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-<th colspan="3" align="center">Slackware Linux Essentials</th>
-</tr>
-
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-<td width="10%" align="left" valign="bottom"><a href="zipslack-booting.html"
-accesskey="P">Prev</a></td>
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-
-<div class="GLOSSARY">
-<h1><a id="GLOSSARY" name="GLOSSARY"></a>Glossary</h1>
-
-<dl>
-<dt><b>Account</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>All of the information about a user, including username, password, finger information,
-UID and GID, and home directory. To create an account is to add and define a user.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>Background</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Any process that is running without accepting or controlling the input of a terminal
-is said to be running in the background.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>Boot disk</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>A floppy disk containing an operating system (in our case, the Linux kernel) from
-which a computer can be started.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>Compile</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>To convert source code to machine-readable &#8220;binary&#8221; code.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>Daemon</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>A program designed to run in the background and, without user intervention, perform a
-specific task (usually providing a service).</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>Darkstar</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>The default hostname in Slackware; your computer will be called darkstar if you do not
-specify some other name.</p>
-
-<p>One of Patrick Volkerding's development machines, named after &#8220;Dark Star&#8221;,
-a song by the Grateful Dead.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>Desktop Environment</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>A graphical user interface (GUI) that runs atop the X Window System and provides such
-features as integrated applications, cohesive look-and-feel between programs and
-components, file and window management capabilities, etc. A step beyond the simple window
-manager.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>Device driver</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>A chunk of code in the kernel that directly controls a piece of hardware.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>Device node</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>A special type of file in the <tt class="FILENAME">/dev</tt> filesystem that
-represents a hardware component to the operating system.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>DNS</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Domain Name Service. A system in which networked computers are given names which
-translate to numerical addresses.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>Domain name</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>A computer's DNS name, excluding its host name.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>Dot file</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>In Linux, files which are to be hidden have filenames beginning with a dot ('.').</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>Dotted quad</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>The format of IP addresses, so called because it consists of four numbers (range 0-255
-decimal) separated by periods.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>Dynamic loader</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>When programs are compiled under Linux, they usually use pieces of code (functions)
-from external libraries. When such programs are run, those libraries must be found and
-the required functions loaded into memory. This is the job of the dynamic loader.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>Environment variable</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>A variable set in the user's shell which can be referenced by that user or programs
-run by that user within that shell. Environment variables are generally used to store
-preferences and default parameters.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>Epoch</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>A period of history; in Unix, &#8220;The Epoch&#8221; begins at 00:00:00 UTC January
-1, 1970. This is considered the &#8220;dawn of time&#8221; by Unix and Unix-like
-operating systems, and all other time is calculated relative to this date.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>Filesystem</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>A representation of stored data in which &#8220;files&#8221; of data are kept
-organized in &#8220;directories&#8221;. The filesystem is the nearly universal form of
-representation for data stored to disks (both fixed and removable).</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>Foreground</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>A program that is accepting or controlling a terminal's input is said to be running in
-the foreground.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>Framebuffer</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>A type of graphics device; in Linux, this most often refers to the software
-framebuffer, which provides a standard framebuffer interface to programs while keeping
-specific hardware drivers hidden from them. This layer of abstraction frees programs of
-the need to speak to various hardware drivers.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>FTP</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>The File Transfer Protocol. FTP is a very popular method of transferring data between
-computers.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>Gateway</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>A computer through which data on a network is transferred to another network.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>GID</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Group Identifier. The GID is a unique number attributed to a group of users.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>Group</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Users in Unix belong to &#8220;groups&#8221;, which can contain many other users and
-are used for more general access control than the existence of users alone can easily
-allow.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>GUI</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Graphical User Interface. A software interface that uses rendered graphical elements
-such as buttons, scrollbars, windows, etc. rather than solely text-based input and
-output</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>Home directory</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>A user's &#8220;home directory&#8221; is the directory the user is placed in
-immediately upon logging in. Users have full permissions and more or less free reign
-within their home directories.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>HOWTO</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>A document describing &#8220;how to&#8221; do something, such as configure a firewall
