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author Patrick J Volkerding <volkerdi@slackware.com>2018-05-25 23:29:36 +0000
committer Eric Hameleers <alien@slackware.com>2018-05-31 15:18:32 -0700
commit8ff4f2f51a6cf07fc33742ce3bee81328896e49b (patch)
tree4a166b8389404be98a6c098babaa444e2dec8f48 /slackbook/html/file-commands.html
parent76fc4757ac91ac7947a01fb7b53dddf9a78a01d1 (diff)
downloadcurrent-14.1.tar.gz
current-14.1.tar.xz
Fri May 25 23:29:36 UTC 201814.1
patches/packages/glibc-zoneinfo-2018e-noarch-2_slack14.1.txz: Rebuilt. Handle removal of US/Pacific-New timezone. If we see that the machine is using this, it will be automatically switched to US/Pacific.
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-<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"
- "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">
-<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
-<head>
-<meta name="generator" content="HTML Tidy, see www.w3.org" />
-<title>Handling Files and Directories</title>
-<meta name="GENERATOR" content="Modular DocBook HTML Stylesheet Version 1.7" />
-<link rel="HOME" title="Slackware Linux Essentials" href="index.html" />
-<link rel="PREVIOUS" title="NFS Mounts" href="filesystem-structure-nfs.html" />
-<link rel="NEXT" title="Pagers: more, less, and most" href="file-commands-pagers.html" />
-<link rel="STYLESHEET" type="text/css" href="docbook.css" />
-<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" />
-</head>
-<body class="CHAPTER" bgcolor="#FFFFFF" text="#000000" link="#0000FF" vlink="#840084"
-alink="#0000FF">
-<div class="NAVHEADER">
-<table summary="Header navigation table" width="100%" border="0" cellpadding="0"
-cellspacing="0">
-<tr>
-<th colspan="3" align="center">Slackware Linux Essentials</th>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td width="10%" align="left" valign="bottom"><a href="filesystem-structure-nfs.html"
-accesskey="P">Prev</a></td>
-<td width="80%" align="center" valign="bottom"></td>
-<td width="10%" align="right" valign="bottom"><a href="file-commands-pagers.html"
-accesskey="N">Next</a></td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<hr align="LEFT" width="100%" />
-</div>
-
-<div class="CHAPTER">
-<h1><a id="FILE-COMMANDS" name="FILE-COMMANDS"></a>Chapter 10 Handling Files and
-Directories</h1>
-
-<div class="TOC">
-<dl>
-<dt><b>Table of Contents</b></dt>
-
-<dt>10.1 <a href="file-commands.html#FILE-COMMANDS-NAVIGATION">Navigation : <tt
-class="COMMAND">ls</tt>, <tt class="COMMAND">cd</tt>, and <tt
-class="COMMAND">pwd</tt></a></dt>
-
-<dt>10.2 <a href="file-commands-pagers.html">Pagers: <tt class="COMMAND">more</tt>, <tt
-class="COMMAND">less</tt>, and <tt class="COMMAND">most</tt></a></dt>
-
-<dt>10.3 <a href="file-commands-output.html">Simple Output: <tt class="COMMAND">cat</tt>
-and <tt class="COMMAND">echo</tt></a></dt>
-
-<dt>10.4 <a href="file-commands-creation.html">Creation: <tt class="COMMAND">touch</tt>
-and <tt class="COMMAND">mkdir</tt></a></dt>
-
-<dt>10.5 <a href="file-commands-copymove.html">Copy and Move</a></dt>
-
-<dt>10.6 <a href="file-commands-deletion.html">Deletion: <tt class="COMMAND">rm</tt> and
-<tt class="COMMAND">rmdir</tt></a></dt>
-
-<dt>10.7 <a href="file-commands-link.html">Aliasing files with <tt
-class="COMMAND">ln</tt></a></dt>
-</dl>
-</div>
-
-<p>Linux aims to the most Unix-like it can be. Traditionally, Unix operating systems have
-been command-line oriented. We do have a graphical user interface in Slackware, but the
-command-line is still the main level of control for the system. Therefore, it is
-important to understand some of the basic file management commands.</p>
-
-<p>The following sections explain the common file management commands and provide
-examples of how they are used. There are many other commands, but these will help you get
-started. Also, the commands are only briefly discussed here. You will find more detail in
-the accompanying man pages for each command.</p>
-
-<div class="SECT1">
-<h1 class="SECT1"><a id="FILE-COMMANDS-NAVIGATION" name="FILE-COMMANDS-NAVIGATION">10.1
-Navigation : <tt class="COMMAND">ls</tt>, <tt class="COMMAND">cd</tt>, and <tt
-class="COMMAND">pwd</tt></a></h1>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<h2 class="SECT2"><a id="AEN3398" name="AEN3398">10.1.1 <tt
-class="COMMAND">ls</tt></a></h2>
-
-<p>This command lists files in a directory. Windows and DOS users will notice its
-similarity to the <tt class="COMMAND">dir</tt> command. By itself, <tt
-class="COMMAND">ls</tt>(1) will list the files in the current directory. To see what's in
-your root directory, you could issue these commands:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">cd /</kbd>
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">ls</kbd>
-bin cdr dev home lost+found proc sbin tmp var
-boot cdrom etc lib mnt root suncd usr vmlinuz
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>The problem a lot of people have with that output is that you cannot easily tell what
-is a directory and what is a file. Some users prefer that <tt class="COMMAND">ls</tt> add
-a type identifier to each listing, like this:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">ls -FC</kbd>
-bin/ cdr/ dev/ home/ lost+found/ proc/ sbin/ tmp/ var/
-boot/ cdrom/ etc/ lib/ mnt/ root/ suncd/ usr/ vmlinuz
