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-<div class="SECT1">
-<h1 class="SECT1"><a id="ESSENTIAL-SYSADMIN-SHUTDOWN"
-name="ESSENTIAL-SYSADMIN-SHUTDOWN">12.3 Shutting Down Properly</a></h1>
-
-<p>It is very important that you shut down your system properly. Simply turning the power
-off with the power switch can cause serious filesystem damage. While the system is on,
-files are in use even if you aren't doing anything. Remember that there are many
-processes running in the background all the time. These processes are managing the system
-and keep a lot of files open. When the system's power is switched off, these files are
-not closed properly and may become corrupted. Depending on what files become damaged, the
-system might be rendered completely unusable! In any case, you'll have to go through a
-long filesystem check procedure on the next reboot.</p>
-
-<div class="NOTE">
-<table class="NOTE" width="100%" border="0">
-<tr>
-<td width="25" align="CENTER" valign="TOP"><img src="./imagelib/admon/note.png"
-hspace="5" alt="Note" /></td>
-<td align="LEFT" valign="TOP">
-<p>If you configured your system with a journalling filesystem, like ext3 or reiserfs,
-you'll be partially protected from filesystem damage, and your filesystem check on reboot
-will be shorter than if you had used a filesystem without journalling, like ext2.
-However, this safety net is no excuse for improperly shutting down your system! A
-journalling FS is meant to protect your files from events beyond your control, not from
-your own laziness.</p>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-</div>
-
-<p>In any case, when you want to reboot or power down your computer, it is important to
-do so properly. There are several ways of doing so; you can pick whichever one you think
-is the most fun (or least amount of work). Since a shutdown and a reboot are similar
-procedures, most of the ways for powering off the system can also be applied to
-rebooting.</p>
-
-<p>The first method is through the <tt class="COMMAND">shutdown</tt>(8) program, and it
-is probably the most popular. <tt class="COMMAND">shutdown</tt> can be used to reboot or
-turn off the system at a given time, and can display a message to all the logged-in users
-of the system telling them that the system is going down.</p>
-
-<p>The most basic use of shutdown to power down the computer is:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">shutdown -h now</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>In this case, we are not going to send a custom message to the users; they will see
-<tt class="COMMAND">shutdown</tt>'s default message. &#8220;<var
-class="OPTION">now</var>&#8221; is the time that we want to shutdown, and the &#8220;<var
-class="OPTION">-h</var>&#8221; means to halt the system. This is not a very friendly way
-to run a multi-user system, but it works just fine on your home computer. A better method
-on a multiuser system would be to give everyone a little advance warning:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">shutdown -h +60</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>This would shutdown the system in one hour (60 minutes), which would be just fine on a
-normal multiuser system. Vital systems should have their downtime scheduled far in
-advance, and you should post warnings about the downtime in any appropriate locations
-used for system notifications (email, bulletin board, <tt
-class="FILENAME">/etc/motd</tt>, whatever).</p>
-
-<p>Rebooting the system uses the same command, but substitutes &#8220;<var
-class="OPTION">-r</var>&#8221; for &#8220;<var class="OPTION">-h</var>&#8221;:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">shutdown -r now</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>You can use same time notation with <tt class="COMMAND">shutdown -r</tt> that you
-could with <tt class="COMMAND">shutdown -h</tt>. There are a lot of other things that you
-can do with <tt class="COMMAND">shutdown</tt> to control when to halt or reboot the
-machine; see the man page for more details.</p>
-
-<p>The second way of shutting down or powering off the computer is to use the <tt
-class="COMMAND">halt</tt>(8) and <tt class="COMMAND">reboot</tt>(8) commands. As the
-names indicate, <tt class="COMMAND">halt</tt> will immediately halt the operating system,
-and <tt class="COMMAND">reboot</tt> will reboot the system. (<tt
-class="COMMAND">reboot</tt> is actually just a symbolic link to <tt
-class="COMMAND">halt</tt>.) They are invoked like so:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">halt</kbd>
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">reboot</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>A lower-level way to reboot or shutdown the system is to talk directly to <tt
-class="COMMAND">init</tt>. All the other methods are simply convenient ways to talk to
-<tt class="COMMAND">init</tt>, but you can directly tell it what to do using <tt
-class="COMMAND">telinit</tt>(8) (note that it only has one &#8220;l&#8221;). Using <tt
-class="COMMAND">telinit</tt> will tell <tt class="COMMAND">init</tt> what runlevel to
-drop into, which will cause a special script to be run. This script will kill or spawn
-processes as needed for that runlevel. This works for rebooting and shutting down because
-both of those are special runlevels.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">telinit 0</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>Runlevel 0 is halt mode. Telling <tt class="COMMAND">init</tt> to enter runlevel 0
-will cause all processes to be killed off, the filesystems unmounted, and the machine to
-be halted. This is a perfectly acceptable way to bring down the system. On many laptops
-and modern desktop computers, this will also cause the machine to be turned off.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">telinit 6</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>Runlevel 6 is reboot mode. All processes will be killed off, the filesystems will be
-unmounted, and the machine will be rebooted. This is a perfectly acceptable method of
-rebooting the system.</p>
-
-<p>For the curious, when switching to runlevel 0 or 6, whether by using <tt
-class="COMMAND">shutdown</tt>, <tt class="COMMAND">halt</tt>, or <tt
-class="COMMAND">reboot</tt>, the script <tt class="FILENAME">/etc/rc.d/rc.6</tt> is run.
-(The script <tt class="FILENAME">/etc/rc.d/rc.0</tt> is another symbolic link, to <tt
-class="FILENAME">/etc/rc.d/rc.6</tt>.) You can customize this file to your tastes--but be
-sure to test your changes carefully!</p>
-
-<p>There is one last method of rebooting the system. All the other methods require you to
-be logged in as <tt class="USERNAME">root</tt>. However, it is possible to reboot the
-machine even if you aren't root, provided that you have physical access to the keyboard.
-Using <b class="KEYCAP">Control</b>+<b class="KEYCAP">Alt</b>+<b
-class="KEYCAP">Delete</b> (the "three-fingered salute") will cause the machine to
-immediately reboot. (Behind the scenes, the <tt class="COMMAND">shutdown</tt> command is
-called for you when you use <b class="KEYCAP">Control</b>+<b class="KEYCAP">Alt</b>+<b
-class="KEYCAP">Delete</b>.) The salute doesn't always work when using X Windows--you may
-need to use <b class="KEYCAP">Control</b>+<b class="KEYCAP">Alt</b>+<b
-class="KEYCAP">F1</b> (or another Function key) to switch to a non-X Windows terminal
-before using it.</p>
-
-<p>Finally, the file that ultimately controls every aspect of startup and shutdown is the
-<tt class="FILENAME">/etc/inittab</tt>(5) file. In general, you should not need to modify
-this file, but it may give you insight into why some things work the way they do. As
-always, see the man pages for further details.</p>
-</div>
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