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author Patrick J Volkerding <volkerdi@slackware.com>2018-05-25 23:29:36 +0000
committer Eric Hameleers <alien@slackware.com>2018-06-01 00:36:01 +0200
commit39366733c3fe943363566756e2e152c45a1b3cb2 (patch)
tree228b0735896af90ca78151c9a69aa3efd12c8cae /slackbook/html/filesystem-structure.html
parentd31c50870d0bee042ce660e445c9294a59a3a65b (diff)
downloadcurrent-14.2.tar.gz
current-14.2.tar.xz
Fri May 25 23:29:36 UTC 201814.2
patches/packages/glibc-zoneinfo-2018e-noarch-2_slack14.2.txz: Rebuilt. Handle removal of US/Pacific-New timezone. If we see that the machine is using this, it will be automatically switched to US/Pacific.
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-<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"
- "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">
-<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
-<head>
-<meta name="generator" content="HTML Tidy, see www.w3.org" />
-<title>Filesystem Structure</title>
-<meta name="GENERATOR" content="Modular DocBook HTML Stylesheet Version 1.7" />
-<link rel="HOME" title="Slackware Linux Essentials" href="index.html" />
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-<body class="CHAPTER" bgcolor="#FFFFFF" text="#000000" link="#0000FF" vlink="#840084"
-alink="#0000FF">
-<div class="NAVHEADER">
-<table summary="Header navigation table" width="100%" border="0" cellpadding="0"
-cellspacing="0">
-<tr>
-<th colspan="3" align="center">Slackware Linux Essentials</th>
-</tr>
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-accesskey="P">Prev</a></td>
-<td width="80%" align="center" valign="bottom"></td>
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-</tr>
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-<hr align="LEFT" width="100%" />
-</div>
-
-<div class="CHAPTER">
-<h1><a id="FILESYSTEM-STRUCTURE" name="FILESYSTEM-STRUCTURE"></a>Chapter 9 Filesystem
-Structure</h1>
-
-<div class="TOC">
-<dl>
-<dt><b>Table of Contents</b></dt>
-
-<dt>9.1 <a
-href="filesystem-structure.html#FILESYSTEM-STRUCTURE-OWNERSHIP">Ownership</a></dt>
-
-<dt>9.2 <a href="filesystem-structure-permissions.html">Permissions</a></dt>
-
-<dt>9.3 <a href="filesystem-structure-links.html">Links</a></dt>
-
-<dt>9.4 <a href="filesystem-structure-mounting.html">Mounting Devices</a></dt>
-
-<dt>9.5 <a href="filesystem-structure-nfs.html">NFS Mounts</a></dt>
-</dl>
-</div>
-
-<p>We have already discussed the directory structure in Slackware Linux. By this point,
-you should be able to find files and directories that you need. But there is more to the
-filesystem than just the directory structure.</p>
-
-<p>Linux is a multiuser operating system. Every aspect of the system is multiuser, even
-the filesystem. The system stores information like who owns a file and who can read it.
-There are other unique parts about the filesystems, such as links and NFS mounts. This
-section explains these, as well as the multiuser aspects of the filesystem.</p>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<h1 class="SECT1"><a id="FILESYSTEM-STRUCTURE-OWNERSHIP"
-name="FILESYSTEM-STRUCTURE-OWNERSHIP">9.1 Ownership</a></h1>
-
-<p>The filesystem stores ownership information for each file and directory on the system.
-This includes what user and group own a particular file. The easiest way to see this
-information is with the <tt class="COMMAND">ls</tt> command:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">ls -l /usr/bin/wc</kbd>
--rwxr-xr-x 1 root bin 7368 Jul 30 1999 /usr/bin/wc
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>We are interested in the third and fourth columns. These contain the username and
-group name that owns this file. We see that the user &#8220;<tt
-class="USERNAME">root</tt>&#8221; and the group &#8220;<tt
-class="USERNAME">bin</tt>&#8221; own this file.</p>
-
-<p>We can easily change the file owners with the <tt class="COMMAND">chown</tt>(1) (which
-means &#8220;change owner&#8221;) and <tt class="COMMAND">chgrp</tt>(1) (which means
-&#8220;change group&#8221;) commands. To change the file owner to <tt
-class="USERNAME">daemon</tt>, we would use <tt class="COMMAND">chown</tt>:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">chown daemon /usr/bin/wc</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>To change the group owner to &#8220;<tt class="USERNAME">root</tt>&#8221;, we would
-use <tt class="COMMAND">chgrp</tt>:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">chgrp root /usr/bin/wc</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>We can also use <tt class="COMMAND">chown</tt> to specify the user and group owners
-for a file:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">#</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">chown daemon:root /usr/bin/wc</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>In the above example, the user could have used a period instead of a colon. The result
-would have been the same; however, the colon is considered better form. Use of the period
-is deprecated and may be removed from future versions of <tt class="COMMAND">chown</tt>
-to allow usernames with periods in them. These usernames tend to be very popular with
-Windows Exchange Servers and are encountered most commonly in email addresses such as:
-<var class="LITERAL">mr.jones@example.com</var>. In slackware, administrators are advised
-to stay away from such usernames because some scripts still use the period to indicate
-the user and group of a file or directory. In our example, <tt class="COMMAND">chmod</tt>
-would interpret <var class="LITERAL">mr.jones</var> as user &#8220;mr&#8221; and group
-&#8220;jones&#8221;.</p>
-
-<p>File ownership is a very important part of using a Linux system, even if you are the
-only user. You sometimes need to fix ownerships on files and device nodes.</p>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="NAVFOOTER">
-<hr align="LEFT" width="100%" />
-<table summary="Footer navigation table" width="100%" border="0" cellpadding="0"
-cellspacing="0">
-<tr>
-<td width="33%" align="left" valign="top"><a href="shell-vt.html"
-accesskey="P">Prev</a></td>
-<td width="34%" align="center" valign="top"><a href="index.html"
-accesskey="H">Home</a></td>
-<td width="33%" align="right" valign="top"><a
-href="filesystem-structure-permissions.html" accesskey="N">Next</a></td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td width="33%" align="left" valign="top">Virtual Terminals</td>
-<td width="34%" align="center" valign="top">&nbsp;</td>
-<td width="33%" align="right" valign="top">Permissions</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-</div>
-</body>
-</html>
-