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-<tr>
-<th colspan="3" align="center">Slackware Linux Essentials</th>
-</tr>
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-<td width="10%" align="left" valign="bottom"><a href="file-commands-pagers.html"
-accesskey="P">Prev</a></td>
-<td width="80%" align="center" valign="bottom">Chapter 10 Handling Files and
-Directories</td>
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-<div class="SECT1">
-<h1 class="SECT1"><a id="FILE-COMMANDS-OUTPUT" name="FILE-COMMANDS-OUTPUT">10.3 Simple
-Output: <tt class="COMMAND">cat</tt> and <tt class="COMMAND">echo</tt></a></h1>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<h2 class="SECT2"><a id="AEN3559" name="AEN3559">10.3.1 <tt
-class="COMMAND">cat</tt></a></h2>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">cat</tt>(1) is short for &#8220;concatenate&#8221;. It was
-originally designed to merge text files into one, but can be used for many other
-purposes.</p>
-
-<p>To merge two or more files into one, you simply list the files after the <tt
-class="COMMAND">cat</tt> command and then redirect the new output to a file. <tt
-class="COMMAND">cat</tt> works with standard input and standard output, so you have to
-use the shell redirection characters. For example:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd
-class="USERINPUT">cat file1 file2 file3 &gt; bigfile</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>This command takes the contents of <tt class="FILENAME">file1</tt>, <tt
-class="FILENAME">file2</tt>, and <tt class="FILENAME">file3</tt> and merges it all
-together. The new output is sent to standard out.</p>
-
-<p>One can also use <tt class="COMMAND">cat</tt> to display files. Many people <tt
-class="COMMAND">cat</tt> text files through the <tt class="COMMAND">more</tt> or <tt
-class="COMMAND">less</tt> commands, like this:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">cat file1 | more</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>That will display the <tt class="FILENAME">file1</tt> file and pipe it through the <tt
-class="COMMAND">more</tt> command so that you only get one screen at a time.</p>
-
-<p>Another common use for <tt class="COMMAND">cat</tt> is copying files. You can copy any
-file around with <tt class="COMMAND">cat</tt>, like this:</p>
-
-<table border="0" bgcolor="#E0E0E0" width="100%">
-<tr>
-<td>
-<pre class="SCREEN">
-<samp class="PROMPT">%</samp> <kbd class="USERINPUT">cat /bin/bash &gt; ~/mybash</kbd>
-</pre>
-</td>
-</tr>
-</table>
-
-<p>The <tt class="COMMAND">/bin/bash</tt> program is copied to your home directory and
-named <tt class="FILENAME">mybash</tt>.</p>
-
-<p><tt class="COMMAND">cat</tt> has many uses and the ones discussed here are just a few.
-Since <tt class="COMMAND">cat</tt> makes extensive use of standard input and standard
-output, it is ideal for use in shell scripts or part of other complex commands.</p>
-</div>
-
-<div class="SECT2">
-<h2 class="SECT2"><a id="AEN3603" name="AEN3603">10.3.2 <tt
-class="COMMAND">echo</tt></a></h2>
-
-<p>The <tt class="COMMAND">echo</tt>(1) command displays the specified text on the
-screen. You specify the string to display after the <tt class="COMMAND">echo</tt>
-command. By default <tt class="COMMAND">echo</tt> will display the string and print a
-newline character after it. You can pass the <var class="OPTION">-n</var> option to
-suppress the printing of the newline. The <var class="OPTION">-e</var> option will cause
-<tt class="COMMAND">echo</tt> to search for escape characters in the string and execute
-them.</p>
-</div>
-</div>
-
-<div class="NAVFOOTER">
-<hr align="LEFT" width="100%" />
-<table summary="Footer navigation table" width="100%" border="0" cellpadding="0"
-cellspacing="0">
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-accesskey="P">Prev</a></td>
-<td width="34%" align="center" valign="top"><a href="index.html"
-accesskey="H">Home</a></td>
-<td width="33%" align="right" valign="top"><a href="file-commands-creation.html"
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-</tr>
-
-<tr>
-<td width="33%" align="left" valign="top">Pagers: <tt class="COMMAND">more</tt>, <tt
-class="COMMAND">less</tt>, and <tt class="COMMAND">most</tt></td>
-<td width="34%" align="center" valign="top"><a href="file-commands.html"
-accesskey="U">Up</a></td>
-<td width="33%" align="right" valign="top">Creation: <tt class="COMMAND">touch</tt> and
-<tt class="COMMAND">mkdir</tt></td>
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-</div>
-</body>
-</html>
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