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-<div class="SECT1">
-<h1 class="SECT1"><a id="PROCESS-CONTROL-KILL" name="PROCESS-CONTROL-KILL">11.4 <tt
-class="COMMAND">kill</tt></a></h1>
-
-<p>On occasion, programs misbehave and you'll need to put them back in line. The program
-for this kind of administration is called <tt class="COMMAND">kill</tt>(1), and it can be
-used for manipulating processes in several ways. The most obvious use of <tt
-class="COMMAND">kill</tt> is to kill off a process. You'll need to do this if a program
-has run away and is using up lots of system resources, or if you're just sick of it
-running.</p>
-
-<p>In order to kill off a process, you'll need to know its PID or its name. To get the
-PID, use the <tt class="COMMAND">ps</tt> command as was discussed in the last section.
-For example, to kill off process 4747, you'd issue the following:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">kill 4747</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>Note that you'll have to be the owner of the process in order to kill it. This is a
-security feature. If you were allowed to kill off processes started by other users, it
-would be possible to do all sorts of malicious things. Of course, <tt
-class="USERNAME">root</tt> can kill off any process on the system.</p>
-
-<p>There's another variety of the <tt class="COMMAND">kill</tt> command called <tt
-class="COMMAND">killall</tt>(1). This program does exactly what it says: it kills all the
-running processes that have a certain name. If you wanted to kill off all the running <tt
-class="COMMAND">vim</tt> processes, you could type the following command:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">killall vim</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>Any and all <tt class="COMMAND">vim</tt> processes you have running will die off.
-Doing this as <tt class="USERNAME">root</tt> would kill off all the <tt
-class="COMMAND">vim</tt> processes running for all users. This brings up an interesting
-way to kick everyone (including yourself) off the system:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">killall bash</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>Sometimes a regular kill doesn't get the job done. Certain processes will not die with
-a kill. You'll need to use a more potent form. If that pesky PID 4747 wasn't responding
-to your kill request, you could do the following:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">kill -9 4747</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>That will almost certainly cause process 4747 to die. You can do the same thing with
-<tt class="COMMAND">killall</tt>. What this is doing is sending a different signal to the
-process. A regular <tt class="COMMAND">kill</tt> sends a <var
-class="LITERAL">SIGTERM</var> (terminate) signal to the process, which tells it to finish
-what it's doing, clean up, and exit. <tt class="COMMAND">kill -9</tt> sends a <var
-class="LITERAL">SIGKILL</var> (kill) signal to the process, which essentially drops it.
-The process is not allowed to clean-up, and sometimes bad things like data corruption
-could occur by killing something with a <var class="LITERAL">SIGKILL</var>. There's a
-whole list of signals at your disposal. You can get a listing of signals by typing the
-following:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">kill -l</kbd>
- 1) SIGHUP 2) SIGINT 3) SIGQUIT 4) SIGILL
- 5) SIGTRAP 6) SIGABRT 7) SIGBUS 8) SIGFPE
- 9) SIGKILL 10) SIGUSR1 11) SIGSEGV 12) SIGUSR2
- 13) SIGPIPE 14) SIGALRM 15) SIGTERM 17) SIGCHLD
- 18) SIGCONT 19) SIGSTOP 20) SIGTSTP 21) SIGTTIN
- 22) SIGTTOU 23) SIGURG 24) SIGXCPU 25) SIGXFSZ
- 26) SIGVTALRM 27) SIGPROF 28) SIGWINCH 29) SIGIO
- 30) SIGPWR
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>The number must be used for <tt class="COMMAND">kill</tt>, while the name minus the
-leading &#8220;SIG&#8221; can be used with <tt class="COMMAND">killall</tt>. Here's
-another example:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">killall -KILL vim</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>A final use of <tt class="COMMAND">kill</tt> is to restart a process. Sending a <var
-class="LITERAL">SIGHUP</var> will cause most processes to re-read their configuration
-files. This is especially helpful for telling system processes to re-read their config
-files after editing.</p>
-</div>
-
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