--rwxr-xr-x 1 root bin 7368 Jul 30 1999 /usr/bin/wc
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>We are interested in the third and fourth columns. These contain the username and
-group name that owns this file. We see that the user &#8220;<tt
-class="USERNAME">root</tt>&#8221; and the group &#8220;<tt
-class="USERNAME">bin</tt>&#8221; own this file.</p>
-
-<p>We can easily change the file owners with the <tt class="COMMAND">chown</tt>(1) (which
-means &#8220;change owner&#8221;) and <tt class="COMMAND">chgrp</tt>(1) (which means
-&#8220;change group&#8221;) commands. To change the file owner to <tt
-class="USERNAME">daemon</tt>, we would use <tt class="COMMAND">chown</tt>:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">chown daemon /usr/bin/wc</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>To change the group owner to &#8220;<tt class="USERNAME">root</tt>&#8221;, we would
-use <tt class="COMMAND">chgrp</tt>:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">chgrp root /usr/bin/wc</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>We can also use <tt class="COMMAND">chown</tt> to specify the user and group owners
-for a file:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">chown daemon:root /usr/bin/wc</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>In the above example, the user could have used a period instead of a colon. The result
-would have been the same; however, the colon is considered better form. Use of the period
-is deprecated and may be removed from future versions of <tt class="COMMAND">chown</tt>
-to allow usernames with periods in them. These usernames tend to be very popular with
-Windows Exchange Servers and are encountered most commonly in email addresses such as:
-<var class="LITERAL">mr.jones@example.com</var>. In slackware, administrators are advised
-to stay away from such usernames because some scripts still use the period to indicate
-the user and group of a file or directory. In our example, <tt class="COMMAND">chmod</tt>
-would interpret <var class="LITERAL">mr.jones</var> as user &#8220;mr&#8221; and group
-&#8220;jones&#8221;.</p>
-
-<p>File ownership is a very important part of using a Linux system, even if you are the
-only user. You sometimes need to fix ownerships on files and device nodes.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<hr />
-<h2 class="SECT1"><a id="FILESYSTEM-STRUCTURE-PERMISSIONS"
-name="FILESYSTEM-STRUCTURE-PERMISSIONS">9.2 Permissions</a></h2>
-
-<p>Permissions are the other important part of the multiuser aspects of the filesystem.
-With these, you can change who can read, write, and execute files.</p>
-
-<p>The permission information is stored as four octal digits, each specifying a different
-set of permissions. There are owner permissions, group permissions, and world
-permissions. The fourth octal digit is used to store special information such as set user
-ID, set group ID, and the sticky bit. The octal values assigned to the permission modes
-are (they also have letters associated with them that are displayed by programs such as
-<tt class="COMMAND">ls</tt> and can be used by <tt class="COMMAND">chmod</tt>):</p>
-
-<div class="TABLE"><a id="AEN3142" name="AEN3142"></a>
-<p><b>Table 9-1. Octal Permission Values</b></p>
-
-<table border="0" frame="void" class="CALSTABLE">
-<col width="3*" />
-<col width="1*" align="CENTER" />
-<col width="1*" align="CENTER" />
-<thead>
-<tr>
-<th>Permission Type</th>
-<th>Octal Value</th>
-<th>Letter Value</th>
-</tr>
-</thead>
-
-<tbody>
-<tr>
-<td>&#8220;sticky&#8221; bit</td>
-<td>1</td>
-<td>t</td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td>set user ID</td>
-<td>4</td>
-<td>s</td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td>set group ID</td>
-<td>2</td>
-<td>s</td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td>read</td>
-<td>4</td>
-<td>r</td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td>write</td>
-<td>2</td>
-<td>w</td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td>execute</td>
-<td>1</td>
-<td>x</td>
-</tr>
-</tbody>
-</table>
-</div>
-
-<p>You add the octal values for each permission group. For example, if you want the group
-permissions to be &#8220;read&#8221; and &#8220;write&#8221;, you would use
-&#8220;6&#8221; in the group portion of the permission information.</p>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">bash</tt>'s default permissions are:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">ls -l /bin/bash</kbd>
--rwxr-xr-x 1 root bin 477692 Mar 21 19:57 /bin/bash
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>The first dash would be replaced with a &#8220;d&#8221; if this was a directory. The
-three permission groups (owner, group, and world) are displayed next. We see that the
-owner has read, write, and execute permissions (<var class="LITERAL">rwx</var>). The
-group has only read and execute (<var class="LITERAL">r-x</var>). And everyone else has
-only read and execute (<var class="LITERAL">r-x</var>).</p>
-
-<p>How would we set permissions on another file to resemble <tt
-class="COMMAND">bash</tt>'s? First, let's make an example file:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">touch /tmp/example</kbd>
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">ls -l /tmp/example</kbd>
--rw-rw-r--- 1 david users 0 Apr 19 11:21 /tmp/example
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>We will use <tt class="COMMAND">chmod</tt>(1) (which means &#8220;change mode&#8221;)
-to set the permissions on the example file. Add the octal numbers for the permissions you
-want. For the owner to have read, write, and execute, we would have a value of <var
-class="LITERAL">7</var>. Read and execute would have <var class="LITERAL">5</var>. Run
-those together and pass them to <tt class="COMMAND">chmod</tt> like this:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">chmod 755 /tmp/example</kbd>
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">ls -l /tmp/example</kbd>
--rwxr-xr-x 1 david users 0 Apr 19 11:21 /tmp/example
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>Now you may be thinking, &#8220;Why didn't it just create a file with those
-permissions in the first place?&#8221; Well the answer is simple. <tt
-class="COMMAND">bash</tt> includes a nice little built-in called <tt
-class="COMMAND">umask</tt>. This is included with most Unix shells as well, and controls
-what file permissions are assigned to newly created files. We discussed <tt
-class="COMMAND">bash</tt> built-ins to some degree in <a
-href="#SHELL-BASH-ENVIRONMENT">Section 8.3.1</a>. <tt class="COMMAND">umask</tt> takes a
-little getting used to. It works very similar to <tt class="COMMAND">chmod</tt>, only in
-reverse. You specify the octal values you do not wish to have present in newly created
-files. The default umask value is <var class="LITERAL">0022</var>.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">umask</kbd>
-0022
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">umask 0077</kbd>
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">touch tempfile</kbd>
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">ls -l tempfile</kbd>
--rw-------- 1 david users 0 Apr 19 11:21 tempfile
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>See the man page for <tt class="COMMAND">bash</tt> for more information.</p>
-
-<p>To set special permissions with <tt class="COMMAND">chmod</tt>, add the numbers
-together and place them in the first column. For example, to make it set user ID and set
-group ID, we use 6 as the first column:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">chmod 6755 /tmp/example</kbd>
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">ls -l /tmp/example</kbd>
--rwsr-sr-x 1 david users 0 Apr 19 11:21 /tmp/example
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>If the octal values confuse you, you can use letters with <tt
-class="COMMAND">chmod</tt>. The permission groups are represented as:</p>
-
-<div class="INFORMALTABLE"><a id="AEN3246" name="AEN3246"></a>
-<table border="0" frame="void" class="CALSTABLE">
-<col />
-<col />
-<tbody>
-<tr>
-<td>Owner</td>
-<td>u</td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td>Group</td>
-<td>g</td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td>World</td>
-<td>o</td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td>All of the above</td>
-<td>a</td>
-</tr>
-</tbody>
-</table>
-</div>
-
-<p>To do the above, we would have to use several command lines:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">chmod a+rx /tmp/example</kbd>
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">chmod u+w /tmp/example</kbd>
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">chmod ug+s /tmp/example</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>Some people prefer the letters over the numbers. Either way will result in the same
-set of permissions.</p>
-
-<p>The octal format is often faster, and the one you see most often used in shell
-scripts. Sometimes the letters are more powerful however. For example, there's no easy
-way to change one group of permissions while preserving the other groups on files and
-directories when using the octal format. This is trivial with the letters.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">ls -l /tmp/</kbd>
--rwxr-xr-x 1 alan users 0 Apr 19 11:21 /tmp/example0
--rwxr-x--- 1 alan users 0 Apr 19 11:21 /tmp/example1
-----r-xr-x 1 alan users 0 Apr 19 11:21 /tmp/example2
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">chmod g-rwx /tmp/example?</kbd>
--rwx---r-x 1 alan users 0 Apr 19 11:21 /tmp/example0
--rwx------ 1 alan users 0 Apr 19 11:21 /tmp/example1
--------r-x 1 alan users 0 Apr 19 11:21 /tmp/example2
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>We mentioned set user ID and set group ID permissions in several places above. You may
-be wondering what this is. Normally when you run a program, it is operating under your
-user account. That is, it has all the permissions that you as a user have. The same is
-true for the group. When you run a program, it executes under your current group. With
-set user ID permissions, you can force the program to always run as the program owner
-(such as &#8220;root&#8221;). Set group ID is the same, but for the group.</p>
-
-<p>Be careful with this, set user ID and set group ID programs can open major security
-holes on your system. If you frequently set user ID programs that are owned by <tt
-class="USERNAME">root</tt>, you are allowing anyone to run that program and run it as <tt
-class="USERNAME">root</tt>. Since <tt class="USERNAME">root</tt> has no restrictions on
-the system, you can see how this would pose a major security problem. In short, it's not
-bad to use set user ID and set group ID permissions, just use common sense.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<hr />
-<h2 class="SECT1"><a id="FILESYSTEM-STRUCTURE-LINKS"
-name="FILESYSTEM-STRUCTURE-LINKS">9.3 Links</a></h2>
-
-<p>Links are pointers between files. With links, you can have files exist in many
-locations and be accessible by many names. There are two types of links: hard and
-soft.</p>
-
-<p>Hard links are names for a particular file. They can only exist within a single
-filesystem and are only removed when the real name is removed from the system. These are
-useful in some cases, but many users find the soft link to be more versatile.</p>
-
-<p>The soft link, also called a symbolic link, can point to a file outside of its
-filesystem. It is actually a small file containing the information it needs. You can add
-and remove soft links without affecting the actual file. And since a symbolic link is
-actually a small file containing its own information, they can even point at a directory.
-It's rather common to have <tt class="FILENAME">/var/tmp</tt> actually be a symbolic link
-to <tt class="FILENAME">/tmp</tt> for example.</p>
-
-<p>Links do not have their own set of permissions or ownerships, but instead reflect
-those of the file they point to. Slackware uses mostly soft links. Here is a common
-example:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">ls -l /bin/sh</kbd>
-lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 4 Apr 6 12:34 /bin/sh -&#62; bash
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>The <tt class="COMMAND">sh</tt> shell under Slackware is actually <tt
-class="COMMAND">bash</tt>. Removing links is done using <tt class="COMMAND">rm</tt>. The
-<tt class="COMMAND">ln</tt> command is used to create links. These commands will be
-discussed in more depth in <a href="#FILE-COMMANDS">Chapter 10</a>.</p>
-
-<p>It's very important to be careful about symlinks in particular. Once, I was working on
-a machine that was consistently failing to back-up to tape each night. Two symlinks had
-been made to directories beneath each other. The back-up software kept appending those
-same directories to the tape until it was out of space. Normally, a set of checks will
-prevent creating a symlink in this situation, but ours was a special case.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<hr />
-<h2 class="SECT1"><a id="FILESYSTEM-STRUCTURE-MOUNTING"
-name="FILESYSTEM-STRUCTURE-MOUNTING">9.4 Mounting Devices</a></h2>
-
-<p>As was previously discussed in <a href="#SYSTEM-CONFIGURATION-LAYOUT">Section
-4.1.1</a>, all the drives and devices in your computer are one big filesystem. Various
-hard drive partitions, CD-ROMs, and floppies are all placed in the same tree. In order to
-attach these drives to the filesystem so that you can access them, you have to use the
-<tt class="COMMAND">mount</tt>(1) and <tt class="COMMAND">umount</tt>(1) commands.</p>
-
-<p>Some devices are automatically mounted when you boot up your computer. These are
-listed in the <tt class="FILENAME">/etc/fstab</tt> file. Anything that you want to be
-mounted automatically gets an entry in that file. For other devices, you'll have to issue
-a command every time you want to use the device.</p>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="AEN3319" name="AEN3319">9.4.1 <tt
-class="FILENAME">fstab</tt></a></h3>
-
-<p>Let's look at an example of the <tt class="FILENAME">/etc/fstab</tt> file:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">cat /etc/fstab</kbd>
-/dev/sda1 / ext2 defaults 1 1
-/dev/sda2 /usr/local ext2 defaults 1 1
-/dev/sda4 /home ext2 defaults 1 1
-/dev/sdb1 swap swap defaults 0 0
-/dev/sdb3 /export ext2 defaults 1 1
-none /dev/pts devpts gid=5,mode=620 0 0
-none /proc proc defaults 0 0
-/dev/fd0 /mnt ext2 defaults 0 0
-/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom iso9660 ro 0 0
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>The first column is the device name. In this case, the devices are five partitions
-spread out across two SCSI hard drives, two special filesystems that don't need a device,
-a floppy, and a CD-ROM drive. The second column is where the device will be mounted. This
-needs to be a directory name, except in the case of a swap partition. The third column is
-the filesystem type of the device. For normal Linux filesystems, this will be <var
-class="LITERAL">ext2</var> (second extended filesystem). CD-ROM drives are <var
-class="LITERAL">iso9660</var>, and Windows-based devices will either be <var
-class="LITERAL">msdos</var> or <var class="LITERAL">vfat</var>.</p>
-
-<p>The fourth column is a listing of options that apply to the mounted filesystem.
-defaults is fine for just about everything. However, read-only devices should be given
-the <var class="LITERAL">ro</var> flag. There are a lot of options that can be used.
-Check the <tt class="FILENAME">fstab</tt>(5) man page for more information. The last two
-columns are used by <tt class="COMMAND">fsck</tt> and other commands that need to
-manipulate the devices. Check the man page for that information as well.</p>
-
-<p>When you install Slackware Linux, the setup program will build much of the <tt
-class="FILENAME">fstab</tt> file.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="AEN3340" name="AEN3340">9.4.2 <tt class="COMMAND">mount</tt> and
-<tt class="COMMAND">umount</tt></a></h3>
-
-<p>Attaching another device to your filesystem is easy. All you have to do is use the <tt
-class="COMMAND">mount</tt> command, along with a few options. Using <tt
-class="COMMAND">mount</tt> can simplified if the device has an entry in the <tt
-class="FILENAME">/etc/fstab</tt> file. For example, let's say that I wanted to mount my
-CD-ROM drive and that my <tt class="COMMAND">fstab</tt> file looked like the example from
-the previous section. I would call <tt class="COMMAND">mount</tt> like so:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">mount /cdrom</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>Since there is an entry in <tt class="FILENAME">fstab</tt> for that mount point, <tt
-class="COMMAND">mount</tt> knows what options to use. If there wasn't an entry for that
-device, I would have to use several options for <tt class="COMMAND">mount</tt>:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd
-class="USERINPUT">mount -t iso9660 -o ro /dev/cdrom /cdrom</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>That command line includes the same information as the example <tt
-class="FILENAME">fstab</tt> did, but we'll go over all the parts anyways. The <var
-class="OPTION">-t iso9660</var> is the filesystem type of the device to mount. In this
-case, it would be the iso9660 filesystem which is what CD-ROM drives most commonly use.
-The <var class="OPTION">-o ro</var> tells mount to mount the device read-only. The <tt
-class="FILENAME">/dev/cdrom</tt> is the name of the device to mount, and <tt
-class="FILENAME">/cdrom</tt> is the location on the filesystem to mount the drive.</p>
-
-<p>Before you can remove a floppy, CD-ROM, or other removable device that is currently
-mounted, you'll have to unmount it. That is done using the <tt
-class="COMMAND">umount</tt> command. Don't ask where the &#8220;n&#8221; went because we
-couldn't tell you. You can use either the mounted device or the mount point as the
-argument to <tt class="COMMAND">umount</tt>. For example, if you wanted to unmount the
-CD-ROM from the previous example, either of these commands would work:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">umount /dev/cdrom</kbd>
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">umount /cdrom</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<hr />
-<h2 class="SECT1"><a id="FILESYSTEM-STRUCTURE-NFS" name="FILESYSTEM-STRUCTURE-NFS">9.5
-NFS Mounts</a></h2>
-
-<p>NFS stands for the Network Filesystem. It is not really part of the real filesystem,
-but can be used to add parts to the mounted filesystem.</p>
-
-<p>Large Unix environments often times share the same programs, sets of home directories,
-and mail spool. The problem of getting the same copy to each machine is solved with NFS.
-We can use NFS to share one set of home directories between all of the workstations. The
-workstations then mount that NFS share as if it were on their own machines.</p>
-
-<p>See <a href="#NETWORK-CONFIGURATION-NFS-NFS">Section 5.6.2</a> and the man pages for
-<tt class="FILENAME">exports</tt>(5), <tt class="COMMAND">nfsd</tt>(8), and <tt
-class="COMMAND">mountd</tt>(8) for more information.</p>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="CHAPTER">
-<hr />
-<h1><a id="FILE-COMMANDS" name="FILE-COMMANDS"></a>Chapter 10 Handling Files and
-Directories</h1>
-
-<p>Linux aims to the most Unix-like it can be. Traditionally, Unix operating systems have
-been command-line oriented. We do have a graphical user interface in Slackware, but the
-command-line is still the main level of control for the system. Therefore, it is
-important to understand some of the basic file management commands.</p>
-
-<p>The following sections explain the common file management commands and provide
-examples of how they are used. There are many other commands, but these will help you get
-started. Also, the commands are only briefly discussed here. You will find more detail in
-the accompanying man pages for each command.</p>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<hr />
-<h2 class="SECT1"><a id="FILE-COMMANDS-NAVIGATION" name="FILE-COMMANDS-NAVIGATION">10.1
-Navigation : <tt class="COMMAND">ls</tt>, <tt class="COMMAND">cd</tt>, and <tt
-class="COMMAND">pwd</tt></a></h2>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="AEN3398" name="AEN3398">10.1.1 <tt
-class="COMMAND">ls</tt></a></h3>
-
-<p>This command lists files in a directory. Windows and DOS users will notice its
-similarity to the <tt class="COMMAND">dir</tt> command. By itself, <tt
-class="COMMAND">ls</tt>(1) will list the files in the current directory. To see what's in
-your root directory, you could issue these commands:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">cd /</kbd>
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">ls</kbd>
-bin cdr dev home lost+found proc sbin tmp var
-boot cdrom etc lib mnt root suncd usr vmlinuz
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>The problem a lot of people have with that output is that you cannot easily tell what
-is a directory and what is a file. Some users prefer that <tt class="COMMAND">ls</tt> add
-a type identifier to each listing, like this:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">ls -FC</kbd>
-bin/ cdr/ dev/ home/ lost+found/ proc/ sbin/ tmp/ var/
-boot/ cdrom/ etc/ lib/ mnt/ root/ suncd/ usr/ vmlinuz
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>Directories get a slash at the end of the name, executable files get an asterisk at
-the end of the name, and so on.</p>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">ls</tt> can also be used to get other statistics on files. For
-example, to see the creation dates, owners, and permissions, you would look at a long
-listing:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">ls -l</kbd>
-drwxr-xr-x 2 root bin 4096 May 7 09:11 bin/
-drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Feb 24 03:55 boot/
-drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Feb 18 01:10 cdr/
-drwxr-xr-x 14 root root 6144 Oct 23 18:37 cdrom/
-drwxr-xr-x 4 root root 28672 Mar 5 18:01 dev/
-drwxr-xr-x 10 root root 4096 Mar 8 03:32 etc/
-drwxr-xr-x 8 root root 4096 Mar 8 03:31 home/
-drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 4096 Jan 23 21:29 lib/
-drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 16384 Nov 1 08:53 lost+found/
-drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Oct 6 12:47 mnt/
-dr-xr-xr-x 62 root root 0 Mar 4 15:32 proc/
-drwxr-x--x 12 root root 4096 Feb 26 02:06 root/
-drwxr-xr-x 2 root bin 4096 Feb 17 02:02 sbin/
-drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 2048 Oct 25 10:51 suncd/
-drwxrwxrwt 4 root root 487424 Mar 7 20:42 tmp/
-drwxr-xr-x 21 root root 4096 Aug 24 03:04 usr/
-drwxr-xr-x 18 root root 4096 Mar 8 03:32 var/
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>Suppose you want to get a listing of the hidden files in the current directory. This
-command will do just that:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">ls -a</kbd>
-. bin cdrom home mnt sbin usr
-.. boot dev lib proc suncd var
-.pwrchute_tmp cdr etc lost+found root tmp vmlinuz
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>Files beginning with a period (called dot files) are hidden when you run <tt
-class="COMMAND">ls</tt>. You will only see them if you pass the <var
-class="OPTION">-a</var> option.</p>
-
-<p>There are many more options that can be found in the online manual page. Don't forget
-that you can combine options that you pass to <tt class="COMMAND">ls</tt>.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="AEN3436" name="AEN3436">10.1.2 <tt
-class="COMMAND">cd</tt></a></h3>
-
-<p>The <tt class="COMMAND">cd</tt> command is used to change working directories. You
-simply type <tt class="COMMAND">cd</tt> followed by the path name to change to. Here are
-some examples:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-darkstar:~$ <kbd class="USERINPUT">cd /bin</kbd>
-darkstar:/bin$ <kbd class="USERINPUT">cd usr</kbd>
-bash: cd: usr: No such file or directory
-darkstar:/bin$ <kbd class="USERINPUT">cd /usr</kbd>
-darkstar:/usr$ <kbd class="USERINPUT">ls</kbd>
-bin
-darkstar:/usr$ <kbd class="USERINPUT">cd bin</kbd>
-darkstar:/usr/bin$
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>Notice that without the preceding slash, it tries to change to a directory in the
-current directory. Also executing <tt class="COMMAND">cd</tt> with no options will move
-you to your home directory.</p>
-
-<p>The <tt class="COMMAND">cd</tt> command is not like the other commands. It is a
-builtin shell command. Shell builtins are discussed in <a
-href="#SHELL-BASH-ENVIRONMENT">Section 8.3.1</a>. This may not make any sense to you
-right now. Basically it means there is no man page for this command. Instead, you have to
-use the shell help. Like this:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">help cd</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>It will display the options for <tt class="COMMAND">cd</tt> and how to use them.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="AEN3463" name="AEN3463">10.1.3 <tt
-class="COMMAND">pwd</tt></a></h3>
-
-<p>The <tt class="COMMAND">pwd</tt> command is used to show your current location. To use
-the <tt class="COMMAND">pwd</tt> command just type <tt class="COMMAND">pwd</tt>. For
-example:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">cd /bin</kbd>
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">pwd</kbd>
-/bin
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">cd /usr</kbd>
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">cd bin</kbd>
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">pwd</kbd>
-/usr/bin
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<hr />
-<h2 class="SECT1"><a id="FILE-COMMANDS-PAGERS" name="FILE-COMMANDS-PAGERS">10.2 Pagers:
-<tt class="COMMAND">more</tt>, <tt class="COMMAND">less</tt>, and <tt
-class="COMMAND">most</tt></a></h2>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="AEN3491" name="AEN3491">10.2.1 <tt
-class="COMMAND">more</tt></a></h3>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">more</tt>(1) is what we call a pager utility. Oftentimes the
-output of a particular command is too big to fit on one screen. The individual commands
-do not know how to fit their output to separate screens. They leave this job to the pager
-utility.</p>
-
-<p>The <tt class="COMMAND">more</tt> command breaks the output into individual screens
-and waits for you to press the space bar before continuing on to the next screen.