-or manage users and groups. There is a large collection of these documents available from
-the Linux Documentation Project.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>HTTP</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>The Hypertext Transfer Protocol. HTTP is the primary protocol on which the World Wide
-Web operates.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>ICMP</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Internet Control Message Protocol. A very basic networking protocol, used mostly for
-pings.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>Kernel</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>The heart of an operating system. The kernel is the part that provides basic process
-control and interfaces with the computer's hardware.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>Kernel module</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>A piece of kernel code, usually a driver of some sort, that can be loaded and unloaded
-from memory separately from the main body of the kernel. Modules are handy when upgrading
-drivers or testing kernel settings, because they can be loaded and unloaded without
-rebooting.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>Library</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>A collection of functions which can be shared between programs.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>LILO</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>The LInux LOader. LILO is the most widely-used Linux boot manager.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>LOADLIN</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>LOADLIN is a program that runs under MS DOS or Windows and boots a Linux system. It is
-most commonly used on computers with multiple operating systems (including Linux and
-DOS/Windows, of course).</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>Man section</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Pages in the standard Unix online manual ("man") are grouped into sections for easy
-reference. All C programming pages are in section 3, system administration pages in
-section 5, etc.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>MBR</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>The Master Boot Record. A reserved space on a hard drive where information on what to
-do when booting is stored. LILO or other boot managers can be written here.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>Motif</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>A popular programming toolkit used in many older X programs.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>MOTD</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Message of the Day. The motd (stored in Linux in <tt class="FILENAME">/etc/motd</tt>
-is a text file that is displayed to all users upon logging in. Traditionally, it is used
-by the system administrator as a sort of &#8220;bulletin board&#8221; for communicating
-with users.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>Mount point</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>An empty directory in a filesystem where another filesystem is to be
-&#8220;mounted&#8221;, or grafted on.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>Nameserver</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>A DNS information server. Nameservers translate DNS names to numerical IP
-addresses.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>Network interface</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>A virtual representation of a network device provided by the kernel. Network
-interfaces allow users and programs to talk to network devices.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>NFS</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>The Network Filesystem. NFS allows the mounting of remote filesystems as if they were
-local to your computer and thus provides a transparent method of file sharing.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>Octal</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Base-8 number system, with digits 0-7.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>Pager</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>An X program that allows the user to see and switch between multiple
-&#8220;desktops&#8221;.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>Partition</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>A division of a hard drive. Filesystems exist on top of partitions.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>PPP</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Point-to-Point Protocol. PPP is used mainly for connecting via modem to an Internet
-Service Provider.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>Process</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>A running program.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>Root directory</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Represented as &#8220;/&#8221;, the root directory exists at the top of the
-filesystem, with all other directories branching out beneath it in a &#8220;file
-tree&#8221;.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>Root disk</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>The disk (usually fixed) on which the root directory is stored.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>Routing table</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>The set of information the kernel uses in &#8220;routing&#8221; network data around.
-It contains such tidbits as where your default gateway is, which network interface is
-connected to which network, etc.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>Runlevel</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>The overall system state as defined by init. Runlevel 6 is rebooting, runlevel 1 is
-&#8220;single user mode&#8221;, runlevel 4 is an X login, etc. There are 6 available
-runlevels on a Slackware system.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>Secure shell</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>An encrypted (thus secure) method of logging in remotely to a computer. Many secure
-shell programs are available; both a client and server are needed.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>Service</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>The sharing of information and/or data between programs and computers from a single
-&#8220;server&#8221; to multiple &#8220;clients&#8221;. HTTP, FTP, NFS, etc. are
-services.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>Shadow password suite</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>The shadow password suite allows encrypted passwords to be hidden from users, while
-the rest of the information in the <tt class="FILENAME">/etc/passwd</tt> file remains
-visible to all. This helps prevent brute-force attempts at cracking passwords.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>Shell</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Shells provide a commandline interface to the user. When you're looking at a text
-prompt, you're in a shell.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>Shell builtin</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>A command built into the shell, as opposed to being provided by an external program.
