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-<title>Deletion: rm and rmdir</title>
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-<td width="10%" align="left" valign="bottom"><a href="file-commands-copymove.html"
-accesskey="P">Prev</a></td>
-<td width="80%" align="center" valign="bottom">Chapter 10 Handling Files and
-Directories</td>
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-<div class="SECT1">
-<h1 class="SECT1"><a id="FILE-COMMANDS-DELETION" name="FILE-COMMANDS-DELETION">10.6
-Deletion: <tt class="COMMAND">rm</tt> and <tt class="COMMAND">rmdir</tt></a></h1>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<h2 class="SECT2"><a id="AEN3733" name="AEN3733">10.6.1 <tt
-class="COMMAND">rm</tt></a></h2>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">rm</tt>(1) removes files and directory trees. DOS users will
-notice the similarity to both the <tt class="COMMAND">del</tt> and <tt
-class="COMMAND">deltree</tt> commands. <tt class="COMMAND">rm</tt> can be very dangerous
-if you do not watch yourself. While it is sometimes possible to retrieve a recently
-deleted file, it can be complicated (and potentially costly) and is beyond the scope of
-this book.</p>
-
-<p>To remove a single file, specify its name when you run rm:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">rm file1</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>If the file has write permissions removed, you may get a permission denied error
-message. To force removal of the file no matter what, pass the <tt
-class="COMMAND">-f</tt> option, like this:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">rm -f file1</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>To remove an entire directory, you use the <var class="OPTION">-r</var> and <var
-class="OPTION">-f</var> options together. This is a good example of how to delete the
-entire contents of your hard drive. You really don't want to do this. But here's the
-command anyway:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">rm -rf /</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>Be very careful with <tt class="COMMAND">rm</tt>; you can shoot yourself in the foot.
-There are several command line options, which are discussed in detail in the online
-manual page.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<h2 class="SECT2"><a id="AEN3764" name="AEN3764">10.6.2 <tt
-class="COMMAND">rmdir</tt></a></h2>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">rmdir</tt>(1) removes directories from the filesystem. The
-directory must be empty before it can be removed. The syntax is simply:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">rmdir &lt;<var
-class="REPLACEABLE">directory</var>&gt;</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>This example will remove the <tt class="FILENAME">hejaz</tt> subdirectory in the
-current working directory:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">rmdir hejaz</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>If that directory does not exist, <tt class="COMMAND">rmdir</tt> will tell you. You
-can also specify a full path to a directory to remove, as this example shows:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">rmdir /tmp/hejaz</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>That example will try to remove the <tt class="FILENAME">hejaz</tt> directory inside
-the <tt class="FILENAME">/tmp</tt> directory.</p>
-
-<p>You can also remove a directory and all of its parent directories by passing the <var
-class="OPTION">-p</var> option.</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">rmdir -p /tmp/hejaz</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>This will first try to remove the <tt class="FILENAME">hejaz</tt> directory inside <tt
-class="FILENAME">/tmp</tt>. If that is successful, it will try to remove <tt
-class="FILENAME">/tmp</tt>. <tt class="COMMAND">rmdir</tt> will continue this until an
-error is encountered or the entire tree specified is removed.</p>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="NAVFOOTER">
-<hr align="LEFT" width="100%" />
-<table summary="Footer navigation table" width="100%" border="0" cellpadding="0"
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-accesskey="U">Up</a></td>
-<td width="33%" align="right" valign="top">Aliasing files with <tt
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