-Pressing the enter key will advance the output one line. Here is a good example:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">cd /usr/bin</kbd>
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">ls -l</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>That should scroll for a while. To break up the output screen by screen, just pipe it
-through more:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">ls -l | more</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>That is the pipe character (shift backslash). The pipe is short for saying take the
-output of <tt class="COMMAND">ls</tt> and feed it into <tt class="COMMAND">more</tt>. You
-can pipe just about anything through the <tt class="COMMAND">more</tt> command, not just
-<tt class="COMMAND">ls</tt>. Piping is also covered in <a
-href="#SHELL-COMMAND-LINE-PIPING">Section 8.2.3</a>.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="AEN3518" name="AEN3518">10.2.2 <tt
-class="COMMAND">less</tt></a></h3>
-
-<p>The <tt class="COMMAND">more</tt> command is quite handy, but often you will find that
-you have advanced past the screen you wanted. more does not provide a way to go back. The
-<tt class="COMMAND">less</tt>(1) command provides this functionality. It is used in the
-same way as the <tt class="COMMAND">more</tt> command, so the previous examples apply
-here too. So, <tt class="COMMAND">less</tt> is more than <tt class="COMMAND">more</tt>.
-Joost Kremers puts it this way:</p>
-
-<a id="AEN3530" name="AEN3530"></a>
-<blockquote class="BLOCKQUOTE">
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">less</tt> is more, but more <tt class="COMMAND">more</tt> than <tt
-class="COMMAND">more</tt> is, so <tt class="COMMAND">more</tt> is less <tt
-class="COMMAND">less</tt>, so use more <tt class="COMMAND">less</tt> if you want less <tt
-class="COMMAND">more</tt>.</p>
-</blockquote>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="AEN3539" name="AEN3539">10.2.3 <tt
-class="COMMAND">most</tt></a></h3>
-
-<p>Where <tt class="COMMAND">more</tt> and <tt class="COMMAND">less</tt> leave off, <tt
-class="COMMAND">most</tt>(1) picks back up. If <tt class="COMMAND">less</tt> is more than
-<tt class="COMMAND">more</tt>, <tt class="COMMAND">most</tt> is more than <tt
-class="COMMAND">less</tt>. Whereas the other pagers can only display one file at a time,
-<tt class="COMMAND">most</tt> is capable of viewing any number of files, as long as each
-file's window is at least 2 lines long. <tt class="COMMAND">most</tt> has a lot of
-options, check the man page for full details.</p>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<hr />
-<h2 class="SECT1"><a id="FILE-COMMANDS-OUTPUT" name="FILE-COMMANDS-OUTPUT">10.3 Simple
-Output: <tt class="COMMAND">cat</tt> and <tt class="COMMAND">echo</tt></a></h2>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="AEN3559" name="AEN3559">10.3.1 <tt
-class="COMMAND">cat</tt></a></h3>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">cat</tt>(1) is short for &#8220;concatenate&#8221;. It was
-originally designed to merge text files into one, but can be used for many other
-purposes.</p>
-
-<p>To merge two or more files into one, you simply list the files after the <tt
-class="COMMAND">cat</tt> command and then redirect the new output to a file. <tt
-class="COMMAND">cat</tt> works with standard input and standard output, so you have to
-use the shell redirection characters. For example:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd
-class="USERINPUT">cat file1 file2 file3 &gt; bigfile</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>This command takes the contents of <tt class="FILENAME">file1</tt>, <tt
-class="FILENAME">file2</tt>, and <tt class="FILENAME">file3</tt> and merges it all
-together. The new output is sent to standard out.</p>
-
-<p>One can also use <tt class="COMMAND">cat</tt> to display files. Many people <tt
-class="COMMAND">cat</tt> text files through the <tt class="COMMAND">more</tt> or <tt
-class="COMMAND">less</tt> commands, like this:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">cat file1 | more</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>That will display the <tt class="FILENAME">file1</tt> file and pipe it through the <tt
-class="COMMAND">more</tt> command so that you only get one screen at a time.</p>
-
-<p>Another common use for <tt class="COMMAND">cat</tt> is copying files. You can copy any
-file around with <tt class="COMMAND">cat</tt>, like this:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">cat /bin/bash &gt; ~/mybash</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>The <tt class="COMMAND">/bin/bash</tt> program is copied to your home directory and
-named <tt class="FILENAME">mybash</tt>.</p>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">cat</tt> has many uses and the ones discussed here are just a few.
-Since <tt class="COMMAND">cat</tt> makes extensive use of standard input and standard
-output, it is ideal for use in shell scripts or part of other complex commands.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="AEN3603" name="AEN3603">10.3.2 <tt
-class="COMMAND">echo</tt></a></h3>
-
-<p>The <tt class="COMMAND">echo</tt>(1) command displays the specified text on the
-screen. You specify the string to display after the <tt class="COMMAND">echo</tt>
-command. By default <tt class="COMMAND">echo</tt> will display the string and print a
-newline character after it. You can pass the <var class="OPTION">-n</var> option to
-suppress the printing of the newline. The <var class="OPTION">-e</var> option will cause
-<tt class="COMMAND">echo</tt> to search for escape characters in the string and execute
-them.</p>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<hr />
-<h2 class="SECT1"><a id="FILE-COMMANDS-CREATION" name="FILE-COMMANDS-CREATION">10.4
-Creation: <tt class="COMMAND">touch</tt> and <tt class="COMMAND">mkdir</tt></a></h2>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="AEN3619" name="AEN3619">10.4.1 <tt
-class="COMMAND">touch</tt></a></h3>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">touch</tt>(1) is used to change the timestamp on a file. You can
-change access timestamps and modification timestamps with this command. If the file
-specified does not exist, <tt class="COMMAND">touch</tt> will create a zero length file
-with the name specified. To mark a file with the current system time, you would issue
-this command:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">ls -al file1</kbd>
--rw-r--r-- 1 root root 9779 Feb 7 21:41 file1
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">touch file1</kbd>
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">ls -al file1</kbd>
--rw-r--r-- 1 root root 9779 Feb 8 09:17 file1
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>There are several options for <tt class="COMMAND">touch</tt>, including options to
-specify which timestamp to modify, the time to use, and many more. The online manual page
-discusses these in detail.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="AEN3639" name="AEN3639">10.4.2 <tt
-class="COMMAND">mkdir</tt></a></h3>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">mkdir</tt>(1) will create a new directory. You simply specify the
-directory to create when you run mkdir. This example creates the <tt
-class="FILENAME">hejaz</tt> directory in the current directory:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">mkdir hejaz</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>You can also specify a path, like this:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">mkdir /usr/local/hejaz</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>The <var class="OPTION">-p</var> option will tell <tt class="COMMAND">mkdir</tt> to
-make any parent directories. The above example will fail if <tt
-class="COMMAND">/usr/local</tt> does not exist. The <var class="OPTION">-p</var> option
-will create <tt class="FILENAME">/usr/local</tt> and <tt
-class="FILENAME">/usr/local/hejaz</tt>:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">mkdir -p /usr/local/hejaz</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<hr />
-<h2 class="SECT1"><a id="FILE-COMMANDS-COPYMOVE" name="FILE-COMMANDS-COPYMOVE">10.5 Copy
-and Move</a></h2>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="FILE-COMMANDS-COPYMOVE-CP"
-name="FILE-COMMANDS-COPYMOVE-CP">10.5.1 <tt class="COMMAND">cp</tt></a></h3>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">cp</tt>(1) copies files. DOS users will notice its similarity to
-the <tt class="COMMAND">copy</tt> command. There are many options for <tt
-class="COMMAND">cp</tt> , so you should have a look at the man page before using it.</p>
-
-<p>A common use is to use <tt class="COMMAND">cp</tt> to copy a file from one location to
-another. For example:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">cp hejaz /tmp</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>This copies the <tt class="FILENAME">hejaz</tt> file from the current directory to the
-<tt class="FILENAME">/tmp</tt> directory.</p>
-
-<p>Many users prefer to keep the timestamps preserved, as in this example:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">cp -a hejaz /tmp</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>This ensures that the timestamps are not modified in the copy.</p>
-
-<p>To recursively copy the contents of a directory to another directory, you would issue
-this command:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">cp -R <var
-class="REPLACEABLE">mydir</var> /tmp</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>That will copy the <var class="REPLACEABLE">mydir</var> directory to the <tt
-class="FILENAME">/tmp</tt> directory.</p>
-
-<p>Also if you wish to copy a directory or a file and keep all it's old permissions and
-time stamps and keep it exactly the same use <tt class="COMMAND">cp -p</tt>.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">ls -l file</kbd>
--rw-r--r-- 1 root vlad 4 Jan 1 15:27 file
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">cp -p file /tmp</kbd>
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">ls -l /tmp/file</kbd>
--rw-r--r-- 1 root vlad 4 Jan 1 15:27 file
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">cp</tt> has many more options that are discussed in detail in the
-online manual page.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="AEN3712" name="AEN3712">10.5.2 <tt
-class="COMMAND">mv</tt></a></h3>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">mv</tt>(1) moves files from one place to another. Sounds simple
-enough doesn't it?</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">mv oldfile /tmp/newfile</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">mv</tt> has a few useful command line options that are detailed in
-the man page. In practice, <tt class="COMMAND">mv</tt> is almost never used with
-commandline options.</p>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<hr />
-<h2 class="SECT1"><a id="FILE-COMMANDS-DELETION" name="FILE-COMMANDS-DELETION">10.6
-Deletion: <tt class="COMMAND">rm</tt> and <tt class="COMMAND">rmdir</tt></a></h2>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="AEN3733" name="AEN3733">10.6.1 <tt
-class="COMMAND">rm</tt></a></h3>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">rm</tt>(1) removes files and directory trees. DOS users will
-notice the similarity to both the <tt class="COMMAND">del</tt> and <tt
-class="COMMAND">deltree</tt> commands. <tt class="COMMAND">rm</tt> can be very dangerous
-if you do not watch yourself. While it is sometimes possible to retrieve a recently
-deleted file, it can be complicated (and potentially costly) and is beyond the scope of
-this book.</p>
-
-<p>To remove a single file, specify its name when you run rm:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">rm file1</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>If the file has write permissions removed, you may get a permission denied error
-message. To force removal of the file no matter what, pass the <tt
-class="COMMAND">-f</tt> option, like this:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">rm -f file1</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>To remove an entire directory, you use the <var class="OPTION">-r</var> and <var
-class="OPTION">-f</var> options together. This is a good example of how to delete the
-entire contents of your hard drive. You really don't want to do this. But here's the
-command anyway:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">rm -rf /</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>Be very careful with <tt class="COMMAND">rm</tt>; you can shoot yourself in the foot.
-There are several command line options, which are discussed in detail in the online
-manual page.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="AEN3764" name="AEN3764">10.6.2 <tt
-class="COMMAND">rmdir</tt></a></h3>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">rmdir</tt>(1) removes directories from the filesystem. The
-directory must be empty before it can be removed. The syntax is simply:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">rmdir &lt;<var
-class="REPLACEABLE">directory</var>&gt;</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>This example will remove the <tt class="FILENAME">hejaz</tt> subdirectory in the
-current working directory:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">rmdir hejaz</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>If that directory does not exist, <tt class="COMMAND">rmdir</tt> will tell you. You
-can also specify a full path to a directory to remove, as this example shows:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">rmdir /tmp/hejaz</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>That example will try to remove the <tt class="FILENAME">hejaz</tt> directory inside
-the <tt class="FILENAME">/tmp</tt> directory.</p>
-
-<p>You can also remove a directory and all of its parent directories by passing the <var
-class="OPTION">-p</var> option.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">rmdir -p /tmp/hejaz</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>This will first try to remove the <tt class="FILENAME">hejaz</tt> directory inside <tt
-class="FILENAME">/tmp</tt>. If that is successful, it will try to remove <tt
-class="FILENAME">/tmp</tt>. <tt class="COMMAND">rmdir</tt> will continue this until an
-error is encountered or the entire tree specified is removed.</p>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<hr />
-<h2 class="SECT1"><a id="FILE-COMMANDS-LINK" name="FILE-COMMANDS-LINK">10.7 Aliasing
-files with <tt class="COMMAND">ln</tt></a></h2>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">ln</tt>(1) is used to create links between files. These links can
-be either hard links or soft (symbolic) links. The differences between the two kinds of
-links were discussed in <a href="#FILESYSTEM-STRUCTURE-LINKS">Section 9.3</a>. If you
-wanted to make a symbolic link to the directory <tt class="FILENAME">/var/media/mp3</tt>
-and place the link in your home directory, you would do this:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">ln -s /var/media/mp3 ~/mp3</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>The <var class="OPTION">-s</var> option tells <tt class="COMMAND">ln</tt> to make a
-symbolic link. The next option is the target of the link, and the final option is what to
-call the link. In this case, it will just make a file called <tt
-class="FILENAME">mp3</tt> in your home directory that points to <tt
-class="FILENAME">/var/media/mp3</tt>. You can call the link itself whatever you want by
-just changing the last option.</p>
-
-<p>Making a hard link is just as simple. All you have to do is leave off the <var
-class="OPTION">-s</var> option. Hard links may not normally refer to directories or span
-file systems, however. To create a hard link <tt class="FILENAME">/usr/bin/email</tt> to
-<tt class="FILENAME">/usr/bin/mutt</tt>, simply type the following:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd
-class="USERINPUT">ln /usr/bin/mutt /usr/bin/email</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="CHAPTER">
-<hr />
-<h1><a id="PROCESS-CONTROL" name="PROCESS-CONTROL"></a>Chapter 11 Process Control</h1>
-
-<p>Every program that is running is called a process. These processes range from things
-like the X Window System to system programs (daemons) that are started when the computer
-boots. Every process runs as a particular user. Processes that are started at boot time
-usually run as <tt class="USERNAME">root</tt> or <tt class="USERNAME">nobody</tt>.
-Processes that you start will run as you. Processes started as other users will run as
-those users.</p>
-
-<p>You have control over all the processes that you start. Additionally, <tt
-class="USERNAME">root</tt> has control over all processes on the system, including those
-started by other users. Processes can be controlled and monitored through several
-programs, as well as some shell commands.</p>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<hr />
-<h2 class="SECT1"><a id="PROCESS-CONTROL-BACKGROUNDING"
-name="PROCESS-CONTROL-BACKGROUNDING">11.1 Backgrounding</a></h2>
-
-<p>Programs started from the command line start up in the foreground. This allows you to
-see all the output of the program and interact with it. However, there are several
-occasions when you'd like the program to run without taking up your terminal. This is
-called running the program in the background, and there are a few ways to do it.</p>
-
-<p>The first way to background a process is by adding an ampersand to the command line
-when you start the program. For example, assume you wanted to use the command line mp3
-player <tt class="COMMAND">amp</tt> to play a directory full of mp3s, but you needed to
-do something else on the same terminal. The following command line would start up amp in
-the background:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">amp *.mp3 &#38;</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>The program will run as normal, and you are returned to a prompt.</p>
-
-<p>The other way to background a process is to do so while it is running. First, start up
-a program. While it is running, hit <b class="KEYCAP">Control</b>+<b
-class="KEYCAP">z</b>. This suspends the process. A suspended process is basically paused.
-It momentarily stops running, but can be started up again at any time. Once you have
-suspended a process, you are returned to a prompt. You can background the process by
-typing:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">bg</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>Now the suspended process is running in the background.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<hr />
-<h2 class="SECT1"><a id="PROCESS-CONTROL-FOREGROUNDING"
-name="PROCESS-CONTROL-FOREGROUNDING">11.2 Foregrounding</a></h2>
-
-<p>If you need to interact with a backgrounded process, you can bring it back into the
-foreground. If you've only got one backgrounded process, you can bring it back by
-typing:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">fg</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>If the program is not done running, the program will take control over you terminal
-and you will not be returned to a prompt. Sometimes, the program will finish running
-while backgrounded. In this instance, you'll get a message like this:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-[1]+ Done /bin/ls $LS_OPTIONS
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>That tells you that the backgrounded process (in this case <tt class="COMMAND">ls</tt>
-- not terribly interesting) has completed.</p>
-
-<p>It is possible to have several processes backgrounded at once. When this happens,
-you'll need to know which process you want to bring back to the foreground. Just typing
-<tt class="COMMAND">fg</tt> will foreground the process that was last backgrounded. What
-if you had a whole list of processes in the background? Luckily, bash includes a command
-to list all the processes. It's called <tt class="COMMAND">jobs</tt> and gives output
-like so:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">jobs</kbd>
-[1] Stopped vim
-[2]- Stopped amp
-[3]+ Stopped man ps
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>This shows you a list of all the processes that are backgrounded. As you can see, they
-are all stopped. This means that the processes are suspended. The number is a sort of ID
-for all the backgrounded processes. The ID with a plus sign beside it (<var
-class="LITERAL">man ps</var>) is the process that will be foregrounded if you just type
-<tt class="COMMAND">fg</tt>.</p>
-
-<p>If you wanted to foreground <tt class="COMMAND">vim</tt>, you would type:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">fg 1</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>and <tt class="COMMAND">vim</tt> would spring back up to the console. Backgrounding
-processes can be very useful if you only have one terminal open over a dialup connection.
-You can have several programs running on that one terminal, periodically switching back
-and forth between them.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<hr />
-<h2 class="SECT1"><a id="PROCESS-CONTROL-PS" name="PROCESS-CONTROL-PS">11.3 <tt
-class="COMMAND">ps</tt></a></h2>
-
-<p>So now you know how to switch back and forth between several processes that you've
-started from the command line. And you also know that there are lots of processes running
-all the time. So how do you list all of these programs? Well, you make use of the <tt
-class="COMMAND">ps</tt>(1) command. This command has a lot of options, so we'll only
-cover the most important ones here. For a complete listing, see the man page for ps. Man
-pages are covered in-depth in <a href="#HELP-SYSTEM-MAN">Section 2.1.1</a>.</p>
-
-<p>Simply typing <tt class="COMMAND">ps</tt> will get you a listing of the programs
-running on your terminal. This incudes the foreground processes (which include whatever
-shell you are using, and of course, <tt class="COMMAND">ps</tt> itself). Also listed are
-backgrounded processes you may have running. Many times, that will be a very short
-listing:</p>
-
-<div class="FIGURE"><a id="FIG-PROCESS-CONTROL-PS-SHORT"
-name="FIG-PROCESS-CONTROL-PS-SHORT"></a>
-<p><b>Figure 11-1. Basic <tt class="COMMAND">ps</tt> output</b></p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">ps</kbd>
- PID TTY TIME CMD
- 7923 ttyp0 00:00:00 bash
- 8059 ttyp0 00:00:00 ps
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-</div>
-
-<p>Even though this is not a lot of processes, the information is very typical. You'll
-get the same columns using regular ps no matter how many processes are running. So what
-does it all mean?</p>
-
-<p>Well, the <var class="LITERAL">PID</var> is the <span class="emphasis"><i
-class="EMPHASIS">process ID</i></span>. All running processes are given a unique
-identifier which ranges between 1 and 32767. Each process is assigned the next free PID.
-When a process quits (or is killed, as you will see in the next section), it gives up its
-PID. When the max PID is reached, the next free one will wrap back around to the lowest
-free one.</p>
-
-<p>The <var class="LITERAL">TTY</var> column indicates which terminal the process is
-running on. Doing a plain <tt class="COMMAND">ps</tt> will only list all the programs
-running on the current terminal, so all the processes give the same information in the
-TTY column. As you can see, both processes listed are running on <tt
-class="FILENAME">ttyp0</tt>. This indicates that they are either running remotely or from
-an X terminal of some variety.</p>
-
-<p>The <var class="LITERAL">TIME</var> column indicated how much CPU time the process has
-been running. This is different from the actual amount of time that a process runs.
-Remember that Linux is a multitasking operating system. There are many processes running
-all the time, and these processes each get a small portion of the processor's time. So,
-the TIME column should show much less time for each process than it actually takes to
-run. If you see more than several minutes in the TIME column, it could mean that
-something is wrong.</p>
-
-<p>Finally, the <var class="LITERAL">CMD</var> column shows what the program actually is.
-It only lists the base name of the program, not any command line options or similar
-information. To get that information, you'll need to use one of the many options to <tt
-class="COMMAND">ps</tt>. We'll discuss that shortly.</p>
-
-<p>You can get a complete listing of the processes running on your system using the right
-combination of options. This will probably result in a long listing of processes
-(fifty-five on my laptop as I write this sentence), so I'll abbreviate the output:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">ps -ax</kbd>
- PID TTY STAT TIME COMMAND
- 1 ? S 0:03 init [3]
- 2 ? SW 0:13 [kflushd]
- 3 ? SW 0:14 [kupdate]
- 4 ? SW 0:00 [kpiod]
- 5 ? SW 0:17 [kswapd]
- 11 ? S 0:00 /sbin/kerneld
- 30 ? SW 0:01 [cardmgr]
- 50 ? S 0:00 /sbin/rpc.portmap
- 54 ? S 0:00 /usr/sbin/syslogd
- 57 ? S 0:00 /usr/sbin/klogd -c 3
- 59 ? S 0:00 /usr/sbin/inetd
- 61 ? S 0:04 /usr/local/sbin/sshd
- 63 ? S 0:00 /usr/sbin/rpc.mountd
- 65 ? S 0:00 /usr/sbin/rpc.nfsd
- 67 ? S 0:00 /usr/sbin/crond -l10
- 69 ? S 0:00 /usr/sbin/atd -b 15 -l 1
- 77 ? S 0:00 /usr/sbin/apmd
- 79 ? S 0:01 gpm -m /dev/mouse -t ps2
- 94 ? S 0:00 /usr/sbin/automount /auto file /etc/auto.misc
- 106 tty1 S 0:08 -bash
- 108 tty3 SW 0:00 [agetty]
- 109 tty4 SW 0:00 [agetty]
- 110 tty5 SW 0:00 [agetty]
- 111 tty6 SW 0:00 [agetty]
- [output cut]
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>Most of these processes are started at boot time on most systems. I've made a few
-modifications to my system, so your mileage will most likely vary. However, you will see
-most of these processes on your system too. As you can see, these options display command
-line options to the running processes. Recently, a kernel vulnerability in <tt
-class="COMMAND">ptrace</tt> facilitated a fix which no longer shows command line options
-for many running processes. These are now listed in brackets like PIDs 108 through 110.
