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-<h1 class="SECT1"><a id="INTRODUCTION-OPENSOURCE" name="INTRODUCTION-OPENSOURCE">1.3 Open
-Source and Free Software</a></h1>
-
-<p>Within the Linux community, there are two major ideological movements at work. The
-Free Software movement (which we'll get into in a moment) is working toward the goal of
-making all software free of intellectual property restrictions. Followers of this
-movement believe these restrictions hamper technical improvement and work against the
-good of the community. The Open Source movement is working toward most of the same goals,
-but takes a more pragmatic approach to them. Followers of this movement prefer to base
-their arguments on the economic and technical merits of making source code freely
-available, rather than the moral and ethical principles that drive the Free Software
-Movement.</p>
-
-<p>At the other end of the spectrum are groups that wish to maintain tighter controls
-over their software.</p>
-
-<p>The Free Software movement is headed by the Free Software Foundation, a fund-raising
-organization for the GNU project. Free software is more of an ideology. The oft-used
-expression is &#8220;free as in speech, not free as in beer&#8221;. In essence, free
-software is an attempt to guarantee certain rights for both users and developers. These
-freedoms include the freedom to run the program for any reason, to study and modify the
-source code, to redistribute the source, and to share any modifications you make. In
-order to guarantee these freedoms, the GNU General Public License (GPL) was created. The
-GPL, in brief, provides that anyone distributing a compiled program which is licensed
-under the GPL must also provide source code, and is free to make modifications to the
-program as long as those modifications are also made available in source code form. This
-guarantees that once a program is &#8220;opened&#8221; to the community, it cannot be
-&#8220;closed&#8221; except by consent of every author of every piece of code (even the
-modifications) within it. Most Linux programs are licensed under the GPL.</p>
-
-<p>It is important to note that the GPL does not say anything about price. As odd as it
-may sound, you can charge for free software. The &#8220;free&#8221; part is in the
-liberties you have with the source code, not in the price you pay for the software.
-(However, once someone has sold you, or even given you, a compiled program licensed under
-the GPL they are obligated to provide its source code as well.)</p>
-
-<p>Another popular license is the BSD license. In contrast to the GPL, the BSD license
-gives no requirement for the release of a program's source code. Software released under
-the BSD license allows redistribution in source or binary form provided only a few
-conditions are met. The author's credentials cannot be used as a sort of advertisement
-for the program. It also indemnifies the author from liability for damages that may arise
-from the use of the software. Much of the software included in Slackware Linux is BSD
-licensed.</p>
-
-<p>At the forefront of the younger Open Source movement, the Open Source Initiative is an
-organization that solely exists to gain support for open source software, that is,
-software that has the source code available as well as the ready-to-run program. They do
-not offer a specific license, but instead they support the various types of open source
-licenses available.</p>
-
-<p>The idea behind the OSI is to get more companies behind open source by allowing them
-to write their own open source licenses and have those licenses certified by the Open
-Source Initiative. Many companies want to release source code, but do not want to use the
-GPL. Since they cannot radically change the GPL, they are offered the opportunity to
-provide their own license and have it certified by this organization.</p>
-
-<p>While the Free Software Foundation and the Open Source Initiative work to help each
-other, they are not the same thing. The Free Software Foundation uses a specific license
-and provides software under that license. The Open Source Initiative seeks support for
-all open source licenses, including the one from the Free Software Foundation. The
-grounds on which each argues for making source code freely available sometimes divides
-the two movements, but the fact that two ideologically diverse groups are working toward
-the same goal lends credence to the efforts of each.</p>
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