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>Directories get a slash at the end of the name, executable files get an asterisk at
-the end of the name, and so on.</p>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">ls</tt> can also be used to get other statistics on files. For
-example, to see the creation dates, owners, and permissions, you would look at a long
-listing:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">ls -l</kbd>
-drwxr-xr-x 2 root bin 4096 May 7 09:11 bin/
-drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Feb 24 03:55 boot/
-drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Feb 18 01:10 cdr/
-drwxr-xr-x 14 root root 6144 Oct 23 18:37 cdrom/
-drwxr-xr-x 4 root root 28672 Mar 5 18:01 dev/
-drwxr-xr-x 10 root root 4096 Mar 8 03:32 etc/
-drwxr-xr-x 8 root root 4096 Mar 8 03:31 home/
-drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 4096 Jan 23 21:29 lib/
-drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 16384 Nov 1 08:53 lost+found/
-drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Oct 6 12:47 mnt/
-dr-xr-xr-x 62 root root 0 Mar 4 15:32 proc/
-drwxr-x--x 12 root root 4096 Feb 26 02:06 root/
-drwxr-xr-x 2 root bin 4096 Feb 17 02:02 sbin/
-drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 2048 Oct 25 10:51 suncd/
-drwxrwxrwt 4 root root 487424 Mar 7 20:42 tmp/
-drwxr-xr-x 21 root root 4096 Aug 24 03:04 usr/
-drwxr-xr-x 18 root root 4096 Mar 8 03:32 var/
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>Suppose you want to get a listing of the hidden files in the current directory. This
-command will do just that:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">ls -a</kbd>
-. bin cdrom home mnt sbin usr
-.. boot dev lib proc suncd var
-.pwrchute_tmp cdr etc lost+found root tmp vmlinuz
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>Files beginning with a period (called dot files) are hidden when you run <tt
-class="COMMAND">ls</tt>. You will only see them if you pass the <var
-class="OPTION">-a</var> option.</p>
-
-<p>There are many more options that can be found in the online manual page. Don't forget
-that you can combine options that you pass to <tt class="COMMAND">ls</tt>.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<h2 class="SECT2"><a id="AEN3436" name="AEN3436">10.1.2 <tt
-class="COMMAND">cd</tt></a></h2>
-
-<p>The <tt class="COMMAND">cd</tt> command is used to change working directories. You
-simply type <tt class="COMMAND">cd</tt> followed by the path name to change to. Here are
-some examples:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-darkstar:~$ <kbd class="USERINPUT">cd /bin</kbd>
-darkstar:/bin$ <kbd class="USERINPUT">cd usr</kbd>
-bash: cd: usr: No such file or directory
-darkstar:/bin$ <kbd class="USERINPUT">cd /usr</kbd>
-darkstar:/usr$ <kbd class="USERINPUT">ls</kbd>
-bin
-darkstar:/usr$ <kbd class="USERINPUT">cd bin</kbd>
-darkstar:/usr/bin$
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>Notice that without the preceding slash, it tries to change to a directory in the
-current directory. Also executing <tt class="COMMAND">cd</tt> with no options will move
-you to your home directory.</p>
-
-<p>The <tt class="COMMAND">cd</tt> command is not like the other commands. It is a
-builtin shell command. Shell builtins are discussed in <a
-href="shell-bash.html#SHELL-BASH-ENVIRONMENT">Section 8.3.1</a>. This may not make any
-sense to you right now. Basically it means there is no man page for this command.
-Instead, you have to use the shell help. Like this:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">help cd</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>It will display the options for <tt class="COMMAND">cd</tt> and how to use them.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<h2 class="SECT2"><a id="AEN3463" name="AEN3463">10.1.3 <tt
-class="COMMAND">pwd</tt></a></h2>
-
-<p>The <tt class="COMMAND">pwd</tt> command is used to show your current location. To use
-the <tt class="COMMAND">pwd</tt> command just type <tt class="COMMAND">pwd</tt>. For
-example:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">cd /bin</kbd>
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">pwd</kbd>
-/bin
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">cd /usr</kbd>
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">cd bin</kbd>
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">pwd</kbd>
-/usr/bin
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-</div>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="NAVFOOTER">
-<hr align="LEFT" width="100%" />
-<table summary="Footer navigation table" width="100%" border="0" cellpadding="0"
-cellspacing="0">
-<tr>
-<td width="33%" align="left" valign="top"><a href="filesystem-structure-nfs.html"
-accesskey="P">Prev</a></td>
-<td width="34%" align="center" valign="top"><a href="index.html"
-accesskey="H">Home</a></td>
-<td width="33%" align="right" valign="top"><a href="file-commands-pagers.html"
-accesskey="N">Next</a></td>
-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td width="33%" align="left" valign="top">NFS Mounts</td>
-<td width="34%" align="center" valign="top">&nbsp;</td>
-<td width="33%" align="right" valign="top">Pagers: <tt class="COMMAND">more</tt>, <tt
-class="COMMAND">less</tt>, and <tt class="COMMAND">most</tt></td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-</div>
-</body>
-</html>
-