-It also brings up a few more columns and some other interesting output.</p>
-
-<p>First, you'll notice that most of these processes are listed as running on tty
-&#8220;?&#8221;. Those are not attached to any particular terminal. This is most common
-with daemons, which are processes which run without attaching to any particular terminal.
-Common daemons are sendmail, BIND, apache, and NFS. They typically listen for some
-request from a client, and return information to it upon request.</p>
-
-<p>Second, there is a new column: <var class="LITERAL">STAT</var>. It shows the status of
-the process. <var class="LITERAL">S</var> stands for sleeping: the process is waiting for
-something to happen. <var class="LITERAL">Z</var> stands for a zombied process. A zombied
-processes is one whose parent has died, leaving the child processes behind. This is not a
-good thing. <var class="LITERAL">D</var> stands for a process that has entered an
-uninterruptible sleep. Often, these processes refuse to die even when passed a SIGKILL.
-You can read more about SIGKILL later in the next section on <tt
-class="COMMAND">kill</tt> . W stands for paging. A dead process is marked with an <var
-class="LITERAL">X</var>. A process marked <var class="LITERAL">T</var> is traced, or
-stopped. <var class="LITERAL">R</var> means that the process is runable.</p>
-
-<p>If you want to see even more information about the running processes, try this
-out:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">ps -aux</kbd>
- USER PID %CPU %MEM VSZ RSS TTY STAT START TIME COMMAND
- root 1 0.0 0.0 344 80 ? S Mar02 0:03 init [3]
- root 2 0.0 0.0 0 0 ? SW Mar02 0:13 [kflushd]
- root 3 0.0 0.0 0 0 ? SW Mar02 0:14 [kupdate]
- root 4 0.0 0.0 0 0 ? SW Mar02 0:00 [kpiod]
- root 5 0.0 0.0 0 0 ? SW Mar02 0:17 [kswapd]
- root 11 0.0 0.0 1044 44 ? S Mar02 0:00 /sbin/kerneld
- root 30 0.0 0.0 1160 0 ? SW Mar02 0:01 [cardmgr]
- bin 50 0.0 0.0 1076 120 ? S Mar02 0:00 /sbin/rpc.port
- root 54 0.0 0.1 1360 192 ? S Mar02 0:00 /usr/sbin/sysl
- root 57 0.0 0.1 1276 152 ? S Mar02 0:00 /usr/sbin/klog
- root 59 0.0 0.0 1332 60 ? S Mar02 0:00 /usr/sbin/inet
- root 61 0.0 0.2 1540 312 ? S Mar02 0:04 /usr/local/sbi
- root 63 0.0 0.0 1796 72 ? S Mar02 0:00 /usr/sbin/rpc.
- root 65 0.0 0.0 1812 68 ? S Mar02 0:00 /usr/sbin/rpc.
- root 67 0.0 0.2 1172 260 ? S Mar02 0:00 /usr/sbin/cron
- root 77 0.0 0.2 1048 316 ? S Mar02 0:00 /usr/sbin/apmd
- root 79 0.0 0.1 1100 152 ? S Mar02 0:01 gpm
- root 94 0.0 0.2 1396 280 ? S Mar02 0:00 /usr/sbin/auto
- chris 106 0.0 0.5 1820 680 tty1 S Mar02 0:08 -bash
- root 108 0.0 0.0 1048 0 tty3 SW Mar02 0:00 [agetty]
- root 109 0.0 0.0 1048 0 tty4 SW Mar02 0:00 [agetty]
- root 110 0.0 0.0 1048 0 tty5 SW Mar02 0:00 [agetty]
- root 111 0.0 0.0 1048 0 tty6 SW Mar02 0:00 [agetty]
- [output cut]
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>That's a whole lot of information. Basically, it adds information including what user
-started the process, how much of the system resources the process is using (the %CPU,
-%MEM, VSZ, and RSS columns), and on what date the process was started. Obviously, that's
-a lot of information that could come in handy for a system administrator. It also brings
-up another point: the information now goes off the edge of the screen so that you cannot
-see it all. The <var class="OPTION">-w</var> option will force <tt
-class="COMMAND">ps</tt> to wrap long lines.</p>
-
-<p>It's not terribly pretty, but it does the job. You've now got the complete listings
-for each process. There's even more information that you can display about each process.
-Check out the very in-depth man page for <tt class="COMMAND">ps</tt>. However, the
-options shown above are the most popular ones and will be the ones you need to use the
-most often.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<hr />
-<h2 class="SECT1"><a id="PROCESS-CONTROL-KILL" name="PROCESS-CONTROL-KILL">11.4 <tt
-class="COMMAND">kill</tt></a></h2>
-
-<p>On occasion, programs misbehave and you'll need to put them back in line. The program
-for this kind of administration is called <tt class="COMMAND">kill</tt>(1), and it can be
-used for manipulating processes in several ways. The most obvious use of <tt
-class="COMMAND">kill</tt> is to kill off a process. You'll need to do this if a program
-has run away and is using up lots of system resources, or if you're just sick of it
-running.</p>
-
-<p>In order to kill off a process, you'll need to know its PID or its name. To get the
-PID, use the <tt class="COMMAND">ps</tt> command as was discussed in the last section.
-For example, to kill off process 4747, you'd issue the following:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">kill 4747</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>Note that you'll have to be the owner of the process in order to kill it. This is a
-security feature. If you were allowed to kill off processes started by other users, it
-would be possible to do all sorts of malicious things. Of course, <tt
-class="USERNAME">root</tt> can kill off any process on the system.</p>
-
-<p>There's another variety of the <tt class="COMMAND">kill</tt> command called <tt
-class="COMMAND">killall</tt>(1). This program does exactly what it says: it kills all the
-running processes that have a certain name. If you wanted to kill off all the running <tt
-class="COMMAND">vim</tt> processes, you could type the following command:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">killall vim</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>Any and all <tt class="COMMAND">vim</tt> processes you have running will die off.
-Doing this as <tt class="USERNAME">root</tt> would kill off all the <tt
-class="COMMAND">vim</tt> processes running for all users. This brings up an interesting
-way to kick everyone (including yourself) off the system:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">killall bash</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>Sometimes a regular kill doesn't get the job done. Certain processes will not die with
-a kill. You'll need to use a more potent form. If that pesky PID 4747 wasn't responding
-to your kill request, you could do the following:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">kill -9 4747</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>That will almost certainly cause process 4747 to die. You can do the same thing with
-<tt class="COMMAND">killall</tt>. What this is doing is sending a different signal to the
-process. A regular <tt class="COMMAND">kill</tt> sends a <var
-class="LITERAL">SIGTERM</var> (terminate) signal to the process, which tells it to finish
-what it's doing, clean up, and exit. <tt class="COMMAND">kill -9</tt> sends a <var
-class="LITERAL">SIGKILL</var> (kill) signal to the process, which essentially drops it.
-The process is not allowed to clean-up, and sometimes bad things like data corruption
-could occur by killing something with a <var class="LITERAL">SIGKILL</var>. There's a
-whole list of signals at your disposal. You can get a listing of signals by typing the
-following:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">kill -l</kbd>
- 1) SIGHUP 2) SIGINT 3) SIGQUIT 4) SIGILL
- 5) SIGTRAP 6) SIGABRT 7) SIGBUS 8) SIGFPE
- 9) SIGKILL 10) SIGUSR1 11) SIGSEGV 12) SIGUSR2
- 13) SIGPIPE 14) SIGALRM 15) SIGTERM 17) SIGCHLD
- 18) SIGCONT 19) SIGSTOP 20) SIGTSTP 21) SIGTTIN
- 22) SIGTTOU 23) SIGURG 24) SIGXCPU 25) SIGXFSZ
- 26) SIGVTALRM 27) SIGPROF 28) SIGWINCH 29) SIGIO
- 30) SIGPWR
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>The number must be used for <tt class="COMMAND">kill</tt>, while the name minus the
-leading &#8220;SIG&#8221; can be used with <tt class="COMMAND">killall</tt>. Here's
-another example:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">killall -KILL vim</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>A final use of <tt class="COMMAND">kill</tt> is to restart a process. Sending a <var
-class="LITERAL">SIGHUP</var> will cause most processes to re-read their configuration
-files. This is especially helpful for telling system processes to re-read their config
-files after editing.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<hr />
-<h2 class="SECT1"><a id="PROCESS-CONTROL-TOP" name="PROCESS-CONTROL-TOP">11.5 <tt
-class="COMMAND">top</tt></a></h2>
-
-<p>Finally, there's a command you can use to display updating information about the
-processes running on the system. This command is called <tt class="COMMAND">top</tt>(1),
-and is started like so:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">top</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>This will display a full screen of information about the processes running on the
-system, as well as some overall information about the system. This includes load average,
-number of processes, the CPU status, free memory information, and details about processes
-including PID, user, priority, CPU and memory usage information, running time, and
-program name.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
- 6:47pm up 1 day, 18:01, 1 user, load average: 0.02, 0.07, 0.02
-61 processes: 59 sleeping, 2 running, 0 zombie, 0 stopped
-CPU states: 2.8% user, 3.1% system, 0.0% nice, 93.9% idle
-Mem: 257992K av, 249672K used, 8320K free, 51628K shrd, 78248K buff
-Swap: 32764K av, 136K used, 32628K free, 82600K cached
-
-<span class="emphasis"><i
-class="EMPHASIS">PID USER PRI NI SIZE RSS SHARE STAT LIB %CPU %MEM TIME COMMAND</i></span>
- 112 root 12 0 19376 18M 2468 R 0 3.7 7.5 55:53 X
-4947 david 15 0 2136 2136 1748 S 0 2.3 0.8 0:00 screenshot
-3398 david 7 0 20544 20M 3000 S 0 1.5 7.9 0:14 gimp
-4946 root 12 0 1040 1040 836 R 0 1.5 0.4 0:00 top
- 121 david 4 0 796 796 644 S 0 1.1 0.3 25:37 wmSMPmon
- 115 david 3 0 2180 2180 1452 S 0 0.3 0.8 1:35 wmaker
-4948 david 16 0 776 776 648 S 0 0.3 0.3 0:00 xwd
- 1 root 1 0 176 176 148 S 0 0.1 0.0 0:13 init
- 189 david 1 0 6256 6156 4352 S 0 0.1 2.4 3:16 licq
-4734 david 0 0 1164 1164 916 S 0 0.1 0.4 0:00 rxvt
- 2 root 0 0 0 0 0 SW 0 0.0 0.0 0:08 kflushd
- 3 root 0 0 0 0 0 SW 0 0.0 0.0 0:06 kupdate
- 4 root 0 0 0 0 0 SW 0 0.0 0.0 0:00 kpiod
- 5 root 0 0 0 0 0 SW 0 0.0 0.0 0:04 kswapd
- 31 root 0 0 340 340 248 S 0 0.0 0.1 0:00 kerneld
- 51 root 0 0 48 48 32 S 0 0.0 0.0 0:00 dhcpcd
- 53 bin 0 0 316 316 236 S 0 0.0 0.1 0:00 rpc.portmap
- 57 root 0 0 588 588 488 S 0 0.0 0.2 0:01 syslogd
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>It's called <tt class="COMMAND">top</tt> because the most CPU intensive programs will
-be listed at the top. An interesting note is that top will be listed first on most
-inactive (and some active) systems because of its CPU utilization. However, <tt
-class="COMMAND">top</tt> is quite useful for determining what program is misbehaving and
-needs to be killed off.</p>
-
-<p>But suppose you only want a list of your own processes, or the processes of some other
-user. The processes you want to see might not be among the most CPU intensive programs
-currently running. The <var class="OPTION">-u</var> option allows you to specify a
-username or UID and monitor only those processes owned by that UID.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">top -u alan</kbd>
- PID USER PR NI VIRT RES SHR S %CPU %MEM TIME+ COMMAND
-3622 alan 13 0 11012 10m 6956 S 1.0 2.1 0:03.66 gnome-terminal
-3739 alan 13 0 1012 1012 804 R 0.3 0.2 0:00.06 top
-3518 alan 9 0 1312 1312 1032 S 0.0 0.3 0:00.09 bash
-3529 alan 9 0 984 984 848 S 0.0 0.2 0:00.00 startx
-3544 alan 9 0 640 640 568 S 0.0 0.1 0:00.00 xinit
-3548 alan 9 0 8324 8320 6044 S 0.0 1.6 0:00.30 gnome-session
-3551 alan 9 0 7084 7084 1968 S 0.0 1.4 0:00.50 gconfd-2
-3553 alan 9 0 2232 2232 380 S 0.0 0.4 0:00.05 esd
-3555 alan 9 0 2552 2552 1948 S 0.0 0.5 0:00.10 bonobo-activati
-3557 alan 9 0 2740 2740 2224 S 0.0 0.5 0:00.05 gnome-smproxy
-3559 alan 9 0 6496 6492 5004 S 0.0 1.3 0:00.31 gnome-settings-
-3565 alan 9 0 1740 1740 1440 S 0.0 0.3 0:00.28 xscreensaver
-3568 alan 9 0 7052 7052 4960 S 0.0 1.4 0:02.28 metacity
-3572 alan 9 0 11412 11m 7992 S 0.0 2.2 0:01.58 gnome-panel
-3574 alan 9 0 12148 11m 8780 S 0.0 2.4 0:00.64 nautilus
-3575 alan 9 0 12148 11m 8780 S 0.0 2.4 0:00.00 nautilus
-3576 alan 9 0 12148 11m 8780 S 0.0 2.4 0:00.00 nautilus
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>As you can see, I'm currently running <tt class="COMMAND">X</tt>, <tt
-class="COMMAND">top</tt>, a <tt class="COMMAND">gnome-terminal</tt> (in which I'm writing
-this) and many other X-related processes which take up the most CPU time for me. This is
-a good way to monitor how hard your users are working your system.</p>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">top</tt> also supports monitoring processes by their PID, ignoring
-idle and zombied processes, and many other options. The best place to get a handle on
-these options is the man page for <tt class="COMMAND">top</tt>.</p>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="CHAPTER">
-<hr />
-<h1><a id="ESSENTIAL-SYSADMIN" name="ESSENTIAL-SYSADMIN"></a>Chapter 12 Essential System
-Administration</h1>
-
-<p>Whoa whoa whoa whoa whoa.... I know what you're thinking. &#8220;I'm not a system
-administrator! I don't even want to be a system administrator!&#8221;</p>
-
-<p>Fact is, you are the administrator of any computers for which you have the <tt
-class="USERNAME">root</tt> password. This might be your desktop box with one or two
-users, or it might be a big server with several hundred. Regardless, you'll need to know
-how to manage users, and how to shut down the system safely. These tasks seem simple, but
-they have some quirks to keep in mind.</p>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<hr />
-<h2 class="SECT1"><a id="ESSENTIAL-SYSADMIN-USERS" name="ESSENTIAL-SYSADMIN-USERS">12.1
-Users and Groups</a></h2>
-
-<p>As mentioned in <a href="#SHELL">Chapter 8</a>, you shouldn't normally use your system
-logged in as <tt class="USERNAME">root</tt>. Instead, you should create a normal user
-account for everyday use, and use the root account only for system administration tasks.
-To create a user, you can either use the tools supplied with Slackware, or you can edit
-the password files by hand.</p>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="ESSENTIAL-SYSADMIN-USERS-SCRIPTS"
-name="ESSENTIAL-SYSADMIN-USERS-SCRIPTS">12.1.1 Supplied Scripts</a></h3>
-
-<p>The easiest way to manage users and groups is with the supplied scripts and programs.
-Slackware includes the programs <tt class="COMMAND">adduser</tt>, <tt
-class="COMMAND">userdel</tt>(8), <tt class="COMMAND">chfn</tt>(1), <tt
-class="COMMAND">chsh</tt>(1), and <tt class="COMMAND">passwd</tt>(1) for dealing with
-users. The commands <tt class="COMMAND">groupadd</tt>(8), <tt
-class="COMMAND">groupdel</tt>(8), and <tt class="COMMAND">groupmod</tt>(8) are for
-dealing with groups. With the exception of <tt class="COMMAND">chfn</tt>, <tt
-class="COMMAND">chsh</tt>, and <tt class="COMMAND">passwd</tt>, these programs are
-generally only run as <tt class="USERNAME">root</tt>, and are therefore located in <tt
-class="FILENAME">/usr/sbin</tt>. <tt class="COMMAND">chfn</tt>, <tt
-class="COMMAND">chsh</tt>, and <tt class="COMMAND">passwd</tt> can be run by anyone, and
-are located in <tt class="FILENAME">/usr/bin</tt>.</p>
-
-<p>Users can be added with the <tt class="COMMAND">adduser</tt> program. We'll start out
-by going through the whole procedure, showing all the questions that are asked and a
-brief description of what everything means. The default answer is in the brackets, and
-can be chosen for almost all the questions, unless you really want to change
-something.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">adduser</kbd>
-Login name for new user []: jellyd
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>This is the name that the user will use to login. Traditionally, login names are eight
-characters or fewer, and all lowercase characters. (You may use more than eight
-characters, or use digits, but avoid doing so unless you have a fairly important
-reason.)</p>
-
-<p>You can also provide the login name as an argument on the command line:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">adduser jellyd</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>In either case, after providing the login name, adduser will prompt for the user
-ID:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-User ID ('UID') [ defaults to next available ]:
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>The user ID (UID) is how ownerships are really determined in Linux. Each user has a
-unique number, starting at 1000 in Slackware. You can pick a UID for the new user, or you
-can just let adduser assign the user the next free one.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-Initial group [users]:
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>All users are placed into the <tt class="USERNAME">users</tt> group by default. You
-might want to place the new user into a different group, but it is not recommended unless
-you know what you're doing.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-Additional groups (comma separated) []:
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>This question allows you to place the new user into additional groups. It is possible
-for a user to be in several groups at the same time. This is useful if you have
-established groups for things like modifying web site files, playing games, and so on.
-For example, some sites define group <tt class="USERNAME">wheel</tt> as the only group
-that can use the <tt class="COMMAND">su</tt> command. Or, a default Slackware
-installation uses the <tt class="USERNAME">sys</tt> group for users authorized to play
-sounds through the internal sound card.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-Home directory [/home/jellyd]
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>Home directories default to being placed under <tt class="FILENAME">/home</tt>. If you
-run a very large system, it's possible that you have moved the home directories to a
-different location (or to many locations). This step allows you to specify where the
-user's home directory will be.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-Shell [ /bin/bash ]
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">bash</tt> is the default shell for Slackware Linux, and will be
-fine for most people. If your new user comes from a Unix background, they may be familiar
-with a different shell. You can change their shell now, or they can change it themselves
-later using the <tt class="COMMAND">chsh</tt> command.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-Expiry date (YYYY-MM-DD) []:
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>Accounts can be set up to expire on a specified date. By default, there is no
-expiration date. You can change that, if you'd like. This option might be useful for
-people running an ISP who might want to make an account expire upon a certain date,
-unless they receive the next year's payment.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-New account will be created as follows:
----------------------------------------
-Login name: jellyd
-UID: [ Next available ]
-Initial group: users
-Additional groups: [ None ]
-Home directory: /home/jellyd
-Shell: /bin/bash
-Expiry date: [ Never ]
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>This is it... if you want to bail out, hit <b class="KEYCAP">Control</b>+<b
-class="KEYCAP">C</b>. Otherwise, press <kbd class="USERINPUT">ENTER</kbd> to go ahead and
-make the account.</p>
-
-<p>You now see all the information that you've entered about the new account and are
-given the opportunity to abort the account creation. If you entered something
-incorrectly, you should hit <b class="KEYCAP">Control</b>+<b class="KEYCAP">C</b> and
-start over. Otherwise, you can hit <kbd class="USERINPUT">enter</kbd> and the account
-will be made.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-Creating new account...
-
-Changing the user information for jellyd
-Enter the new value, or press return for the default
- Full Name []: Jeremy
- Room Number []: Smith 130
- Work Phone []:
- Home Phone []:
- Other []:
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>All of this information is optional. You don't have to enter any of this if you don't
-want to, and the user can change it at any time using <tt class="COMMAND">chfn</tt>.
-However, you might find it helpful to enter at least the full name and a phone number, in
-case you need to get in touch with the person later.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-Changing password for jellyd
-Enter the new password (minimum of 5, maximum of 127 characters)
-Please use a combination of upper and lower case letters and numbers.
-New password:
-Re-enter new password:
-Password changed.
-
-Account setup complete.
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>You'll have to enter a password for the new user. Generally, if the new user is not
-physically present at this point, you'll just pick some default password and tell the
-user to change it to something more secure.</p>
-
-<div class="NOTE">
-<table class="NOTE" width="100%" border="0">
-<tr>
-<td width="25" align="CENTER" valign="TOP"><img src="./imagelib/admon/note.png"
-hspace="5" alt="Note" /></td>
-<td align="LEFT" valign="TOP">
-<p><span class="emphasis"><i class="EMPHASIS">Choosing a Password</i></span>: Having a
-secure password is the first line of defense against getting cracked. You do not want to
-have an easily guessed password, because that makes it easier for someone to break into
-your system. Ideally, a secure password would be a random string of characters, including
-upper and lowercase letters, numbers, and random characters. (A tab character might not
-be a wise choice, depending on what kinds of computers you'll be logging in from.) There
-are many software packages that can generate random passwords for you; search the
-Internet for these utilities.</p>
-
-<p>In general, just use common sense: don't pick a password that is someone's birthday, a
-common phrase, something found on your desk, or anything that is easily associated with
-you. A password like &#8220;secure1&#8221; or any other password you see in print or
-online is also bad.</p>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-</div>
-
-<p>Removing users is not difficult at all. Just run <tt class="COMMAND">userdel</tt> with
-the name of the account to remove. You should verify that the user is not logged in, and
-that no processes are running as that user. Also, remember that once you've deleted the
-user, all of that user's password information is gone permanently.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">userdel jellyd</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>This command removes that annoying <tt class="USERNAME">jellyd</tt> user from your
-system. Good riddance! :) The user is removed from the <tt
-class="FILENAME">/etc/passwd</tt>, <tt class="FILENAME">/etc/shadow</tt>, and <tt
-class="FILENAME">/etc/group</tt> files, but doesn't remove the user's home directory.</p>
-
-<p>If you'd wanted to remove the home directory as well, you would instead use this
-command:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">userdel -r jellyd</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>Temporarily disabling an account will be covered in the next section on passwords,
-since a temporary change involves changing the user's password. Changing other account
-information is covered in <a href="#ESSENTIAL-SYSADMIN-USERS-CHANGING">Section
-12.1.3</a>.</p>
-
-<p>The programs to add and remove groups are very simple. <tt
-class="COMMAND">groupadd</tt> will just add another entry to the <tt
-class="FILENAME">/etc/group</tt> file with a unique group ID, while <tt
-class="COMMAND">groupdel</tt> will remove the specified group. It is up to you to edit
-<tt class="FILENAME">/etc/group</tt> to add users to a specific group. For example, to
-add a group called <tt class="USERNAME">cvs</tt>:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">groupadd cvs</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>And to remove it:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">groupdel cvs</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="ESSENTIAL-SYSADMIN-USERS-PASSWDS"
-name="ESSENTIAL-SYSADMIN-USERS-PASSWDS">12.1.2 Changing Passwords</a></h3>
-
-<p>The <tt class="COMMAND">passwd</tt> program changes passwords by modifying the <tt
-class="FILENAME">/etc/shadow</tt> file. This file holds all the passwords for the system
-in an encrypted format. In order to change your own password, you would type:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">passwd</kbd>
-Changing password for chris
-Old password:
-Enter the new password (minumum of 5, maximum of 127 characters)
-Please use a combination of upper and lower case letters and numbers.