-For instance, <tt class="COMMAND">bash</tt> has a <tt class="COMMAND">cd</tt>
-builtin.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>Signal</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Unix programs can communicate between each other using simple &#8220;signals&#8221;,
-which are enumerated and usually have specific meanings. <tt class="COMMAND">kill -l</tt>
-will list the available signals.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>SLIP</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Serial Line Interface Protocol. SLIP is a similar protocol to PPP, in that it's used
-for connecting two machines via a serial interface.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>Software package</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>A program and its associated files, archived and compressed into a single file along
-with any necessary scripts or information to aid in managing the installation, upgrade,
-and removal of those files.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>Software series</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>A collection of related software packages in Slackware. All KDE packages are in the
-&#8220;kde&#8221; series, networking packages in the &#8220;n&#8221; series, etc.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>Source code</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>The (more or less) human-readable code in which most programs are written. Source code
-is compiled into &#8220;binary&#8221; code.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>Standard Error (stderr)</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>The Unix-standard output stream for errors. Programs write any error messages on
-stderr, so that they can be separated from normal output.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>Standard Input (stdin)</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>The Unix-standard input stream. Data can be redirected or piped into a program's stdin
-from any source.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>Standard Output (stdout)</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>The Unix-standard output stream. Normal text output from a program is written to
-stdout, which is separate from the error messages reported on stderr and can be piped or
-redirected into other programs' stdin or to a file.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>Subnet</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>An IP address range that is part of a larger range. For instance, 192.168.1.0 is a
-subnet of 192.168.0.0 (where 0 is a mask meaning &#8220;undefined&#8221;); it is, in
-fact, the &#8220;.1&#8221; subnet.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>Superblock</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>In Linux, partitions are discussed in terms of blocks. A block is 512 bytes. The
-superblock is the first 512 bytes of a partition.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>Supplemental disk</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>In Slackware, a floppy disk used during installation that contains neither the kernel
-(which is on the boot disk) nor the root filesystem (which is on the root disk), but
-additional needed files such as network modules or PCMCIA support.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>Suspended process</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>A process which has been frozen until killed or resumed.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>Swap space</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Disk space used by the kernel as &#8220;virtual&#8221; RAM. It is slower than RAM, but
-because disk space is cheaper, swap is usually more plentiful. Swap space is useful to
-the kernel for holding lesser-used data and as a fallback when physical RAM is
-exhausted.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>Symbolic link</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>A special file that simply points to the location of another file. Symbolic links are
-used to avoid data duplication when a file is needed in multiple locations.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>Tagfile</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>A file used by the Slackware <tt class="COMMAND">setup</tt> program during
-installation, which describes a set of packages to be installed.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>Terminal</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>A human-computer interface consisting of at least a screen (or virtual screen) and
-some method of input (almost always at least a keyboard).</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>Toolkit, GUI</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>A GUI toolkit is a collection of libraries that provide a programmer with code to draw
-&#8220;widgets&#8221; such as scrollbars, checkboxes, etc. and construct a graphical
-interface. The GUI toolkit used by a program often defines its &#8220;look and
-feel&#8221;.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>UID</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>User Identifier. A unique number that identifies a user to the system. UIDs are used
-by most programs instead of usernames because a number is easier to deal with; usernames
-are generally only used when the user has to see things happen.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>VESA</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Video Electronics Standards Association. The term &#8220;VESA&#8221; is often used to
-denote a standard specified by said Association. Nearly all modern video adapters are
-VESA-compliant.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>Virtual terminal</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>The use of software to simulate multiple terminals while using only a single set of
-input/output devices (keyboard, monitor, mouse). Special keystrokes switch between
-virtual terminals at a single physical terminal.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>Window manager</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>An X program whose purpose is to provide a graphical interface beyond the simple
-rectangle-drawing of the X Window System. Window managers generally provide titlebars,
-menus for running programs, etc.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>Working directory</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>The directory in which a program considers itself to be while running.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>Wrapper program</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>A program whose sole purpose is to run other programs, but change their behavior in
-some way by altering their environments or filtering their input.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>X server</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>The program in the X Window System which interfaces with graphics hardware and handles
-the actual running of X programs.</p>
-</dd>
-
-<dt><b>X Window System</b></dt>
-
-<dd>
-<p>Network-oriented graphical interface system used on most Unix-like operating systems,
-including Linux.</p>
-</dd>
-</dl>
-</div>
-
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