-New password:
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>As you can see, you are prompted to enter your old password. It won't appear on the
-screen as you type it, just like when you log in. Then, you are prompted to enter the new
-password. <tt class="COMMAND">passwd</tt> performs a lot of checks on your new password,
-and it will complain if your new password doesn't pass its checks. You can ignore its
-warnings if you want. You will be prompted to enter your new password a second time for
-confirmation.</p>
-
-<p>If you are <tt class="USERNAME">root</tt>, you can also change another user's
-password:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">passwd ted</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>You will then have to go through the same procedure as above, except that you won't
-have to enter the user's old password. (One of the many benefits of being <tt
-class="USERNAME">root</tt>...)</p>
-
-<p>If needed, you can also temporarily disable an account, and reenable it at a later
-time if needed. Both disabling an account and reenabling an account can be done with <tt
-class="COMMAND">passwd</tt>. To disable an account, do the following as <tt
-class="USERNAME">root</tt>:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">passwd -l david</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>This will change david's password to something that can never match any encrypted
-value. You would reenable the account by using:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">passwd -u david</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>Now, david's account is back to normal. Disabling an account might be useful if the
-user doesn't play by the rules you've set up on your system, or if they've exported a
-very large copy of <tt class="COMMAND">xeyes</tt>(1) to your X desktop.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="ESSENTIAL-SYSADMIN-USERS-CHANGING"
-name="ESSENTIAL-SYSADMIN-USERS-CHANGING">12.1.3 Changing User Information</a></h3>
-
-<p>There are two pieces of information that users can change at any time: their shell and
-their finger information. Slackware Linux uses <tt class="COMMAND">chsh</tt> (change
-shell) and <tt class="COMMAND">chfn</tt> (change finger) to modify these values.</p>
-
-<p>A user can pick any shell that is listed in the <tt class="FILENAME">/etc/shells</tt>
-file. For most people, <tt class="COMMAND">/bin/bash</tt> will do just fine. Others might
-be familiar with a shell found on their system at work or school and want to use what
-they already know. To change your shell, use <tt class="COMMAND">chsh</tt>:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">chsh</kbd>
-Password:
-Changing the login shell for chris
-Enter the new value, or press return for the default
- Login Shell [/bin/bash]:
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>After entering your password, enter the full path to the new shell. Make sure that
-it's listed in the <tt class="FILENAME">/etc/shells</tt>(5) file first. The <tt
-class="USERNAME">root</tt> user can also change any user's shell by running <tt
-class="COMMAND">chsh</tt> with a username as the argument.</p>
-
-<p>The finger information is the optional information such as your full name, phone
-numbers, and room number. This can be changed using <tt class="COMMAND">chfn</tt>, and
-follows the same procedure as it did during account creation. As usual, <tt
-class="USERNAME">root</tt> can change anyone's finger information.</p>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<hr />
-<h2 class="SECT1"><a id="ESSENTIAL-SYSADMIN-HARDUSERS"
-name="ESSENTIAL-SYSADMIN-HARDUSERS">12.2 Users and Groups, the Hard Way</a></h2>
-
-<p>Of course, it is possible to add, modify, and remove users and groups without using
-the scripts and programs that come with Slackware. It's not really difficult, although
-after reading this process, you'll probably find it much easier to use the scripts.
-However, it's important to know how your password information is actually stored, in case
-you ever need to recover this information and don't have the Slackware tools
-available.</p>
-
-<p>First, we'll add a new user to the <tt class="FILENAME">/etc/passwd</tt>(5), <tt
-class="FILENAME">/etc/shadow</tt>(5), and <tt class="FILENAME">/etc/group</tt>(5) files.
-The <tt class="FILENAME">passwd</tt> file holds some information about the users on your
-system, but (strangely enough) not their passwords. This was once the case, but was
-halted long ago for security reasons. The passwd file must be readable by all users, but
-you don't want encrypted passwords world-readable, as would-be intruders can use the
-encrypted passwords as a starting point for decrypting a user's password. Instead, the
-encrypted passwords are kept in the shadow file, which is only readable by root, and
-everyone's password is entered into the <tt class="FILENAME">passwd</tt> file simply as
-&#8220;<var class="LITERAL">x</var>&#8221;. The <tt class="FILENAME">group</tt> file
-lists all the groups and who is in each.</p>
-
-<p>You can use the <tt class="COMMAND">vipw</tt> command to edit the <tt
-class="FILENAME">/etc/passwd</tt> file safely, and the <tt class="COMMAND">vigr</tt>
-command to edit the <tt class="FILENAME">/etc/group</tt> file safely. Use <tt
-class="COMMAND">vipw -s</tt> to edit the <tt class="FILENAME">/etc/shadow</tt> file
-safely. (&#8220;Safely&#8221; in this context means someone else won't be able to modify
-the file you're editing at the moment. If you're the only administrator of your system,
-you're probably safe, but it's best to get into good habits from the start.)</p>
-
-<p>Let's examine the <tt class="FILENAME">/etc/passwd</tt> file and look at how to add a
-new user. A typical entry in <tt class="FILENAME">passwd</tt> looks like this:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="PROGRAMLISTING">
-chris:x:1000:100:Chris Lumens,Room 2,,:/home/chris:/bin/bash
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>Each line is an entry for one user, and fields on each line are separated by a colon.
-The fields are the login name, encrypted password (&#8220;<var
-class="LITERAL">x</var>&#8221; for everyone on a Slackware system, since Slackware uses
-shadow passwords), user ID, group ID, the optional finger information (separated by
-commas), home directory, and shell. To add a new user by hand, add a new line at the end
-of the file, filling in the appropriate information.</p>
-
-<p>The information you add needs to meet some requirements, or your new user may have
-problems logging in. First, make sure that the password field is an <var
-class="LITERAL">x</var>, and that both the user name and user ID is unique. Assign the
-user a group, either 100 (the &#8220;users&#8221; group in Slackware) or your default
-group (use its number, not its name). Give the user a valid home directory (which you'll
-create later) and shell (remember, valid shells are listed in <tt
-class="FILENAME">/etc/shells</tt>).</p>
-
-<p>Next, we'll need to add an entry in the /etc/shadow file, which holds the encrypted
-passwords. A typical entry looks like this:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="PROGRAMLISTING">
-chris:$1$w9bsw/N9$uwLr2bRER6YyBS.CAEp7R.:11055:0:99999:7:::
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>Again, each line is an entry for one person, with each field delimited by a colon. The
-fields are (in order) login name, encrypted password, days since the Epoch (January 1,
-1970) that the password was last changed, days before the password may be changed, days
-after which the password must be changed, days before password expiration that the user
-is notified, days after expiration that the account is disabled, days since the Epoch
-that the account is disabled, and a reserved field.</p>
-
-<p>As you can see, most of that is for account expiration information. If you aren't
-using expiration information, you only need to fill in a few fields with some special
-values. Otherwise, you'll need to do some calculations and decision making before you can
-fill those fields in. For a new user, just put some random garbage in the password field.
-Don't worry about what the password is right now, because you're going to change it in a
-minute. The only character you cannot include in the password field is a colon. Leave the
-&#8220;days since password was changed&#8221; field blank as well. Fill in <var
-class="LITERAL">0</var>, <var class="LITERAL">99999</var>, and <var
-class="LITERAL">7</var> just as you see in the example entry, and leave the other fields
-blank.</p>
-
-<p>(For those of you who think you see my encrypted password above and believe you've got
-a leg up on breaking into my system, go right ahead. If you can crack that password,
-you'll know the password to a firewalled test system. Now that's useful :) )</p>
-
-<p>All normal users are members of the &#8220;<tt class="USERNAME">users</tt>&#8221;
-group on a typical Slackware system. However, if you want to create a new group, or add
-the new user to additional groups, you'll need to modify the <tt
-class="FILENAME">/etc/group</tt> file. Here is a typical entry:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="PROGRAMLISTING">
-cvs::102:chris,logan,david,root
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>The fields are group name, group password, group ID, and group members, separated by
-commas. Creating a new group is a simple matter of adding a new line with a unique group
-ID, and listing all the users you want to be in the group. Any users that are in this new
-group and are logged in will have to log out and log back in for those changes to take
-effect.</p>
-
-<p>At this point, it might be a good idea to use the <tt class="COMMAND">pwck</tt> and
-<tt class="COMMAND">grpck</tt> commands to verify that the changes you've made are
-consistent. First, use <tt class="COMMAND">pwck -r</tt> and <tt class="COMMAND">grpck
--r</tt>: the <var class="OPTION">-r</var> switch makes no changes, but lists the changes
-you would be asked to make if you ran the command without the switch. You can use this
-output to decide whether you need to further modify any files, to run <tt
-class="COMMAND">pwck</tt> or <tt class="COMMAND">grpck</tt> without the <var
-class="OPTION">-r</var> switch, or to simply leave your changes as they are.</p>
-
-<p>At this point, you should use the <tt class="COMMAND">passwd</tt> command to create a
-proper password for the user. Then, use <tt class="COMMAND">mkdir</tt> to create the new
-user's home directory in the location you entered into the <tt
-class="FILENAME">/etc/passwd</tt> file, and use <tt class="COMMAND">chown</tt> to change
-the owner of the new directory to the new user.</p>
-
-<p>Removing a user is a simple matter of deleting all of the entries that exist for that
-user. Remove the user's entry from <tt class="FILENAME">/etc/passwd</tt> and <tt
-class="FILENAME">/etc/shadow</tt>, and remove the login name from any groups in the <tt
-class="FILENAME">/etc/group</tt> file. If you wish, delete the user's home directory, the
-mail spool file, and his crontab entry (if they exist).</p>
-
-<p>Removing groups is similar: remove the group's entry from <tt
-class="FILENAME">/etc/group</tt>.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<hr />
-<h2 class="SECT1"><a id="ESSENTIAL-SYSADMIN-SHUTDOWN"
-name="ESSENTIAL-SYSADMIN-SHUTDOWN">12.3 Shutting Down Properly</a></h2>
-
-<p>It is very important that you shut down your system properly. Simply turning the power
-off with the power switch can cause serious filesystem damage. While the system is on,
-files are in use even if you aren't doing anything. Remember that there are many
-processes running in the background all the time. These processes are managing the system
-and keep a lot of files open. When the system's power is switched off, these files are
-not closed properly and may become corrupted. Depending on what files become damaged, the
-system might be rendered completely unusable! In any case, you'll have to go through a
-long filesystem check procedure on the next reboot.</p>
-
-<div class="NOTE">
-<table class="NOTE" width="100%" border="0">
-<tr>
-<td width="25" align="CENTER" valign="TOP"><img src="./imagelib/admon/note.png"
-hspace="5" alt="Note" /></td>
-<td align="LEFT" valign="TOP">
-<p>If you configured your system with a journalling filesystem, like ext3 or reiserfs,
-you'll be partially protected from filesystem damage, and your filesystem check on reboot
-will be shorter than if you had used a filesystem without journalling, like ext2.
-However, this safety net is no excuse for improperly shutting down your system! A
-journalling FS is meant to protect your files from events beyond your control, not from
-your own laziness.</p>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-</div>
-
-<p>In any case, when you want to reboot or power down your computer, it is important to
-do so properly. There are several ways of doing so; you can pick whichever one you think
-is the most fun (or least amount of work). Since a shutdown and a reboot are similar
-procedures, most of the ways for powering off the system can also be applied to
-rebooting.</p>
-
-<p>The first method is through the <tt class="COMMAND">shutdown</tt>(8) program, and it
-is probably the most popular. <tt class="COMMAND">shutdown</tt> can be used to reboot or
-turn off the system at a given time, and can display a message to all the logged-in users
-of the system telling them that the system is going down.</p>
-
-<p>The most basic use of shutdown to power down the computer is:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">shutdown -h now</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>In this case, we are not going to send a custom message to the users; they will see
-<tt class="COMMAND">shutdown</tt>'s default message. &#8220;<var
-class="OPTION">now</var>&#8221; is the time that we want to shutdown, and the &#8220;<var
-class="OPTION">-h</var>&#8221; means to halt the system. This is not a very friendly way
-to run a multi-user system, but it works just fine on your home computer. A better method
-on a multiuser system would be to give everyone a little advance warning:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">shutdown -h +60</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>This would shutdown the system in one hour (60 minutes), which would be just fine on a
-normal multiuser system. Vital systems should have their downtime scheduled far in
-advance, and you should post warnings about the downtime in any appropriate locations
-used for system notifications (email, bulletin board, <tt
-class="FILENAME">/etc/motd</tt>, whatever).</p>
-
-<p>Rebooting the system uses the same command, but substitutes &#8220;<var
-class="OPTION">-r</var>&#8221; for &#8220;<var class="OPTION">-h</var>&#8221;:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">shutdown -r now</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>You can use same time notation with <tt class="COMMAND">shutdown -r</tt> that you
-could with <tt class="COMMAND">shutdown -h</tt>. There are a lot of other things that you
-can do with <tt class="COMMAND">shutdown</tt> to control when to halt or reboot the
-machine; see the man page for more details.</p>
-
-<p>The second way of shutting down or powering off the computer is to use the <tt
-class="COMMAND">halt</tt>(8) and <tt class="COMMAND">reboot</tt>(8) commands. As the
-names indicate, <tt class="COMMAND">halt</tt> will immediately halt the operating system,
-and <tt class="COMMAND">reboot</tt> will reboot the system. (<tt
-class="COMMAND">reboot</tt> is actually just a symbolic link to <tt
-class="COMMAND">halt</tt>.) They are invoked like so:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">halt</kbd>
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">reboot</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>A lower-level way to reboot or shutdown the system is to talk directly to <tt
-class="COMMAND">init</tt>. All the other methods are simply convenient ways to talk to
-<tt class="COMMAND">init</tt>, but you can directly tell it what to do using <tt
-class="COMMAND">telinit</tt>(8) (note that it only has one &#8220;l&#8221;). Using <tt
-class="COMMAND">telinit</tt> will tell <tt class="COMMAND">init</tt> what runlevel to
-drop into, which will cause a special script to be run. This script will kill or spawn
-processes as needed for that runlevel. This works for rebooting and shutting down because
-both of those are special runlevels.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">telinit 0</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>Runlevel 0 is halt mode. Telling <tt class="COMMAND">init</tt> to enter runlevel 0
-will cause all processes to be killed off, the filesystems unmounted, and the machine to
-be halted. This is a perfectly acceptable way to bring down the system. On many laptops
-and modern desktop computers, this will also cause the machine to be turned off.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">telinit 6</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>Runlevel 6 is reboot mode. All processes will be killed off, the filesystems will be
-unmounted, and the machine will be rebooted. This is a perfectly acceptable method of
-rebooting the system.</p>
-
-<p>For the curious, when switching to runlevel 0 or 6, whether by using <tt
-class="COMMAND">shutdown</tt>, <tt class="COMMAND">halt</tt>, or <tt
-class="COMMAND">reboot</tt>, the script <tt class="FILENAME">/etc/rc.d/rc.6</tt> is run.
-(The script <tt class="FILENAME">/etc/rc.d/rc.0</tt> is another symbolic link, to <tt
-class="FILENAME">/etc/rc.d/rc.6</tt>.) You can customize this file to your tastes--but be
-sure to test your changes carefully!</p>
-
-<p>There is one last method of rebooting the system. All the other methods require you to
-be logged in as <tt class="USERNAME">root</tt>. However, it is possible to reboot the
-machine even if you aren't root, provided that you have physical access to the keyboard.
-Using <b class="KEYCAP">Control</b>+<b class="KEYCAP">Alt</b>+<b
-class="KEYCAP">Delete</b> (the "three-fingered salute") will cause the machine to
-immediately reboot. (Behind the scenes, the <tt class="COMMAND">shutdown</tt> command is
-called for you when you use <b class="KEYCAP">Control</b>+<b class="KEYCAP">Alt</b>+<b
-class="KEYCAP">Delete</b>.) The salute doesn't always work when using X Windows--you may
-need to use <b class="KEYCAP">Control</b>+<b class="KEYCAP">Alt</b>+<b
-class="KEYCAP">F1</b> (or another Function key) to switch to a non-X Windows terminal
-before using it.</p>
-
-<p>Finally, the file that ultimately controls every aspect of startup and shutdown is the
-<tt class="FILENAME">/etc/inittab</tt>(5) file. In general, you should not need to modify
-this file, but it may give you insight into why some things work the way they do. As
-always, see the man pages for further details.</p>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="CHAPTER">
-<hr />
-<h1><a id="BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS" name="BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS"></a>Chapter 13 Basic
-Network Commands</h1>
-
-<p>A network consists of several computers connected together. The network can be as
-simple as a few computers connected in your home or office, or as complicated as a large
-university network or even the entire Internet. When your computer is part of a network,
-you have access to those systems either directly or through services like mail and the
-web.</p>
-
-<p>There are a variety of networking programs that you can use. Some are handy for
-performing diagnostics to see if everything is working properly. Others (like mail
-readers and web browsers) are useful for getting your work done and staying in contact
-with other people.</p>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<hr />
-<h2 class="SECT1"><a id="BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-PING"
-name="BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-PING">13.1 <tt class="COMMAND">ping</tt></a></h2>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">ping</tt>(8) sends an ICMP <var class="LITERAL">ECHO_REQUEST</var>
-packet to the specified host. If the host responds, you get an ICMP packet back. Sound
-strange? Well, you can &#8220;ping&#8221; an IP address to see if a machine is alive. If
-there is no response, you know something is wrong. Here is an example conversation
-between two Linux users:</p>
-
-<a id="AEN4428" name="AEN4428"></a>
-<blockquote class="BLOCKQUOTE">
-<p class="LITERALLAYOUT"><span class="emphasis"><i class="EMPHASIS">User
-A</i></span>:&nbsp;Loki's&nbsp;down&nbsp;again.<br />
-<span class="emphasis"><i class="EMPHASIS">User
-B</i></span>:&nbsp;Are&nbsp;you&nbsp;sure?<br />
-<span class="emphasis"><i class="EMPHASIS">User
-A</i></span>:&nbsp;Yeah,&nbsp;I&nbsp;tried&nbsp;pinging&nbsp;it,&nbsp;but&nbsp;there's&nbsp;no&nbsp;response.</p>
-</blockquote>
-
-<p>It's instances like these that make <tt class="COMMAND">ping</tt> a very useful
-day-to-day command. It provides a very quick way to see if a machine is up and connected
-to the network. The basic syntax is:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">ping www.slackware.com</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>There are, of course, several options that can be specified. Check the <tt
-class="COMMAND">ping</tt>(1) man page for more information.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<hr />
-<h2 class="SECT1"><a id="BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-TRACEROUTE"
-name="BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-TRACEROUTE">13.2 <tt
-class="COMMAND">traceroute</tt></a></h2>
-
-<p>Slackware's <tt class="COMMAND">traceroute</tt>(8) command is a very useful network
-diagnostic tool. <tt class="COMMAND">traceroute</tt> displays each host that a packet
-travels through as it tries to reach its destination. You can see how many
-&#8220;hops&#8221; from the Slackware web site you are with this command:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">traceroute www.slackware.com</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>Each host will be displayed, along with the response times at each host. Here is an
-example output:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">traceroute www.slackware.com</kbd>
-traceroute to www.slackware.com (204.216.27.13), 30 hops max, 40 byte packets
-1 zuul.tdn (192.168.1.1) 0.409 ms 1.032 ms 0.303 ms
-2 207.171.227.254 (207.171.227.254) 18.218 ms 32.873 ms 32.433 ms
-3 border-sf-2-0-4.sirius.com (205.134.230.254) 15.662 ms 15.731 ms 16.142 ms
-4 pb-nap.crl.net (198.32.128.20) 20.741 ms 23.672 ms 21.378 ms
-5 E0-CRL-SFO-03-E0X0.US.CRL.NET (165.113.55.3) 22.293 ms 21.532 ms 21.29 ms
-6 T1-CDROM-00-EX.US.CRL.NET (165.113.118.2) 24.544 ms 42.955 ms 58.443 ms
-7 www.slackware.com (204.216.27.13) 38.115 ms 53.033 ms 48.328 ms
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">traceroute</tt> is similar to <tt class="COMMAND">ping</tt> in
-that it uses ICMP packets. There are several options that you can specify with <tt
-class="COMMAND">traceroute</tt>. These options are explained in detail in the man
-page.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<hr />
-<h2 class="SECT1"><a id="BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-DNS"
-name="BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-DNS">13.3 DNS Tools</a></h2>
-
-<p>Domain Name Service (DNS for short) is that magical protocol that allows your computer
-to turn meaningless domain names like www.slackware.com into meaningful IP address like
-<tt class="HOSTID">64.57.102.34</tt>. Computers can't route packets to www.slackware.com,
-but they can route packets to that domain name's IP address. This gives us a convenient
-way to remember machines. Without DNS we'd have to keep a mental database of just what IP
-address belongs to what computer, and that's assuming the IP address doesn't change.
-Clearly using names for computers is better, but how do we map names to IP addresses?</p>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="AEN4475" name="AEN4475">13.3.1 <tt
-class="COMMAND">host</tt></a></h3>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">host</tt>(1) can do this for us. <tt class="COMMAND">host</tt> is
-used to map names to IP addresses. It is a very quick and simple utility without a lot of
-functions.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">host www.slackware.com</kbd>
-www.slackware.com is an alias for slackware.com.
-slackware.com has address 64.57.102.34
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>But let's say for some reason we want to map an IP address to a domain name; what
-then?</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="AEN4487" name="AEN4487">13.3.2 <tt
-class="COMMAND">nslookup</tt></a></h3>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">nslookup</tt> is a tried and true program that has weathered the
-ages. <tt class="COMMAND">nslookup</tt> has been deprecated and may be removed from
-future releases. There is not even a man page for this program.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">nslookup 64.57.102.34</kbd>
-Note: nslookup is deprecated and may be removed from future releases.
-Consider using the `dig' or `host' programs instead. Run nslookup with
-the `-sil[ent]' option to prevent this message from appearing.
-Server: 192.168.1.254
-Address: 192.168.1.254#53
-
-Non-authoritative answer:
-www.slackware.com canonical name = slackware.com.
-Name: slackware.com
-Address: 64.57.102.34
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="AEN4496" name="AEN4496">13.3.3 <tt
-class="COMMAND">dig</tt></a></h3>
-
-<p>The meanest dog in the pound, the domain information groper, <tt
-class="COMMAND">dig</tt>(1) for short, is the go-to program for finding DNS information.
-<tt class="COMMAND">dig</tt> can grab just about anything from a DNS server including
-reverse lookups, A, CNAME, MX, SP, and TXT records. <tt class="COMMAND">dig</tt> has many
-command line options and if you're not familiar with it you should read through it's
-extensive man page.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd
-class="USERINPUT">dig @192.168.1.254 www.slackware.com mx</kbd>
-
-; &lt;&lt;&#62;&#62; DiG 9.2.2 &lt;&lt;&#62;&#62; @192.168.1.254 www.slackware.com mx
-;; global options: printcmd
-;; Got answer:
-;; -&#62;&#62;HEADER&lt;&lt;- opcode: QUERY, status: NOERROR, id: 26362
-;; flags: qr rd ra; QUERY: 1, ANSWER: 2, AUTHORITY: 2, ADDITIONAL: 2
-
-;; QUESTION SECTION:
-;www.slackware.com. IN MX
-
-;; ANSWER SECTION:
-www.slackware.com. 76634 IN CNAME slackware.com.
-slackware.com. 86400 IN MX 1 mail.slackware.com.
-
-;; AUTHORITY SECTION:
-slackware.com. 86400 IN NS ns1.cwo.com.
-slackware.com. 86400 IN NS ns2.cwo.com.
-
-;; ADDITIONAL SECTION:
-ns1.cwo.com. 163033 IN A 64.57.100.2
-ns2.cwo.com. 163033 IN A 64.57.100.3
-
-;; Query time: 149 msec
-;; SERVER: 192.168.1.254#53(192.168.1.254)
-;; WHEN: Sat Nov 6 16:59:31 2004
-;; MSG SIZE rcvd: 159
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>This should give you an idea how <tt class="COMMAND">dig</tt> works.
-&#8220;@192.168.1.254&#8221; specifies the dns server to use.
-&#8220;www.slackware.com&#8221; is the domain name I am performing a lookup on, and
-&#8220;mx&#8221; is the type of lookup I am performing. The above query tells me that
-e-mail to <tt class="HOSTID">www.slackware.com</tt> will instead be sent to <tt
-class="HOSTID">mail.slackware.com</tt> for delivery.</p>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<hr />
-<h2 class="SECT1"><a id="BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-FINGER"
-name="BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-FINGER">13.4 <tt class="COMMAND">finger</tt></a></h2>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">finger</tt>(1) will retrieve information about the specified user.
-You give finger a username or an email address and it will try to contact the necessary
-server and retrieve the username, office, telephone number, and other pieces of
-information. Here is an example:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">finger johnc@idsoftware.com</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">finger</tt> can return the username, mail status, phone numbers,
-and files referred to as &#8220;dot plan&#8221; and &#8220;dot project&#8221;. Of course,
-the information returned varies with each <tt class="COMMAND">finger</tt> server. The one
-included with Slackware returns the following information by default:</p>
-
-<ul>
-<li>
-<p>Username</p>
-</li>
-
-<li>
-<p>Room number</p>
-</li>
-
-<li>
-<p>Home phone number</p>
-</li>
-
-<li>
-<p>Work phone number</p>
-</li>
-
-<li>
-<p>Login status</p>
-</li>
-
-<li>
-<p>Email status</p>
-</li>
-
-<li>
-<p>Contents of the <tt class="FILENAME">.plan</tt> file in the user's home directory</p>
-</li>
-
-<li>
-<p>Contents of the <tt class="FILENAME">.project</tt> file in the user's home
-directory</p>
-</li>
-</ul>
-
-<p>The first four items can be set with the <tt class="COMMAND">chfn</tt> command. It
-stores those values in the <tt class="FILENAME">/etc/passwd</tt> file. To change the
-information in your <tt class="FILENAME">.plan</tt> or <tt class="FILENAME">.project</tt>
-file, just edit them with your favorite text editor. They must reside in your home
-directory and must be called <tt class="FILENAME">.plan</tt> and <tt
-class="FILENAME">.project</tt>.</p>
-
-<p>Many users <tt class="COMMAND">finger</tt> their own account from a remote machine to
-quickly see if they have new email. Or, you can see a user's plan or current project.</p>
-
-<p>Like many commands, <tt class="COMMAND">finger</tt> has options. Check the man page
-for more information on what special options you can use.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<hr />
-<h2 class="SECT1"><a id="BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-TELNET"
-name="BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-TELNET">13.5 <tt class="COMMAND">telnet</tt></a></h2>
-
-<p>Someone once stated that <tt class="COMMAND">telnet</tt>(1) was the coolest thing he
-had ever seen on computers. The ability to remotely log in and do stuff on another
-computer is what separates Unix and Unix-like operating systems from other operating
-systems.</p>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">telnet</tt> allows you to log in to a computer, just as if you
-were sitting at the terminal. Once your username and password are verified, you are given
-a shell prompt. From here, you can do anything requiring a text console. Compose email,
-read newsgroups, move files around, and so on. If you are running X and you <tt
-class="COMMAND">telnet</tt> to another machine, you can run X programs on the remote
-computer and display them on yours.</p>
-
-<p>To login to a remote machine, use this syntax:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">telnet &lt;<var
-class="REPLACEABLE">hostname</var>&gt;</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>If the host responds, you will receive a login prompt. Give it your username and
-password. That's it. You are now at a shell. To quit your telnet session, use either the
-<tt class="COMMAND">exit</tt> command or the <tt class="COMMAND">logout</tt> command.</p>
-
-<div class="WARNING">
-<table class="WARNING" width="100%" border="0">
-<tr>
-<td width="25" align="CENTER" valign="TOP"><img src="./imagelib/admon/warning.png"
-hspace="5" alt="Warning" /></td>
-<td align="LEFT" valign="TOP">
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">telnet</tt> does not encrypt the information it sends. Everything
-is sent in plain text, even passwords. It is not advisable to use <tt
-class="COMMAND">telnet</tt> over the Internet. Instead, consider the <tt
-class="COMMAND">Secure Shell</tt>. It encrypts all traffic and is available for free.</p>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="AEN4593" name="AEN4593">13.5.1 The other use of telnet</a></h3>
-
-<p>Now that we have convinced you not to use the telnet protocol anymore to log into a
-remote machine, we'll show you a couple of useful ways to use <tt
-class="COMMAND">telnet</tt>.</p>
-
-<p>You can also use the <tt class="COMMAND">telnet</tt> command to connect to a host on a
-certain port.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">telnet &lt;<var
-class="REPLACEABLE">hostname</var>&gt; [port]</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>This can be quite handy when you quickly need to test a certain service, and you need
-full control over the commands, and you need to see what exactly is going on. You can
-interactively test or use an SMTP server, a POP3 server, an HTTP server, etc. this
-way.</p>
-
-<p>In the next figure you'll see how you can <tt class="COMMAND">telnet</tt> to a HTTP
-server on port 80, and get some basic information from it.</p>
-
-<div class="FIGURE"><a id="FIG-BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-TELNET-WEB"
-name="FIG-BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-TELNET-WEB"></a>
-<p><b>Figure 13-1. Telnetting to a webserver</b></p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">telnet store.slackware.com 80</kbd>
-Trying 69.50.233.153...
-Connected to store.slackware.com.
-Escape character is '^]'.
-HEAD / HTTP/1.0
-
-HTTP/1.1 200 OK
-Date: Mon, 25 Apr 2005 20:47:01 GMT
-Server: Apache/1.3.33 (Unix) mod_ssl/2.8.22 OpenSSL/0.9.7d
-Last-Modified: Fri, 18 Apr 2003 10:58:54 GMT
-ETag: "193424-c0-3e9fda6e"
-Accept-Ranges: bytes
-Content-Length: 192
-Connection: close
-Content-Type: text/html
-
-Connection closed by foreign host.
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-</div>
-
-<p>You can do the same for other plain-text protocols, as long as you know what port to
-connect to, and what the commands are.</p>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<hr />
-<h2 class="SECT1"><a id="BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-SSH"
-name="BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-SSH">13.6 The Secure shell</a></h2>
-
-<p>Today, secure shell basks in the adoration that <tt class="COMMAND">telnet</tt> once
-enjoyed. <tt class="COMMAND">ssh</tt>(1) allows one to make a connection to a remote
-machine and execute programs as if one were physically present; however, <tt
-class="COMMAND">ssh</tt> encrypts all the data travelling between the two computers so
-even if others intercept the conversation, they are unable to understand it. A typical
-secure shell connection follows.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd
-class="USERINPUT">ssh carrier.lizella.net -l alan</kbd>
-The authenticity of host 'carrier.lizella.net (192.168.1.253)' can't be
-established.
-RSA key fingerprint is 0b:e2:5d:43:4c:39:4f:8c:b9:85:db:b2:fa:25:e9:9d.
-Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes
-Warning: Permanently added 'carrier.lizella.net' (RSA) to the list of
-known hosts.
-Password: <kbd class="USERINPUT">password</kbd>
-Last login: Sat Nov 6 16:32:19 2004 from 192.168.1.102
-Linux 2.4.26-smp.
-alan@carrier:~$ <kbd class="USERINPUT">ls -l MANIFEST</kbd>
--rw-r--r-- 1 alan users 23545276 2004-10-28 20:04 MANIFEST
-alan@carrier:~$ <kbd class="USERINPUT">exit</kbd>
-logout
-Connection to carrier.lizella.net closed.
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>There you see me making an ssh connection to <tt
-class="HOSTID">carrier.lizella.net</tt>, and checking the permissions on the <tt
-class="FILENAME">MANIFEST</tt> file.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<hr />
-<h2 class="SECT1"><a id="BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-EMAIL"
-name="BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-EMAIL">13.7 email</a></h2>
-
-<p>Electronic mail is one of the most popular things one can do on the Internet. In 1998,
-it was reported that more electronic mail was sent than regular mail. It is indeed common
-and useful.</p>
-
-<p>Under Slackware, we provide a standard mail server, and several mail clients. All of
-the clients discussed below are text-based. A lot of Windows users may be against this,
-but you will find that a text based client is very convenient, especially when checking
-mail remotely. Fear not, there are many graphical e-mail clients such as KDE's Kmail. If
-you wish to use one of those check its help menu.</p>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-EMAIL-PINE"
-name="BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-EMAIL-PINE">13.7.1 <tt class="COMMAND">pine</tt></a></h3>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">pine</tt>(1) is not <tt class="COMMAND">elm</tt>. Or so the saying
-goes. The University of Washington created their program for Internet news and email out
-of a need for an easy mail reader for their students. <tt class="COMMAND">pine</tt> is
-one of the most popular email clients in use today and is available for nearly every
-flavor of Unix and even Windows.</p>
-
-<div class="FIGURE"><a id="FIG-BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-EMAIL-PINE"
-name="FIG-BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-EMAIL-PINE"></a>
-<p><b>Figure 13-2. The Pine main menu</b></p>
-
-<p><img src="basic-network-commands/pine.png" /></p>
-</div>
-
-<p>You will see a menu of commands and a row of command keys at the bottom. <tt
-class="COMMAND">pine</tt> is indeed a complex program, so we will not discuss every
-feature about it here.</p>
-
-<p>To see what's in your inbox, type <kbd class="USERINPUT">i</kbd>. Your messages are
-listed with their date, author, and subject. Highlight the message you want and press
-<kbd class="USERINPUT">enter</kbd> to view it. Pressing <kbd class="USERINPUT">r</kbd>
-will start a reply to the message. Once you have written the response, type <b
-class="KEYCAP">Ctrl</b>+<b class="KEYCAP">X</b> to send it. You can press <kbd
-class="USERINPUT">i</kbd> to get back to the message listing.</p>
-
-<p>If you want to delete a message, press <kbd class="USERINPUT">d</kbd>. It will mark
-the highlighted message for deletion. <tt class="COMMAND">pine</tt> deletes the mail when
-you exit the program. <tt class="COMMAND">pine</tt> also lets you store your mail in
-folders. You can get a listing of folders by pressing <kbd class="USERINPUT">l</kbd>. At
-the message listing, press <kbd class="USERINPUT">s</kbd> to save it to another folder.
-It will ask for the folder name to write the message to.</p>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">pine</tt> offers many, many features; you should definitely have a
-look at the man page for more information. It will contain the latest information about
-the program.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-EMAIL-ELM"
-name="BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-EMAIL-ELM">13.7.2 <tt class="COMMAND">elm</tt></a></h3>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">elm</tt>(1) is another popular text-based email client. Though not
-quite as user friendly as <tt class="COMMAND">pine</tt>, it's definitely been around a
-lot longer.</p>
-
-<div class="FIGURE"><a id="FIG-BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-EMAIL-ELM"
-name="FIG-BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-EMAIL-ELM"></a>
-<p><b>Figure 13-3. Elm main screen</b></p>
-
-<p><img src="basic-network-commands/elm.png" /></p>
-</div>
-
-<p>By default, you are placed in your inbox. The messages are listed with the message
-number, date, sender, and subject. Use the arrow keys to highlight the message you want.
-Press <kbd class="USERINPUT">Enter</kbd> to read the message.</p>
-
-<p>To compose a new message, type <kbd class="USERINPUT">m</kbd> at the main screen. The
-<kbd class="USERINPUT">d</kbd> key will flag a message for deletion. And the <kbd
-class="USERINPUT">r</kbd> key will reply to the current message you are reading. All of
-these keys are displayed at the bottom of the screen with a prompt.</p>
-
-<p>The man page discusses <tt class="COMMAND">elm</tt> in more detail, so you will
-probably want to consult that before using <tt class="COMMAND">elm</tt>.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-EMAIL-MUTT"
-name="BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-EMAIL-MUTT">13.7.3 <tt class="COMMAND">mutt</tt></a></h3>
-
-<p>&#8220;All mail clients suck. This one just sucks less.&#8221; <tt
-class="COMMAND">mutt</tt>'s original interface was based on <tt class="COMMAND">elm</tt>
-with added features found in other popular mailclients, resulting in a hybrid mutt.</p>
-
-<p>Some of <tt class="COMMAND">mutt</tt>'s features include:</p>
-
-<ul>
-<li>
-<p>color support</p>
-</li>
-
-<li>
-<p>message threading</p>
-</li>
-
-<li>
-<p>MIME and PGP/MIME support</p>
-</li>
-
-<li>
-<p>pop3 and imap support</p>
-</li>
-
-<li>
-<p>support for multiple mailbox formats (mbox, MMDF, MH, maildir)</p>
-</li>
-
-<li>
-<p><span class="emphasis"><i class="EMPHASIS">highly</i></span> customizable</p>
-</li>
-</ul>
-
-<div class="FIGURE"><a id="FIG-BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-EMAIL-MUTT"
-name="FIG-BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-EMAIL-MUTT"></a>
-<p><b>Figure 13-4. Mutt main screen</b></p>
-
-<p><img src="basic-network-commands/mutt.png" /></p>
-</div>
-
-<p>if you're looking for a mail client that will let you be in total control over
-everything, then you will like <tt class="COMMAND">mutt</tt>. all the default settings
-can be customized, keybindings can be changed. if you like to add a macro, you can.</p>
-
-<p>you probably want to take a look at the <tt class="FILENAME">muttrc</tt> manpage,
-which will tell you how to configure everything. or take a look at the included example
-<tt class="FILENAME">muttrc</tt> file.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-EMAIL-NAIL"
-name="BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-EMAIL-NAIL">13.7.4 <tt class="COMMAND">nail</tt></a></h3>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">nail</tt>(1) is a command line driven mail client. It is very
-primitive and offers pretty much nothing in the way of user interfaces. However, mailx is
-handy for times when you need to quickly mail something, scripting a bulk mailer, testing
-your MTA installation or something similar. Note that Slackware creates symbolic links to
-<tt class="COMMAND">nail</tt> at <tt class="FILENAME">/usr/bin/mail</tt> and <tt
-class="FILENAME">/usr/bin/mailx</tt>. Any of these three commands executes the same
-program. In fact, you will most likely see <tt class="COMMAND">nail</tt> referred to as
-<tt class="COMMAND">mail</tt>.</p>
-
-<p>The basic command line is:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd
-class="USERINPUT">mailx &lt;subject&gt; &lt;to-addr&gt;</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">mailx</tt> reads the message body from standard input. So you can
-cat a file into this command to mail it, or you can just type text and hit <b
-class="KEYCAP">Ctrl</b>+<b class="KEYCAP">D</b> when finished with the message.</p>
-
-<p>Here is an example of mailing a program source file to another person.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd
-class="USERINPUT">cat randomfunc.c | mail -s "Here's that function" asdf@example.net</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>The man page explains more of what <tt class="COMMAND">nail</tt> can do, so you will
-probably want to have a look at that before using it.</p>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<hr />
-<h2 class="SECT1"><a id="BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-WEB"
-name="BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-WEB">13.8 Browsers</a></h2>
-
-<p>The first thing that people think about when they hear the word Internet is
-&#8220;surfing the net&#8221;. Or looking at websites using a web browser. This is
-probably by far the most popular use of the Internet for the average user.</p>
-
-<p>Slackware provides popular graphical web browsers in the &#8220;XAP&#8221; series, as
-well as text mode browsers in the &#8220;N&#8221; series. We'll take a quick look at some
-of the most common options below.</p>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="AEN4776" name="AEN4776">13.8.1 <tt
-class="COMMAND">lynx</tt></a></h3>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">lynx</tt>(1) is a text-based web browser. It is a very quick way
-of looking up something on the Internet. Sometimes graphics just get in the way if you
-know exactly what you're after.</p>
-
-<p>To start <tt class="COMMAND">lynx</tt>, just type <tt class="COMMAND">lynx</tt> at the
-prompt:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">lynx</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<div class="FIGURE"><a id="FIG-BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-WEB-LYNX"
-name="FIG-BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-WEB-LYNX"></a>
-<p><b>Figure 13-5. Lynx default start page</b></p>
-
-<p><img src="basic-network-commands/lynx.png" /></p>
-</div>
-
-<p>You may want to specify a site for <tt class="COMMAND">lynx</tt> to open to:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">lynx http://www.slackware.com</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">lynx</tt> prints the command keys and what they do at the bottom
-of the screen. The up and down arrow keys move around the document, <kbd
-class="USERINPUT">Enter</kbd> selects the highlighted link, and the <kbd
-class="USERINPUT">left arrow</kbd> goes back to the previous page. Typing <kbd
-class="USERINPUT">d</kbd> will download the currently selected file. The <kbd
-class="USERINPUT">g</kbd> command brings up the Go prompt, where you can give <tt
-class="COMMAND">lynx</tt> a URL to open.</p>
-
-<p>There are many other commands in <tt class="COMMAND">lynx</tt>. You can either consult
-the man page, or type <kbd class="USERINPUT">h</kbd> to get the help screen for more
-information.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="AEN4813" name="AEN4813">13.8.2 <tt
-class="COMMAND">links</tt></a></h3>
-
-<p>Just like <tt class="COMMAND">lynx</tt>, <tt class="COMMAND">links</tt> is a textmode
-web browser, where you do all the navigation using the keyboard. However, when you press
-the <kbd class="USERINPUT">Esc</kbd> key, it will activate a very convenient pulldown
-menu on the top of the screen. This makes it very easy to use, without having to learn
-all the keyboard shortcuts. People who do not use a text browser every day will
-appreciate this feature.</p>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">links</tt> seems to have better support for both frames and
-tables, when compared to <tt class="COMMAND">lynx</tt>.</p>
-
-<div class="FIGURE"><a id="FIG-BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-WEB-LINKS"
-name="FIG-BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-WEB-LINKS"></a>
-<p><b>Figure 13-6. Links, with the file menu open</b></p>
-
-<p><img src="basic-network-commands/links.png" /></p>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="AEN4831" name="AEN4831">13.8.3 <tt
-class="COMMAND">wget</tt></a></h3>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">wget</tt>(1) is a command line utility that will download files
-from a specified URL. While not an actual web-browser, <tt class="COMMAND">wget</tt> is
-used primarily to grab whole or partial web sites for offline viewing, or for fast
-download of single files from HTTP or FTP servers instead. The basic syntax is:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">wget &lt;url&gt;</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>You can also pass options. For example, this will download the Slackware web site:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd
-class="USERINPUT">wget --recursive http://www.slackware.com</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">wget</tt> will create a <tt
-class="FILENAME">www.slackware.com</tt> directory and store the files in there, just as
-the site does.</p>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">wget</tt> can also download files from FTP sites; just specify an
-FTP URL instead of an HTTP one.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd
-class="USERINPUT">wget ftp://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/wget/wget-1.8.2.tar.gz</kbd>
---12:18:16-- ftp://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/wget/wget-1.8.2.tar.gz
- =&#62; `wget-1.8.2.tar.gz'
-Resolving ftp.gnu.org... done.
-Connecting to ftp.gnu.org[199.232.41.7]:21... connected.
-Logging in as anonymous ... Logged in!
-==&#62; SYST ... done. ==&#62; PWD ... done.
-==&#62; TYPE I ... done. ==&#62; CWD /gnu/wget ... done.
-==&#62; PORT ... done. ==&#62; RETR wget-1.8.2.tar.gz ... done.
-Length: 1,154,648 (unauthoritative)
-
-100%[==================================&#62;] 1,154,648 209.55K/s ETA 00:00
-
-12:18:23 (209.55KB/s) - `wget-1.8.2.tar.gz' saved [1154648]
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">wget</tt> has many more options, which make it nice for site
-specific scripts (web site mirroring and so forth). The man page should be consulted for
-more information.</p>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<hr />
-<h2 class="SECT1"><a id="BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-FTP"
-name="BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-FTP">13.9 FTP Clients</a></h2>
-
-<p>FTP stands for the File Transfer Protocol. It allows you to send and receive files
-between two computers. There is the FTP server and the FTP client. We discuss the client
-in this section.</p>
-
-<p>For the curious, the &#8220;client&#8221; is you. The &#8220;server&#8221; is the
-computer that answers your FTP request and lets you login. You will download files from
-and upload files to the server. The client cannot accept FTP connections, it can only
-connect to servers.</p>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="AEN4871" name="AEN4871">13.9.1 <tt
-class="COMMAND">ftp</tt></a></h3>
-
-<p>To connect to an FTP server, simply run the <tt class="COMMAND">ftp</tt>(1) command
-and specify the host:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">ftp &lt;hostname&gt; [port]</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>If the host is running an FTP server, it will ask for a username and password. You can
-log in as yourself or as &#8220;anonymous&#8221;. Anonymous FTP sites are very popular
-for software archives. For example, to get Slackware Linux via FTP, you must use
-anonymous FTP.</p>
-
-<p>Once connected, you will be at the <var class="LITERAL">ftp&gt;</var> prompt. There
-are special commands for FTP, but they are similar to other standard commands. The
-following shows some of the basic commands and what they do:</p>
-
-<div class="TABLE"><a id="AEN4883" name="AEN4883"></a>
-<p><b>Table 13-1. <tt class="COMMAND">ftp</tt> commands</b></p>
-
-<table border="0" frame="void" class="CALSTABLE">
-<col width="1*" />
-<col width="3*" />
-<thead>
-<tr>
-<th>Command</th>
-<th>Purpose</th>
-</tr>
-</thead>
-
-<tbody>
-<tr>
-<td><tt class="COMMAND">ls</tt></td>
-<td>List files</td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td><tt class="COMMAND">cd &lt;dirname&gt;</tt></td>
-<td>Change directory</td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td><tt class="COMMAND">bin</tt></td>
-<td>Set binary transfer mode</td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td><tt class="COMMAND">ascii</tt></td>
-<td>Set ASCII transfer mode</td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td><tt class="COMMAND">get &lt;filename&gt;</tt></td>
-<td>Download a file</td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td><tt class="COMMAND">put &lt;filename&gt;</tt></td>
-<td>Upload a file</td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td><tt class="COMMAND">hash</tt></td>
-<td>Toggle hash mark stats indicator</td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td><tt class="COMMAND">tick</tt></td>
-<td>Toggle byte counter indicator</td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td><tt class="COMMAND">prom</tt></td>
-<td>Toggle interactive mode for downloads</td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td><tt class="COMMAND">mget &lt;mask&gt;</tt></td>
-<td>Download a file or group of files; wildcards are allowed</td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td><tt class="COMMAND">mput &lt;mask&gt;</tt></td>
-<td>Upload a file or group of files; wildcards are allowed</td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td><tt class="COMMAND">quit</tt></td>
-<td>Log off the FTP server</td>
-</tr>
-</tbody>
-</table>
-</div>
-
-<p>You can also use some of the following commands which are quite self-explanatory: <tt
-class="COMMAND">chmod</tt>, <tt class="COMMAND">delete</tt>, <tt
-class="COMMAND">rename</tt>, <tt class="COMMAND">rmdir</tt>. For a complete list of all
-commands and their meaning, just type <kbd class="USERINPUT">help</kbd> or <kbd
-class="USERINPUT">?</kbd> and you'll see a complete listing on screen.</p>
-
-<p>FTP is a fairly simple program to use, but lacks the user interface that many of us
-are used to nowadays. The man page discusses some of the command line options for <tt
-class="COMMAND">ftp</tt>(1).</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-ftp&#62; <kbd class="USERINPUT">ls *.TXT</kbd>
-200 PORT command successful.
-150 Opening ASCII mode data connection for /bin/ls.
--rw-r--r-- 1 root 100 18606 Apr 6 2002 BOOTING.TXT
--rw-r--r-- 1 root 100 10518 Jun 13 2002 COPYRIGHT.TXT
--rw-r--r-- 1 root 100 602 Apr 6 2002 CRYPTO_NOTICE.TXT
--rw-r--r-- 1 root 100 32431 Sep 29 02:56 FAQ.TXT
--rw-r--r-- 1 root 100 499784 Mar 3 19:29 FILELIST.TXT
--rw-r--r-- 1 root 100 241099 Mar 3 19:12 PACKAGES.TXT
--rw-r--r-- 1 root 100 12339 Jun 19 2002 README81.TXT
--rw-r--r-- 1 root 100 14826 Jun 17 2002 SPEAKUP_DOCS.TXT
--rw-r--r-- 1 root 100 15434 Jun 17 2002 SPEAK_INSTALL.TXT
--rw-r--r-- 1 root 100 2876 Jun 17 2002 UPGRADE.TXT
-226 Transfer complete.
-ftp&#62; <kbd class="USERINPUT">tick</kbd>
-Tick counter printing on (10240 bytes/tick increment).
-ftp&#62; <kbd class="USERINPUT">get README81.TXT</kbd>
-local: README81.TXT remote: README81.TXT
-200 PORT command successful.
-150 Opening BINARY mode data connection for README81.TXT (12339 bytes).
-Bytes transferred: 12339
-226 Transfer complete.
-12339 bytes received in 0.208 secs (58 Kbytes/sec)
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-FTP-NCFTP"
-name="BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-FTP-NCFTP">13.9.2 <tt class="COMMAND">ncftp</tt></a></h3>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">ncftp</tt>(1) (pronounced "Nik-F-T-P") is an alternative to the
-traditional ftp client that comes with Slackware. It is still a text-based program, but
-offers many advantages over <tt class="COMMAND">ftp</tt>, including:</p>
-
-<ul>
-<li>
-<p>Tab completion</p>
-</li>
-
-<li>
-<p>Bookmarks file</p>
-</li>
-
-<li>
-<p>More liberal wildcard uses</p>
-</li>
-
-<li>
-<p>Command history</p>
-</li>
-</ul>
-
-<p>By default, <tt class="COMMAND">ncftp</tt> will try to log in anonymously to the
-server you specify. You can force <tt class="COMMAND">ncftp</tt> to present a login
-prompt with the &#8220;<var class="OPTION">-u</var>&#8221; option. Once logged in, you
-can use the same commands as in <tt class="COMMAND">ftp</tt>, only you'll notice a nicer
-interface, one that works more like <tt class="COMMAND">bash</tt>.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-ncftp /pub/linux/slackware &#62; <kbd class="USERINPUT">cd slackware-current/</kbd>
-Please read the file README81.TXT
- it was last modified on Wed Jun 19 16:24:21 2002 - 258 days ago
-CWD command successful.
-ncftp ...ware/slackware-current &#62; <kbd class="USERINPUT">ls</kbd>
-BOOTING.TXT FAQ.TXT bootdisks/
-CHECKSUMS FILELIST.TXT extra/
-CHECKSUMS.asc GPG-KEY isolinux/
-CHECKSUMS.md5 PACKAGES.TXT kernels/
-CHECKSUMS.md5.asc PRERELEASE_NOTES pasture/
-COPYING README81.TXT rootdisks/
-COPYRIGHT.TXT SPEEKUP_DOCS.TXT slackware/
-CRYPTO_NOTICE.TXT SPEEK_INSTALL.TXT source/
-CURRENT.WARNING Slackware-HOWTO
-ChangeLog.txt UPGRADE.TXT
-ncftp ...ware/slackware-current &#62; <kbd class="USERINPUT">get README81.TXT</kbd>
-README81.TXT: 12.29 kB 307.07 kB/s
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<hr />
-<h2 class="SECT1"><a id="BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-TALK"
-name="BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-TALK">13.10 Talking to Other People</a></h2>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="AEN4989" name="AEN4989">13.10.1 <tt
-class="COMMAND">wall</tt></a></h3>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">wall</tt>(1) is a quick way to write a message to the users on a
-system. The basic syntax is:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">wall [file]</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>This will result in the contents of [file] being displayed on the terminals of all
-currently logged in users. If you don't specify a file, wall will read from standard
-input, so you can just type your message, and end with <b class="KEYCAP">Ctrl</b>+<b
-class="KEYCAP">d</b>.</p>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">wall</tt> doesn't have many features, and apart from letting your
-users know that you're about to do some serious maintenance to the system, or even reboot
-it, so they have time to save their work and log off :)</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="AEN5006" name="AEN5006">13.10.2 <tt
-class="COMMAND">talk</tt></a></h3>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">talk</tt>(1) allows two users to chat. It splits the screen in
-half, horizontally. To request a chat with another user, use this command:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">talk &lt;person&gt; [ttyname]</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<div class="FIGURE"><a id="FIG-BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-TALK-TALK"
-name="FIG-BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-TALK-TALK"></a>
-<p><b>Figure 13-7. Two users in a <tt class="COMMAND">talk</tt> session</b></p>
-
-<p><img src="basic-network-commands/talk.png" /></p>
-</div>
-
-<p>If you specify just a username, the chat request is assumed to be local, so only local
-users are queried. The ttyname is required if you want to ring a user on a specific
-terminal (if the user is logged in more than once). The required information for <tt
-class="COMMAND">talk</tt> can be obtained from the <tt class="COMMAND">w</tt>(1)
-command.</p>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">talk</tt> can also ring users on remote hosts. For the username
-you simply specify an email address. <tt class="COMMAND">talk</tt> will try to contact
-that remote user on that host.</p>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">talk</tt> is somewhat limited. It only supports two users and is
-half-duplex.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="AEN5033" name="AEN5033">13.10.3 <tt
-class="COMMAND">ytalk</tt></a></h3>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">ytalk</tt>(1) is a backwards compatible replacement for <tt
-class="COMMAND">talk</tt>. It comes with Slackware as the <tt class="COMMAND">ytalk</tt>
-command. The syntax is similar, but has a few differences:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd
-class="USERINPUT">ytalk &lt;username&gt;[#ttyname]</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<div class="FIGURE"><a id="FIG-BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-TALK-YTALK"
-name="FIG-BASIC-NETWORK-COMMANDS-TALK-YTALK"></a>
-<p><b>Figure 13-8. Two users in a <tt class="COMMAND">ytalk</tt> session</b></p>
-
-<p><img src="basic-network-commands/ytalk.png" /></p>
-</div>
-
-<p>The username and terminal are specified the same as under talk, except you must put
-them together with the hash mark (#).</p>
-
-<p>ytalk offers several advantages:</p>
-
-<ul>
-<li>
-<p>It supports more than two users.</p>
-</li>
-
-<li>
-<p>A menu of options that can be brought up anytime with <kbd
-class="USERINPUT">Esc</kbd>.</p>
-</li>
-
-<li>
-<p>You can shell out while still in the talk session.</p>
-</li>
-
-<li>
-<p>Plus more...</p>
-</li>
-</ul>
-
-<p>If you're a server administrator, you'll want to make sure that the <tt
-class="COMMAND">ntalk</tt> port is enabled in <tt class="FILENAME">/etc/inetd.conf</tt>.
-<tt class="COMMAND">ytalk</tt> needs that to work properly.</p>
-</div>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="CHAPTER">
-<hr />
-<h1><a id="SECURITY" name="SECURITY"></a>Chapter 14 Security</h1>
-
-<p>Security on any system is important; it can prevent people launching attacks from your
-machine, as well as protect sensitive data. This chapter is all about how to start
-securing your Slackware box against script kiddies, crackers and rogue hamsters alike.
-Bear in mind that this is only the start of securing a system; security is a process, not
-a state.</p>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<hr />
-<h2 class="SECT1"><a id="SECURITY-DISABLE" name="SECURITY-DISABLE">14.1 Disabling
-Services</a></h2>
-
-<p>The first step after installing Slackware should be to disable any services you don't
-need. Any services could potentially pose a security risk, so it is important to run as
-few services as possible (i.e. only those that are needed). Services are started from two
-main places - <tt class="COMMAND">inetd</tt> and init scripts.</p>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="AEN5081" name="AEN5081">14.1.1 Services started from <tt
-class="COMMAND">inetd</tt></a></h3>
-
-<p>A lot of the daemons that come with Slackware are run from <tt
-class="COMMAND">inetd</tt>(8). <tt class="COMMAND">inetd</tt> is a daemon that listens on
-all of the ports used by services configured to be started by it and spawns an instance
-of the relevant daemon when a connection attempt is made. Daemons started from <tt
-class="COMMAND">inetd</tt> can be disabled by commenting out the relevant lines in <tt
-class="FILENAME">/etc/inetd.conf</tt>. To do this, open this file in your favorite editor
-(e.g. <tt class="COMMAND">vi</tt>) and you should see lines similar to this:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="PROGRAMLISTING">
-telnet stream tcp nowait root /usr/sbin/tcpd in.telnetd
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>You can disable this service, and any others you don't need, by commenting them out
-(i.e. adding a <var class="LITERAL">#</var> (hash) symbol to the beginning of the line).
-The above line would then become:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="PROGRAMLISTING">
-#telnet stream tcp nowait root /usr/sbin/tcpd in.telnetd
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>After <tt class="COMMAND">inetd</tt> has been restarted, this service will be
-disabled. You can restart <tt class="COMMAND">inetd</tt> with the command:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd
-class="USERINPUT">kill -HUP $(cat /var/run/inetd.pid)</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="AEN5102" name="AEN5102">14.1.2 Services started from init
-scripts</a></h3>
-
-<p>The rest of the services started when the machine starts are started from the init
-scripts in <tt class="FILENAME">/etc/rc.d/</tt>. These can be disabled in two different
-ways, the first being to remove the execute permissions on the relevant init script and
-the second being to comment out the relevant lines in the init scripts.</p>
-
-<p>For example, SSH is started by its own init script at <tt
-class="FILENAME">/etc/rc.d/rc.sshd</tt>. You can disable this using:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">chmod -x /etc/rc.d/rc.sshd</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>For services that don't have their own init script, you will need to comment out the
-relevant lines in the init scripts to disable them. For example, the portmap daemon is
-started by the following lines in <tt class="FILENAME">/etc/rc.d/rc.inet2</tt>:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="PROGRAMLISTING">
-# This must be running in order to mount NFS volumes.
-# Start the RPC portmapper:
-if [ -x /sbin/rpc.portmap ]; then
- echo "Starting RPC portmapper: /sbin/rpc.portmap"
- /sbin/rpc.portmap
-fi
-# Done starting the RPC portmapper.
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>This can be disabled by adding <var class="LITERAL">#</var> symbols to the beginnings
-of the lines that don't already start with them, like so:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="PROGRAMLISTING">
-# This must be running in order to mount NFS volumes.
-# Start the RPC portmapper:
-#if [ -x /sbin/rpc.portmap ]; then
-# echo "Starting RPC portmapper: /sbin/rpc.portmap"
-# /sbin/rpc.portmap
-#fi
-# Done starting the RPC portmapper.
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>These changes will only take effect after either a reboot or changing from and back to
-runlevel 3 or 4. You can do this by typing the following on the console (you will need to
-log in again after changing to runlevel 1):</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">telinit 1</kbd>
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">telinit 3</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<hr />
-<h2 class="SECT1"><a id="SECURITY-HOST" name="SECURITY-HOST">14.2 Host Access
-Control</a></h2>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="SECURITY-HOST-IPTABLES" name="SECURITY-HOST-IPTABLES">14.2.1 <tt
-class="COMMAND">iptables</tt></a></h3>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">iptables</tt> is the packet filtering configuration program for
-Linux 2.4 and above. The 2.4 kernel (2.4.5, to be exact) was first introduced into
-Slackware (as an option) in version 8.0 and was made the default in Slackware 8.1. This
-section only covers the basics of its usage and you should check <a
-href="http://www.netfilter.org/" target="_top">http://www.netfilter.org/</a> for more
-details. These commands can be entered into <tt
-class="FILENAME">/etc/rc.d/rc.firewall</tt>, which has to be set as executable for these
-rules to take effect at startup. Note that incorrect <tt class="COMMAND">iptables</tt>
-commands can essentially lock you out of your own machine. Unless you are 100% confident
-in your skills, always ensure you have local access to the machine.</p>
-
-<p>The first thing most people should do is set the default policy for each inbound chain
-to DROP:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">iptables -P INPUT DROP</kbd>
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">iptables -P FORWARD DROP</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>When everything is denied, you can start allowing things. The first thing to allow is
-any traffic for sessions which are already established:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd
-class="USERINPUT">iptables -A INPUT -m state --state ESTABLISHED,RELATED -j ACCEPT</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>So as not to break any applications that communicate using the loopback address, it is
-usually wise to add a rule like this:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd
-class="USERINPUT">iptables -A INPUT -s 127.0.0.0/8 -d 127.0.0.0/8 -i lo -j ACCEPT</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>This rules allows any traffic to and from 127.0.0.0/8 (127.0.0.0 - 127.255.255.255) on
-the loopback (<tt class="FILENAME">lo</tt>) interface. When creating rules, it is a good
-idea to be as specific as possible, to make sure that your rules do not inadvertently
-allow anything evil. That said, rules that allow too little mean more rules and more
-typing.</p>
-
-<p>The next thing to do would be to allow access to specific services running on your
-machine. If, for example, you wanted to run a web server on your machine, you would use a
-rule similar to this:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd
-class="USERINPUT">iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --dport 80 -i ppp0 -j ACCEPT</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>This will allow access from any machine to port 80 on your machine via the <tt
-class="FILENAME">ppp0</tt> interface. You may want to restrict access to this service so
-that only certain machines can access it. This rule allows access to your web service
-from <tt class="HOSTID">64.57.102.34</tt>:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd
-class="USERINPUT">iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -s 64.57.102.34 --dport 80 -i ppp0 -j ACCEPT</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>Allowing ICMP traffic can be useful for diagnostic purposes. To do this, you would use
-a rule like this:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd
-class="USERINPUT">iptables -A INPUT -p icmp -j ACCEPT</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>Most people will also want to set up Network Address Translation (NAT) on their
-gateway machine, so that other machines on their network can access the Internet through
-it. You would use the following rule to do this:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd
-class="USERINPUT">iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -o ppp0 -j MASQUERADE</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>You will also need to enable IP forwarding. You can do this temporarily, using the
-following command:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd
-class="USERINPUT">echo 1 &#62; /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>To enable IP forwarding on a more permanent basis (i.e. so that the change is kept
-after a reboot), you will need to open the file <tt
-class="FILENAME">/etc/rc.d/rc.inet2</tt> in your favorite editor and change the following
-line:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="PROGRAMLISTING">
-IPV4_FORWARD=0
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>...to this:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="PROGRAMLISTING">
-IPV4_FORWARD=1
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>For more information on NAT, see the <a
-href="http://www.netfilter.org/documentation/HOWTO/NAT-HOWTO.txt" target="_top">NAT
-HOWTO</a>.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="SECURITY-HOST-TCPWRAPPERS"
-name="SECURITY-HOST-TCPWRAPPERS">14.2.2 <tt class="COMMAND">tcpwrappers</tt></a></h3>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">tcpwrappers</tt> controls access to daemons at the application
-level, rather than at the IP level. This can provide an extra layer of security at times
-when IP-level access controls (e.g. Netfilter) are not functioning correctly. For
-example, if you recompile the kernel but forget to include iptables support, your IP
-level protection will fail but tcpwrappers will still help protect your system.</p>
-
-<p>Access to services protected by tcpwrappers can be controlled using <tt
-class="FILENAME">/etc/hosts.allow</tt> and <tt class="FILENAME">/etc/hosts.deny</tt>.</p>
-
-<p>The majority of people would have a single line in their <tt
-class="FILENAME">/etc/hosts.deny</tt> file to deny access to all daemons by default. This
-line would be:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="PROGRAMLISTING">
-ALL : ALL
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>When this is done, you can concentrate on allowing access to services for specified
-hosts, domains, or IP ranges. This can be done in the <tt
-class="FILENAME">/etc/hosts.allow</tt> file, which follows the same format.</p>
-
-<p>A lot of people would start by accepting all connections from <tt
-class="HOSTID">localhost</tt>. This can be achieved using:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="PROGRAMLISTING">
-ALL : 127.0.0.1
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>To allow access to SSHd from <tt class="HOSTID">192.168.0.0/24</tt>, you could use
-either of the following rules:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="PROGRAMLISTING">
-sshd : 192.168.0.0/24
-sshd : 192.168.0.
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>It is also possible to restrict access to hosts in certain domains. This can be done
-using the following rule (note that this relies on the reverse DNS entry for the
-connecting host being trustworthy, so I would recommand against its use on
-Internet-connected hosts):</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="PROGRAMLISTING">
-sshd : .slackware.com
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<hr />
-<h2 class="SECT1"><a id="SECURITY-CURRENT" name="SECURITY-CURRENT">14.3 Keeping
-Current</a></h2>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="SECURITY-CURRENT-LIST" name="SECURITY-CURRENT-LIST">14.3.1 <var
-class="LITERAL">slackware-security</var> mailing list</a></h3>
-
-<p>Whenever a security problem affects Slackware, an email is sent to all subscribers to
-the <var class="LITERAL">slackware-security@slackware.com</var> mailing list. Reports are
-sent out for vulnerabilities of any part of Slackware, apart from the software in <tt
-class="FILENAME">/extra</tt> or <tt class="FILENAME">/pasture</tt>. These security
-announcement emails include details on obtaining updated versions of Slackware packages
-or work-arounds, if any.</p>
-
-<p>Subscribing to Slackware mailing lists is covered in <a
-href="#HELP-ONLINE-EMAIL">Section 2.2.2</a>.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="SECURITY-CURRENT-PATCHES" name="SECURITY-CURRENT-PATCHES">14.3.2
-The <tt class="FILENAME">/patches</tt> directory</a></h3>
-
-<p>Whenever updated packages are released for a version of Slackware (usually only to fix
-a security problem, in the case of already released Slackware versions), they are placed
-in the <tt class="FILENAME">/patches</tt> directory. The full path to these patches will
-depend on the mirror you are using, but will take the form <tt
-class="FILENAME">/path/to/slackware-x.x/patches/</tt>.</p>
-
-<p>Before installing these packages, it is a good idea to verify the <tt
-class="COMMAND">md5sum</tt> of the package. <tt class="COMMAND">md5sum</tt>(1) is a
-commandline utility that creates a &#8220;unique&#8221; mathematical hash of the file. If
-a single bit of the file has been changed, it will generate a different md5sum value.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd
-class="USERINPUT">md5sum package-&lt;ver&gt;-&lt;arch&gt;-&lt;rev&gt;.tgz</kbd>
-6341417aa1c025448b53073a1f1d287d package-&lt;ver&gt;-&lt;arch&gt;-&lt;rev&gt;.tgz
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>You should then check this against the line for the new package in the <tt
-class="FILENAME">CHECKSUMS.md5</tt> file in the root of the <tt
-class="FILENAME">slackware-<var class="REPLACEABLE">$VERSION</var></tt> directory (also
-in the <tt class="FILENAME">/patches</tt> directory for patches) or in the email to the
-<var class="LITERAL">slackware-security</var> mailing list.</p>
-
-<p>If you have a file with the md5sum values in it, you can source it instead with the
-<var class="OPTION">-c</var> option to <tt class="COMMAND">md5sum</tt>.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">md5sum -c CHECKSUMS.md5</kbd>
-./ANNOUNCE.10_0: OK
-./BOOTING.TXT: OK
-./COPYING: OK
-./COPYRIGHT.TXT: OK
-./CRYPTO_NOTICE.TXT: OK
-./ChangeLog.txt: OK
-./FAQ.TXT: FAILED
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>As you can see, any files that <tt class="COMMAND">md5sum</tt> evaluates as correct
-are listed &#8220;<var class="LITERAL">OK</var>&#8221; while files that fail are labelled
-&#8220;<var class="LITERAL">FAILED</var>&#8221;. (Yes, this was an insult to your
-intelligence. Why do you put up with me?)</p>
-</div>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="CHAPTER">
-<hr />
-<h1><a id="ARCHIVE-FILES" name="ARCHIVE-FILES"></a>Chapter 15 Archive Files</h1>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<h2 class="SECT1"><a id="ARCHIVE-FILES-GZIP" name="ARCHIVE-FILES-GZIP">15.1 <tt
-class="COMMAND">gzip</tt></a></h2>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">gzip</tt>(1) is the GNU compression program. It takes a single
-file and compresses it. The basic usage is as follows:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">gzip <var
-class="REPLACEABLE">filename</var></kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>The resulting file will be named <tt class="FILENAME"><var
-class="REPLACEABLE">filename</var>.gz</tt> and will usually be smaller than the input
-file. Note that <tt class="FILENAME">filename.gz</tt> will replace <tt
-class="FILENAME">filename</tt>. This means that <tt class="FILENAME">filename</tt> will
-no longer exist, even though a gzipped copy will. Regular text files will compress
-nicely, while jpeg images, mp3s, and other such files will not compress too well as they
-are already compressed. This basic usage is a balance of final file size and compression
-time. The maximum compression can be achieved like so:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">gzip -9 <var
-class="REPLACEABLE">filename</var></kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>This will take a longer time to compress the file, but the result will be as small as
-<tt class="COMMAND">gzip</tt> can make it. Using lower values for the command line option
-will cause it to compress faster, but the file will not be as compressed.</p>
-
-<p>Decompressing gzipped files can be done using two commands, which are really just the
-same program. <tt class="COMMAND">gzip</tt> will decompress any file with a recognized
-file extension. A recognized extension can be any of the following: <tt
-class="FILENAME">.gz</tt>, <tt class="FILENAME">-gz</tt>, <tt class="FILENAME">.z</tt>,
-<tt class="FILENAME">-z</tt>, <tt class="FILENAME">.Z</tt>, or <tt
-class="FILENAME">-Z</tt>. The first method is to call <tt class="COMMAND">gunzip</tt>(1)
-on a file, like so:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">gunzip <var
-class="REPLACEABLE">filename.gz</var></kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>This will leave a decompressed version of infile in the current directory, and the <tt
-class="FILENAME">.gz</tt> extension will be stripped from the filename. <tt
-class="COMMAND">gunzip</tt> is really part of <tt class="COMMAND">gzip</tt> and is
-identical to <tt class="COMMAND">gzip -d</tt>. As such, <tt class="COMMAND">gzip</tt> is
-often pronounced <tt class="COMMAND">gunzip</tt>, as that name just sounds cooler.
-:^)</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<hr />
-<h2 class="SECT1"><a id="ARCHIVE-FILES-BZIP2" name="ARCHIVE-FILES-BZIP2">15.2 <tt
-class="COMMAND">bzip2</tt></a></h2>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">bzip2</tt>(1) is an alternative compression program installed on
-Slackware Linux. It uses a different compression algorithm from <tt
-class="COMMAND">gzip</tt>, which results in some advantages and some disadvantages. The
-main advantage for <tt class="COMMAND">bzip2</tt> is the compressed file size. <tt
-class="COMMAND">bzip2</tt> will almost always compress better than <tt
-class="COMMAND">gzip</tt>. In some instances, this can result in dramatically smaller
-files. This can be a great advantage for people on slower modem connections. Also
-remember, when downloading software from a public ftp server, it's generally good
-netiquette to download the <tt class="FILENAME">.bz2</tt> files instead of the <tt
-class="FILENAME">.gz</tt> files, as this results in less overhead for the generous people
-hosting the server.</p>
-
-<p>The disadvantage to <tt class="COMMAND">bzip2</tt> is that it is more CPU intensive
-than <tt class="COMMAND">gzip</tt>. This means that bzipping a file will generally take
-longer and will use more of the CPU than gzipping the file would. When considering which
-compression program to use, you must weigh this speed vs. compressed size and determine
-which is more important.</p>
-
-<p>The usage of <tt class="COMMAND">bzip2</tt> is nearly identical to <tt
-class="COMMAND">gzip</tt>, so not much time will be spent discussing it. Like <tt
-class="COMMAND">gunzip</tt>, <tt class="COMMAND">bunzip2</tt> is identical to <tt
-class="COMMAND">bzip2 -d</tt>. The primary difference in practical usage is that <tt
-class="COMMAND">bzip2</tt> uses the <tt class="FILENAME">.bz2</tt> extension.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">bzip2 <var
-class="REPLACEABLE">filename</var></kbd>
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">bunzip2 <var
-class="REPLACEABLE">filename.bz2</var></kbd>
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">bzip2 -9 <var
-class="REPLACEABLE">filename</var></kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<hr />
-<h2 class="SECT1"><a id="ARCHIVE-FILES-TAR" name="ARCHIVE-FILES-TAR">15.3 <tt
-class="COMMAND">tar</tt></a></h2>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">tar</tt>(1) is the GNU tape archiver. It takes several files or
-directories and creates one large file. This allows you to compress an entire directory
-tree, which is impossible by just using <tt class="COMMAND">gzip</tt> or <tt
-class="COMMAND">bzip2</tt>. <tt class="COMMAND">tar</tt> has many command line options,
-which are explained in its man page. This section will just cover the most common uses of
-<tt class="COMMAND">tar</tt>.</p>
-
-<p>The most common use for <tt class="COMMAND">tar</tt> is to decompress and unarchive a
-package that you've downloaded from a web site or ftp site. Most files will come with a
-<tt class="FILENAME">.tar.gz</tt> extension. This is commonly known as a
-&#8220;tarball&#8221;. It means that several files were archived using <tt
-class="COMMAND">tar</tt> and then compressed using <tt class="COMMAND">gzip</tt>. You
-might also see this listed as a <tt class="FILENAME">.tar.Z</tt> file. It means the same
-thing, but this is usually encountered on older Unix systems.</p>
-
-<p>Alternatively, you might find a <tt class="FILENAME">.tar.bz2</tt> file somewhere.
-Kernel source is distributed as such because it is a smaller download. As you might have
-guessed, this is several files archived with <tt class="COMMAND">tar</tt> and then
-bzipped.</p>
-
-<p>You can get to all the files in this archive by making use of <tt
-class="COMMAND">tar</tt> and some command line arguments. Unarchiving a tarball makes use
-of the <var class="OPTION">-z</var> flag, which means to first run the file through <tt
-class="COMMAND">gunzip</tt> and decompress it. The most common way to decompress a
-tarball is like so:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">tar -xvzf filename.tar.gz</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>That's quite a few options. So what do they all mean? The <var class="OPTION">-x</var>
-means to extract. This is important, as it tells <tt class="COMMAND">tar</tt> exactly
-what to do with the input file. In this case, we'll be splitting it back up into all the
-files that it came from. <var class="OPTION">-v</var> means to be verbose. This will list
-all the files that are being unarchived. It is perfectly acceptable to leave this option
-off, if somewhat boring. Alternatively, you could use <var class="OPTION">-vv</var> to be
-very verbose and list even more information about each file being unarchived. The <var
-class="OPTION">-z</var> option tells <tt class="COMMAND">tar</tt> to run <tt
-class="FILENAME">filename.tar.gz</tt> through <tt class="COMMAND">gunzip</tt> first. And
-finally, the <var class="OPTION">-f</var> option tells <tt class="COMMAND">tar</tt> that
-the next string on the command line is the file to operate on.</p>
-
-<p>There are a few other ways to write this same command. On older systems lacking a
-decent copy of GNU <tt class="COMMAND">tar</tt>, you might see it written like so:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd
-class="USERINPUT">gunzip filename.tar.gz | tar -xvf -</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>This command line will uncompress the file and send the output to <tt
-class="COMMAND">tar</tt>. Since <tt class="COMMAND">gzip</tt> will write its output to
-standard out if told to do so, this command will write the decompressed file to standard
-out. The pipe then sends it to <tt class="COMMAND">tar</tt> for unarchiving. The
-&#8220;-&#8221; means to operate on standard input. It will unarchive the stream of data
-that it gets from <tt class="COMMAND">gzip</tt> and write that to the disk.</p>
-
-<p>Another way to write the first command line is to leave off the dash before the
-options, like so:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">tar xvzf filename.tar.gz</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>You might also encounter a bzipped archive. The version of <tt
-class="COMMAND">tar</tt> that comes with Slackware Linux can handle these the same as
-gzipped archives. Instead of the <var class="OPTION">-z</var> command line option, you'd
-use <var class="OPTION">-j</var>:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">tar -xvjf filename.tar.bz2</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>It is important to note that <tt class="COMMAND">tar</tt> will place the unarchived
-files in the current directory. So, if you had an archive in <tt
-class="FILENAME">/tmp</tt> that you wanted to decompress into your home directory, there
-are a few options. First, the archive could be moved into your home directory and then
-run through <tt class="COMMAND">tar</tt>. Second, you could specify the path to the
-archive file on the command line. Third, you can use the <var class="OPTION">-C</var>
-option to &#8220;explode&#8221; the tarball in a specified directory.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">cd $HOME</kbd>
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">cp /tmp/filename.tar.gz .</kbd>
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">tar -xvzf filename.tar.gz</kbd>
-
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">cd $HOME</kbd>
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">tar -xvzf /tmp/filename.tar.gz</kbd>
-
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">cd /</kbd>
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd
-class="USERINPUT">tar -xvzf /tmp/filename.tar.gz -C $HOME</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>All the above statements are equivalent. In each case, the archive is unpacked inside
-your home directory and the original uncompressed archive is left in place.</p>
-
-<p>So what good is being able to uncompress these archives if you can't make them? Well,
-<tt class="COMMAND">tar</tt> handles that too. In most cases it's as easy as removing the
-&#8220;<var class="OPTION">-x</var>&#8221; option and replacing it with the &#8220;<var
-class="OPTION">-c</var>&#8221; option.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">tar -cvzf filename.tar.gz .</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>In this command line, the <var class="OPTION">-c</var> option tells <tt
-class="COMMAND">tar</tt> to create an archive, while the <var class="OPTION">-z</var>
-option runs the resulting archive file through <tt class="COMMAND">gzip</tt> to compress
-it. <tt class="FILENAME">filename.tar.gz</tt> is the file that you want to create.</p>
-
-<p>Specifying the &#8220;<var class="OPTION">-f</var>&#8221; option isn't always
-necessary, but is typically good practice anyway. Without it, <tt
-class="COMMAND">tar</tt> writes to standard output, which is usually desired for piping
-<tt class="COMMAND">tar</tt>'s output to another program, like so.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd
-class="USERINPUT">tar -cv filename.tar . | gpg --encrypt</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>That command creates an non-compressed tar archive of the current directory, pipes the
-tarball through <tt class="COMMAND">gpg</tt> which encrypts and compresses the tarball,
-making it realistically impossible to read by anyone other than the person knowing the
-secret key.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<hr />
-<h2 class="SECT1"><a id="ARCHIVE-FILES-ZIP" name="ARCHIVE-FILES-ZIP">15.4 <tt
-class="COMMAND">zip</tt></a></h2>
-
-<p>Finally, there are two utilities that can be used on zip files. These are very common
-in the Windows world, so Linux has programs to deal with them. The compression program is
-called <tt class="COMMAND">zip</tt>(1), and the decompression program is called <tt
-class="COMMAND">unzip</tt>(1).</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">zip foo *</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>This will create the file <tt class="FILENAME">foo.zip</tt>, which will contain all
-the files in the current directory. <tt class="COMMAND">zip</tt> will add the <tt
-class="FILENAME">.zip</tt> extension automatically, so there's no need to include that in
-the file name. You can also recurse through the current directory, zipping up any
-directories that are also laying around:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">zip -r foo *</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>Decompressing files is easy, as well.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">unzip foo.zip</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>This will extract all the files in the file <tt class="FILENAME">foo.zip</tt>,
-including any directories in the archive.</p>
-
-<p>The <tt class="COMMAND">zip</tt> utilities have several advanced options for creating
-self-extracting archives, leaving out files, controlling compressed file size, printing
-out what will happen, and much more. See the man pages for <tt class="COMMAND">zip</tt>
-and <tt class="COMMAND">unzip</tt> to find out how to use these options.</p>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="CHAPTER">
-<hr />
-<h1><a id="VI" name="VI"></a>Chapter 16 Vi</h1>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">vi</tt>(1) is the standard Unix text editing program, and while
-mastering it is not as essential as it once was, is still a very rewarding goal. There
-are several versions (or clones) of <tt class="COMMAND">vi</tt> available, including <tt
-class="COMMAND">vi</tt>, <tt class="COMMAND">elvis</tt>, <tt class="COMMAND">vile</tt>,
-and <tt class="COMMAND">vim</tt>. One of these is available on just about any version of
-Unix, as well as on Linux. All of these versions include the same basic feature set and
-commands, so learning one clone should make it easy to learn another. With the variety of
-text editors included with Linux distributions and Unix variants these days, many people
-no longer use <tt class="COMMAND">vi</tt>. Still, it remains the most universal text
-editor across Unix and Unix work-alikes. Mastering <tt class="COMMAND">vi</tt> means you
-should never be sitting at a Unix machine and not be comfortable with at least one
-powerful text editor.</p>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">vi</tt> includes a number of powerful features including syntax
-highlighting, code formatting, a powerful search-and-replace mechanism, macros, and more.
-These features make it especially attractive to programmers, web developers, and the
-like. System administrators will appreciate the automation and integration with the shell
-that is possible.</p>
-
-<p>On Slackware Linux, the default version of <tt class="COMMAND">vi</tt> available is
-<tt class="COMMAND">elvis</tt>. Other versions - including <tt class="COMMAND">vim</tt>
-and <tt class="COMMAND">gvim</tt> - are available if you've installed the proper
-packages. <tt class="COMMAND">gvim</tt> is an X Window version of <tt
-class="COMMAND">vim</tt> that includes toolbars, detachable menus, and dialog boxes.</p>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<hr />
-<h2 class="SECT1"><a id="VI-STARTING" name="VI-STARTING">16.1 Starting vi</a></h2>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">vi</tt> can be started from the command line in a variety of ways.
-The simplest form is just:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">vi</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<div class="FIGURE"><a id="FIG-VI-VIM-SPLITEDIT" name="FIG-VI-VIM-SPLITEDIT"></a>
-<p><b>Figure 16-1. A vi session.</b></p>
-
-<p><img src="vi/vim-splitedit.png" /></p>
-</div>
-
-<p>This will start up <tt class="COMMAND">vi</tt> with an empty buffer. At this point,
-you'll see a mostly blank screen. It is now in &#8220;command mode&#8221;, waiting for
-you to do something. For a discussion of the various <tt class="COMMAND">vi</tt> modes,
-see the <a href="#VI-MODES">Section 16.2</a>. In order to quit out of <tt
-class="COMMAND">vi</tt>, type the following:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<kbd class="USERINPUT">:q</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>Assuming that there have been no changes to the file, this will cause <tt
-class="COMMAND">vi</tt> to quit. If there have been changes made, it will warn you that
-there have been changes and tell you how to disregard them. Disregarding changes usually
-means appending an exclamation point after the &#8220;<b class="KEYCAP">q</b>&#8221; like
-so:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<kbd class="USERINPUT">:q!</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>The exclamation point usually means to force some action. We'll discuss it and other
-key combinations in further details later.</p>
-
-<p>You can also start <tt class="COMMAND">vi</tt> with a pre-existing file. For example,
-the file <tt class="FILENAME">/etc/resolv.conf</tt> would be opened like so:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">vi /etc/resolv.conf</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>Finally, <tt class="COMMAND">vi</tt> can be started on a particular line of a file.
-This is especially useful for programmers when an error message includes the line their
-program bombed on. For example, you could start up <tt class="COMMAND">vi</tt> on line 47
-of <tt class="FILENAME">/usr/src/linux/init/main.c</tt> like so:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd
-class="USERINPUT">vi +47 /usr/src/linux/init/main.c</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">vi</tt> will display the given file and will place the cursor at
-the specified line. In the case where you specify a line that is after the end of the
-file, <tt class="COMMAND">vi</tt> will place the cursor on the last line. This is
-especially helpful for programmers, as they can jump straight to the location in the file
-that an error occurred, without having to search for it.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<hr />
-<h2 class="SECT1"><a id="VI-MODES" name="VI-MODES">16.2 Modes</a></h2>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">vi</tt> operates in various modes, which are used to accomplish
-various tasks. When you first start <tt class="COMMAND">vi</tt>, you are placed into
-command mode. From this point, you can issue various commands to manipulate text, move
-around in the file, save, quit, and change modes. Editing the text is done in insert
-mode. You can quickly move between modes with a variety of keystrokes, which are
-explained below.</p>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="VI-MODES-COMMAND-MODE" name="VI-MODES-COMMAND-MODE">16.2.1
-Command Mode</a></h3>
-
-<p>You are first placed into command mode. From this mode, you cannot directly enter text
-or edit what is already there. However, you can manipulate the text, search, quit, save,
-load new files, and more. This is intended only to be an introduction to the command
-mode. For a description of the various commands, see <a href="#VI-KEYS">Section
-16.7</a>.</p>
-
-<p>Probably the most often used command in command mode is changing to insert mode. This
-is accomplished by hitting the <b class="KEYCAP">i</b> key. The cursor changes shapes,
-and <span class="emphasis"><i class="EMPHASIS">-- INSERT --</i></span> is displayed at
-the bottom of the screen (note that this does not happen in all clones of <tt
-class="COMMAND">vi</tt>). From there, all your keystrokes are entered into the current
-buffer and are displayed to the screen. To get back into command mode, hit the <b
-class="KEYCAP">ESCAPE</b> key.</p>
-
-<p>Command mode is also where you move around in the file. On some systems, you can use
-the arrow keys to move around. On other systems, you may need to use the more traditional
-keys of &#8220;<b class="KEYCAP">hjkl</b>&#8221;. Here is a simple listing of how these
-keys are used to move around:</p>
-
-<div class="INFORMALTABLE"><a id="AEN5604" name="AEN5604"></a>
-<table border="0" frame="void" width="100%" class="CALSTABLE">
-<col width="25%" />
-<col width="75%" />
-<tbody>
-<tr>
-<td><b class="KEYCAP">h</b></td>
-<td>move left one character</td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td><b class="KEYCAP">j</b></td>
-<td>move down one character</td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td><b class="KEYCAP">k</b></td>
-<td>move up one character</td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td><b class="KEYCAP">l</b></td>
-<td>move right one character</td>
-</tr>
-</tbody>
-</table>
-</div>
-
-<p>Simply press a key to move. As you will see later, these keys can be combined with a
-number to move much more efficiently.</p>
-
-<p>Many of the commands that you will use in command mode begin with a colon. For
-example, quitting is <b class="KEYCAP">:q</b>, as discussed earlier. The colon simply
-indicates that it is a command, while the &#8220;<b class="KEYCAP">q</b>&#8221; tells <tt
-class="COMMAND">vi</tt> to quit. Other commands are an optional number, followed by a
-letter. These commands do not have a colon before them, and are generally used to
-manipulate the text.</p>
-
-<p>For example, deleting one line from a file is accomplished by hitting <b
-class="KEYCAP">dd</b>. This will remove the line that the cursor is on. Issuing the
-command <b class="KEYCAP">4dd</b> would tell <tt class="COMMAND">vi</tt> to remove the
-line that the cursor is on and the three after that. In general, the number tells <tt
-class="COMMAND">vi</tt> how many times to perform the command.</p>
-
-<p>You can combine a number with the movement keys to move around several characters at a
-time. For example, <b class="KEYCAP">10k</b> would move up ten lines on the screen.</p>
-
-<p>Command mode can also be used to cut and paste, insert text, and read other files into
-the current buffer. Copying text is accomplished with the <b class="KEYCAP">y</b> key (<b
-class="KEYCAP">y</b> stands for yank). Copying the current line is done by typing <b
-class="KEYCAP">yy</b>, and this can be prefixed with a number to yank more lines. Then,
-move to the location for the copy and hit <b class="KEYCAP">p</b>. The text is pasted on
-the line after the current one.</p>
-
-<p>Cutting text is done by typing <b class="KEYCAP">dd</b>, and <b class="KEYCAP">p</b>
-can be used to paste the cut text back into the file. Reading in text from another file
-is a simple procedure. Just type <b class="KEYCAP">:r</b>, followed by a space and the
-file name that contains the text to be inserted. The file's contents will be pasted into
-the current buffer on the line after the cursor. More sophisticated <tt
-class="COMMAND">vi</tt> clones even contain filename completion similar to the
-shell's.</p>
-
-<p>The final use that will be covered is searching. Command mode allows for simple
-searching, as well as complicated search-and-replace commands that make use of a powerful
-version of regular expressions. A complete discussion of regular expressions is beyond
-the scope of this chapter, so this section will only cover simple means of searching.</p>
-
-<p>A simple search is accomplished by hitting the <b class="KEYCAP">/</b> key, followed
-by the text that you are searching for. <tt class="COMMAND">vi</tt> will search forward
-from the cursor to the end of the file for a match, stopping when it finds one. Note that
-inexact matches will cause <tt class="COMMAND">vi</tt> to stop as well. For example, a
-search for &#8220;<span class="emphasis"><i class="EMPHASIS">the</i></span>&#8221; will
-cause <tt class="COMMAND">vi</tt> to stop on &#8220;<span class="emphasis"><i
-class="EMPHASIS">then</i></span>&#8221;, &#8220;<span class="emphasis"><i
-class="EMPHASIS">therefore</i></span>&#8221;, and so on. This is because all of those
-words do match &#8220;<span class="emphasis"><i
-class="EMPHASIS">the</i></span>&#8221;.</p>
-
-<p>After <tt class="COMMAND">vi</tt> has found the first match, you can continue on to
-the next match simply by hitting the <b class="KEYCAP">/</b> key followed by enter. You
-can also search backwards through the file by replacing the slash with the <b
-class="KEYCAP">?</b> key. For example, searching backwards through the file for
-&#8220;<span class="emphasis"><i class="EMPHASIS">the</i></span>&#8221; would be
-accomplished by typing <b class="KEYCAP">?the</b>.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="VI-MODES-INSET-MODE" name="VI-MODES-INSET-MODE">16.2.2 Insert
-Mode</a></h3>
-
-<p>Inserting and replacing text is accomplished in insert mode. As previously discussed,
-you can get into insert mode by hitting <b class="KEYCAP">i</b> from command mode. Then,
-all text that you type is entered into the current buffer. Hitting the <b
-class="KEYCAP">ESCAPE</b> key takes you back into command mode.</p>
-
-<p>Replacing text is accomplished in several ways. From command mode, hitting <b
-class="KEYCAP">r</b> will allow you to replace the one character underneath the cursor.
-Just type the new character and it will replace the one under the cursor. You will then
-be immediately placed back into command mode. Hitting <b class="KEYCAP">R</b> allows you
-to replace as many characters as you'd like. To get out of this replacement mode, just
-hit <b class="KEYCAP">ESCAPE</b> to go back into command mode.</p>
-
-<p>There is yet another way to toggle between insertion and replacement. Hitting the <b
-class="KEYCAP">INSERT</b> key from command mode will take you into insert mode. Once you
-are in insert mode, the keyboard's <b class="KEYCAP">INSERT</b> key serves as a toggle
-between insert and replace. Hitting it once will allow you to replace. Hitting it once
-more will once again allow you to insert text.</p>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<hr />
-<h2 class="SECT1"><a id="VI-OPENING-FILES" name="VI-OPENING-FILES">16.3 Opening
-Files</a></h2>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">vi</tt> allows you to open files from command mode as well as
-specifying a file on the command line to open. To open the file <tt
-class="FILENAME">/etc/lilo.conf</tt>:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<kbd class="USERINPUT">:e /etc/lilo.conf</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>If you have made changes to the current buffer without saving, <tt
-class="COMMAND">vi</tt> will complain. You can still open the file without saving the
-current buffer by typing <b class="KEYCAP">:e!</b>, followed by a space and the filename.
-In general, <tt class="COMMAND">vi</tt>'s warnings can be suppressed by following the
-command with an exclamation mark.</p>
-
-<p>If you want to reopen the current file, you can do so simply by typing <b
-class="KEYCAP">e!</b>. This is particularly useful if you have somehow messed up the file
-and want to reopen it.</p>
-
-<p>Some <tt class="COMMAND">vi</tt> clones (for example, <tt class="COMMAND">vim</tt>)
-allow for multiple buffers to be open at the same time. For example, to open up the file
-<tt class="FILENAME">09-vi.sgml</tt> in my home directory while another file was open, I
-would type:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<kbd class="USERINPUT">:split ~/09-vi.sgml</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>The new file is displayed on the top half of the screen, and the old file is displayed
-in the bottom half of the screen. There are a lot of commands that manipulate the split
-screen, and many of these commands start to resemble something out of <tt
-class="COMMAND">Emacs</tt> The best place to look up these commands would be the man page
-for your vi clone. Note that many clones do not support the split-screen idea, so you
-might not be able to use it at all.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<hr />
-<h2 class="SECT1"><a id="VI-SAVING-FILES" name="VI-SAVING-FILES">16.4 Saving
-Files</a></h2>
-
-<p>There are several ways to save files in <tt class="COMMAND">vi</tt>. If you want to
-save the current buffer to the file <tt class="FILENAME">randomness</tt>, you would
-type:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<kbd class="USERINPUT">:w randomness</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>Once you've saved the file once, saving it again is as simple as typing <b
-class="KEYCAP">:w</b>. Any changes will be written out to the file. After you've saved
-the file, you are dumped back into command mode. If you want to save the file and quit
-<tt class="COMMAND">vi</tt> (a very common operation), you would type <b
-class="KEYCAP">:wq</b>. That tells <tt class="COMMAND">vi</tt> to save the current file
-and quit back to the shell.</p>
-
-<p>On occasion, you want to save a file that is marked as read-only. You can do this by
-adding an exclamation point after the write command, like so:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<kbd class="USERINPUT">:w!</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>However, there will still be instances where you cannot write the file (for example,
-you are attempting to edit a file that is owned by another user). When this happens, <tt
-class="COMMAND">vi</tt> will tell you that it cannot save the file. If you really want to
-edit the file, you'll have to come back and edit it as <tt class="USERNAME">root</tt> or
-(preferably) the owner of that file.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<hr />
-<h2 class="SECT1"><a id="VI-QUITTING-VI" name="VI-QUITTING-VI">16.5 Quitting vi</a></h2>
-
-<p>One way to quit <tt class="COMMAND">vi</tt> is through <b class="KEYCAP">:wq</b>,
-which will save the current buffer before quitting. You can also quit without saving with
-<b class="KEYCAP">:q</b> or (more commonly) <b class="KEYCAP">:q!</b>. The latter is used
-when you've modified the file but do not wish to save any changes to it.</p>
-
-<p>On occasion, your machine might crash or <tt class="COMMAND">vi</tt> might crash.
-However, both <tt class="COMMAND">elvis</tt> and <tt class="COMMAND">vim</tt> will take
-steps to minimize the damage to any open buffers. Both editors save the open buffers to a
-temporary file on occasion. This file is usually named similarly to the open file, but
-with a dot at the beginning. This makes the file hidden.</p>
-
-<p>This temporary file gets removed once the editor quits under normal conditions. This
-means that the temporary copy will still be around if something crashes. When you go back
-to edit the file again, you will be prompted for what action to take. In most cases, a
-large amount of your unsaved work can be recovered. <tt class="COMMAND">elvis</tt> will
-also send you a mail (from Graceland, oddly enough :) telling you that a backup copy
-exists.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<hr />
-<h2 class="SECT1"><a id="VI-CONFIGURATION" name="VI-CONFIGURATION">16.6 vi
-Configuration</a></h2>
-
-<p>Your <tt class="COMMAND">vi</tt> clone of choice can be configured in several
-ways.</p>
-
-<p>A variety of commands can be entered while in command mode to set up <tt
-class="COMMAND">vi</tt> just how you like it. Depending on your editor, you can enable
-features to make programming easier (like syntax hilighting, auto-indenting, and more),
-set up macros to automake tasks, enable textual substitutions, and more.</p>
-
-<p>Almost all of these commands can be put into a configuration file in your home
-directory. <tt class="COMMAND">elvis</tt> expects a <tt class="FILENAME">.exrc</tt> file,
-while <tt class="COMMAND">vim</tt> expects a <tt class="FILENAME">.vimrc</tt> file. Most
-of the setup commands that can be entered in command mode can be placed in the
-configuration file. This includes setup information, textual substitutions, macros, and
-more.</p>
-
-<p>Discussing all these options and the differences between the editors is quite an
-involved subject. For more information, check out the man page or web site for your
-preferred <tt class="COMMAND">vi</tt> editor. Some editors (like <tt
-class="COMMAND">vim</tt>) have extensive help within the editor that can be accessed with
-the <b class="KEYCAP">:help</b> command, or something similar. You can also check out the
-O'Reilly book <i class="CITETITLE">Learning the <tt class="COMMAND">vi</tt> Editor</i> by
-Lamb and Robbins.</p>
-
-<p>Many common programs in Linux will load up a text file in <tt class="COMMAND">vi</tt>
-by default. For example, editing your crontabs will start up <tt class="COMMAND">vi</tt>
-by default. If you do not like <tt class="COMMAND">vi</tt> and would like another editor
-to be started instead, all you need to do is set the <tt class="ENVAR">VISUAL</tt>
-environment variable to the editor you prefer. For information on setting environment
-variables, see the section called Environment Variables in Chapter 8. If you want to make
-sure that your editor will be the default every time you login, add the VISUAL setting to
-your <tt class="FILENAME">.bash_profile</tt> or <tt class="FILENAME">.bashrc</tt>
-files.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<hr />
-<h2 class="SECT1"><a id="VI-KEYS" name="VI-KEYS">16.7 Vi Keys</a></h2>
-
-<p>This section is a quick reference of many common <tt class="COMMAND">vi</tt> commands.
-Some of these were discussed earlier in the chapter, while many will be new.</p>
-
-<div class="TABLE"><a id="AEN5773" name="AEN5773"></a>
-<p><b>Table 16-1. Movement</b></p>
-
-<table border="0" frame="void" class="CALSTABLE">
-<col />
-<col />
-<thead>
-<tr>
-<th align="CENTER">Operation</th>
-<th align="CENTER">Key</th>
-</tr>
-</thead>
-
-<tbody>
-<tr>
-<td>left, down, up, right</td>
-<td align="CENTER"><b class="KEYCAP">h</b>, <b class="KEYCAP">j</b>, <b
-class="KEYCAP">k</b>, <b class="KEYCAP">l</b></td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td>To the end of the line</td>
-<td align="CENTER"><b class="KEYCAP">$</b></td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td>To the beginning of the line</td>
-<td align="CENTER"><b class="KEYCAP">^</b></td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td>To the end of the file</td>
-<td align="CENTER"><b class="KEYCAP">G</b></td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td>To the beginning of the file</td>
-<td align="CENTER"><b class="KEYCAP">:1</b></td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td>To line 47</td>
-<td align="CENTER"><b class="KEYCAP">:47</b></td>
-</tr>
-</tbody>
-</table>
-</div>
-
-<div class="TABLE"><a id="AEN5808" name="AEN5808"></a>
-<p><b>Table 16-2. Editing</b></p>
-
-<table border="0" frame="void" class="CALSTABLE">
-<col />
-<col />
-<thead>
-<tr>
-<th align="CENTER">Operation</th>
-<th align="CENTER">Key</th>
-</tr>
-</thead>
-
-<tbody>
-<tr>
-<td>Removing a line</td>
-<td align="CENTER"><b class="KEYCAP">dd</b></td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td>Removing five lines</td>
-<td align="CENTER"><b class="KEYCAP">5dd</b></td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td>Replacing a character</td>
-<td align="CENTER"><b class="KEYCAP">r</b></td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td>Removing a character</td>
-<td align="CENTER"><b class="KEYCAP">x</b></td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td>Removing ten characters</td>
-<td align="CENTER"><b class="KEYCAP">10x</b></td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td>Undo last action</td>
-<td align="CENTER"><b class="KEYCAP">u</b></td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td>Join current and next lines</td>
-<td align="CENTER"><b class="KEYCAP">J</b></td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td>Replace old with new, globally</td>
-<td align="CENTER"><b class="KEYCAP">%s'old'new'g</b></td>
-</tr>
-</tbody>
-</table>
-</div>
-
-<div class="TABLE"><a id="AEN5848" name="AEN5848"></a>
-<p><b>Table 16-3. Searching</b></p>
-
-<table border="0" frame="void" class="CALSTABLE">
-<col />
-<col />
-<thead>
-<tr>
-<th align="CENTER">Operation</th>
-<th align="CENTER">Key</th>
-</tr>
-</thead>
-
-<tbody>
-<tr>
-<td>Search for &#8220;asdf&#8221;</td>
-<td align="CENTER"><b class="KEYCAP">/asdf</b></td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td>Search backwards for &#8220;asdf&#8221;</td>
-<td align="CENTER"><b class="KEYCAP">?asdf</b></td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td>Repeat last search forwards</td>
-<td align="CENTER"><b class="KEYCAP">/</b></td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td>Repeat last search backwards</td>
-<td align="CENTER"><b class="KEYCAP">?</b></td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td>Repeat last search, same direction</td>
-<td align="CENTER"><b class="KEYCAP">n</b></td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td>Repeat last search, opposite direction</td>
-<td align="CENTER"><b class="KEYCAP">N</b></td>
-</tr>
-</tbody>
-</table>
-</div>
-
-<div class="TABLE"><a id="AEN5882" name="AEN5882"></a>
-<p><b>Table 16-4. Saving and Quitting</b></p>
-
-<table border="0" frame="void" class="CALSTABLE">
-<col />
-<col />
-<thead>
-<tr>
-<th align="CENTER">Operation</th>
-<th align="CENTER">Key</th>
-</tr>
-</thead>
-
-<tbody>
-<tr>
-<td>Quit</td>
-<td align="CENTER"><b class="KEYCAP">:q</b></td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td>Quit without saving</td>
-<td align="CENTER"><b class="KEYCAP">:q!</b></td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td>Write and quit</td>
-<td align="CENTER"><b class="KEYCAP">:wq</b></td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td>Write, without quitting</td>
-<td align="CENTER"><b class="KEYCAP">:w</b></td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td>Reload currently open file</td>
-<td align="CENTER"><b class="KEYCAP">:e!</b></td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td>Write buffer to file <tt class="FILENAME">asdf</tt></td>
-<td align="CENTER"><b class="KEYCAP">:w asdf</b></td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td>Open file <tt class="FILENAME">hejaz</tt></td>
-<td align="CENTER"><b class="KEYCAP">:e hejaz</b></td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td>Read file <tt class="FILENAME">asdf</tt> into buffer</td>
-<td align="CENTER"><b class="KEYCAP">:r asdf</b></td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td>Read output of <tt class="COMMAND">ls</tt> into buffer</td>
-<td align="CENTER"><b class="KEYCAP">:r !ls</b></td>
-</tr>
-</tbody>
-</table>
-</div>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="CHAPTER">
-<hr />
-<h1><a id="EMACS" name="EMACS"></a>Chapter 17 Emacs</h1>
-
-<p>While <tt class="COMMAND">vi</tt> (with its clones) is without a doubt the most
-ubiquitous editor on Unix-like systems, Emacs comes in a good second. Instead of using
-different &#8220;modes&#8221;, like <tt class="COMMAND">vi</tt> does, it uses <b
-class="KEYCAP">Control</b> and <b class="KEYCAP">Alt</b> key combinations to enter
-commands, in much the same way that you can use <b class="KEYCAP">Control</b> and <b
-class="KEYCAP">Alt</b> key combinations in a word processor and indeed in many other
-applications to execute certain functions. (Though it should be noted that the commands
-rarely correspond; so while many modern applications use <b class="KEYCAP">Ctrl</b>-<b
-class="KEYCAP">C</b>/ <b class="KEYCAP">X</b>/ <b class="KEYCAP">V</b> for copying,
-cutting and pasting, Emacs uses different keys and actually a somewhat different
-mechanism for this.)</p>
-
-<p>Also unlike <tt class="COMMAND">vi</tt>, which is an (excellent) editor and nothing
-more, Emacs is a program with near endless capabilities. Emacs is (for the most part)
-written in Lisp, which is a very powerful programming language that has the peculiar
-property that every program written in it is automatically a Lisp compiler of its own.
-This means that the user can extend Emacs, and in fact write completely new programs
-&#8220;in Emacs&#8221;.</p>
-
-<p>As a result, Emacs is not just an editor anymore. There are many add-on packages for
-Emacs available (many come with the program's source) that provide all sorts of
-functionality. Many of these are related to text editing, which is after all Emacs' basic
-task, but it doesn't stop there. There are for example several spreadsheet programs for
-Emacs, there are databases, games, mail and news clients (the top one being Gnus),
-etc.</p>
-
-<p>There are two main versions of Emacs: GNU Emacs (which is the version that comes with
-Slackware) and XEmacs. The latter is <span class="emphasis"><i
-class="EMPHASIS">not</i></span> a version for Emacs running under X. In fact, both Emacs
-and XEmacs run on the console as well as under X. XEmacs was once started as a project to
-tidy up the Emacs code. Currently, both versions are being actively developed, and there
-is in fact much interaction between the two development teams. For the present chapter,
-it is immaterial whether you use Emacs or XEmacs, the differences between them are not
-relevant to the normal user.</p>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<hr />
-<h2 class="SECT1"><a id="EMACS-STARTING" name="EMACS-STARTING">17.1 Starting
-emacs</a></h2>
-
-<p>Emacs can be started from the shell by simply typing <tt class="COMMAND">emacs</tt>.
-When you are running X, Emacs will (normally) come up with its own X window, usually with
-a menu bar at the top, where you can find the most important functions. On startup, Emacs
-will first show a welcome message, and then after a few seconds will drop you in the
-*scratch* buffer. (See <a href="#EMACS-BUFFERS">Section 17.2</a>.)</p>
-
-<div class="INFORMALFIGURE"><a id="AEN5971" name="AEN5971"></a>
-<p><img src="emacs/emacs.png" /></p>
-</div>
-
-<p>You can also start Emacs on an existing file by typing</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">emacs /etc/resolv.conf</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>This will cause Emacs to load the specified file when it starts up, skipping the
-welcome message.</p>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<hr />
-<h3 class="SECT2"><a id="EMACS-COMMAND-KEYS" name="EMACS-COMMAND-KEYS">17.1.1 Command
-Keys</a></h3>
-
-<p>As mentioned above, Emacs uses <b class="KEYCAP">Control</b> and <b
-class="KEYCAP">Alt</b> combinations for commands. The usual convention is to write these
-with <b class="KEYCAP">C</b>-<b class="KEYCAP">letter</b> and <b class="KEYCAP">M</b>-<b
-class="KEYCAP">letter</b>, respectively. So <b class="KEYCAP">C</b>-<b
-class="KEYCAP">x</b> means <b class="KEYCAP">Control</b>+<b class="KEYCAP">x</b>, and <b
-class="KEYCAP">M</b>-<b class="KEYCAP">x</b> means <b class="KEYCAP">Alt</b>+<b
-class="KEYCAP">x</b>. (The letter <b class="KEYCAP">M</b> is used instead of A because
-originally the key was not the <b class="KEYCAP">Alt</b> key but the <b
-class="KEYCAP">Meta</b> key. The <b class="KEYCAP">Meta</b> key has all but disappeared
-from computer keyboards, and in Emacs the <b class="KEYCAP">Alt</b> key has taken over
-its function.)</p>
-
-<p>Many Emacs commands consist of sequences of keys and key combinations. For example, <b
-class="KEYCAP">C</b>-<b class="KEYCAP">x</b> <b class="KEYCAP">C</b>-<b
-class="KEYCAP">c</b> (that is <b class="KEYCAP">Control</b>-<b class="KEYCAP">x</b>
-followed by <b class="KEYCAP">Control</b>-<b class="KEYCAP">c</b> ) quits Emacs, <b
-class="KEYCAP">C</b>-<b class="KEYCAP">x</b> <b class="KEYCAP">C</b>-<b
-class="KEYCAP">s</b> saves the current file. Keep in mind that <b class="KEYCAP">C</b>-<b
-class="KEYCAP">x</b> <b class="KEYCAP">C</b>-<b class="KEYCAP">b</b> is <span
-class="emphasis"><i class="EMPHASIS">not</i></span> the same as <b
-class="KEYCAP">C</b>-<b class="KEYCAP">x</b> <b class="KEYCAP">b</b>. The former means <b
-class="KEYCAP">Control</b>-<b class="KEYCAP">x</b> followed by <b
-class="KEYCAP">Control</b>-<b class="KEYCAP">b</b>, while the latter means <b
-class="KEYCAP">Control</b>-<b class="KEYCAP">x</b> followed by just '<b
-class="KEYCAP">b</b>'.</p>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<hr />
-<h2 class="SECT1"><a id="EMACS-BUFFERS" name="EMACS-BUFFERS">17.2 Buffers</a></h2>
-
-<p>In Emacs, the concept of &#8220;buffers&#8221; is essential. Every file that you open
-is loaded into its own buffer. Furthermore, Emacs has several special buffers, which do
-not contain a file but are used for other things. Such special buffers usually have a
-name that starts and ends with an asterisk. For example, the buffer that Emacs shows when
-it is first started, is the so-called *scratch* buffer. In the *scratch* buffer, you can
-type text in the normal way, but text that is typed there is not saved when Emacs is
-closed.</p>
-
-<p>There is one other special buffer you need to know about, and that is the minibuffer.
-This buffer consists of only one line, and is always on the screen: it is the very last
-line of the Emacs window, below the status bar for the current buffer. The minibuffer is
-where Emacs shows messages for the user, and it is also the place where commands that
-require some user input are executed. For example, when you open a file, Emacs will ask
-for its name in the minibuffer.</p>
-
-<p>Switching from one buffer to another can be done with the command <b
-class="KEYCAP">C</b>-<b class="KEYCAP">x</b> <b class="KEYCAP">b</b>. This will prompt
-you for the name of a buffer (a buffer's name is usually the name of the file you are
-editing in it), and it gives a default choice, which is normally the buffer that you were
-in before you switched to or created the current buffer. Just hitting <span
-class="emphasis"><i class="EMPHASIS">Enter</i></span> will switch to that default
-buffer.</p>
-
-<p>If you want to switch to another buffer than the default offered by Emacs, just type
-its name. Note that you can use so-called <b class="KEYCAP">Tab</b>-completion here: type
-the first few letters of the buffer's name and hit <b class="KEYCAP">Tab</b>; Emacs will
-then complete the name of the buffer. <b class="KEYCAP">Tab</b> completion works
-everywhere in Emacs where it makes sense.</p>
-
-<p>You can get a list of open buffers by hitting <b class="KEYCAP">C</b>-<b
-class="KEYCAP">x</b> <b class="KEYCAP">C</b>-<b class="KEYCAP">b</b>. This command will
-usually split the screen in two, displaying the buffer you were working in in the top
-half, and a new buffer called *Buffer List* in the bottom half. This buffer contains a
-list of all the buffers, their sizes and modes, and the files, if any, that those buffers
-are visiting (as it is called in Emacs). You can get rid of this split screen by typing
-<b class="KEYCAP">C</b>-<b class="KEYCAP">x</b> <b class="KEYCAP">1</b>.</p>
-
-<div class="NOTE">
-<table class="NOTE" width="100%" border="0">
-<tr>
-<td width="25" align="CENTER" valign="TOP"><img src="./imagelib/admon/note.png"
-hspace="5" alt="Note" /></td>
-<td align="LEFT" valign="TOP">
-<p>Under X, the list of buffers is also available in the Buffer menu in the menu bar.</p>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<hr />
-<h2 class="SECT1"><a id="EMACS-MODES" name="EMACS-MODES">17.3 Modes</a></h2>
-
-<p>Every buffer in Emacs has an associated mode. This mode is very different from the
-idea of modes in <tt class="COMMAND">vi</tt>: a mode tells you what kind of buffer you
-are in. For example, there is text-mode for normal text files, but there are also modes
-such as c-mode for editing C programs, sh-mode for editing shell scripts, latex-mode for
-editing <b class="APPLICATION">LaTeX</b> files, mail-mode for editing email and news
-messages, etc. A mode provides special customizations and functionality that is useful
-for the kind of file you are editing. It is even possible for a mode to redefine keys and
-key commands. For example, in Text mode, the Tab key simply jumps to the next tab stop,
-but in many programming language modes, the <b class="KEYCAP">Tab</b> key indents the
-current line according to the depth of the block that line is in.</p>
-
-<p>The modes mentioned above are called major modes. Each buffer has exactly o